La lecture en ligne est gratuite
Le téléchargement nécessite un accès à la bibliothèque YouScribe
Tout savoir sur nos offres
Télécharger Lire

36 millions d'esclaves dans le monde - Rapport Complet

De
81 pages
This is the second edition of the Global Slavery Index
(‘the Index’). The Index estimates the number of people
in modern slavery in 167 countries. This year’s Index also
includes an analysis of what governments are doing to
eradicate modern slavery. In addition to measuring the
extent of the problem and the actions taken, the Index
increases our understanding of the contextual factors that
make people vulnerable to modern slavery.
The Index is the flagship report produced by the Walk Free
Foundation, a global human rights organisation dedicated
to ending modern slavery. The Walk Free Foundation was
founded by Australian philanthropists, Andrew and
Nicola Forrest. The methodology for the Index was
developed by an internal research team and through external
consultations with an international and independent Expert
Advisory Group.
The 2014 Global Slavery Index estimates there are
35.8 million people living in some form of modern
slavery globally.
The estimated prevalence of people in modern slavery has
increased from 2013. It is important to note that we are not
asserting that there has been an increase in modern slavery
around the world over the last year. We believe that the
majority of this increase is due to the improved accuracy
and precision of our measures, and that we are uncovering
modern slavery where it was not found before.
This year’s improved methodology includes nationally
representative random sample surveys undertaken in seven
countries, which provided data points for ten countries.
In addition, we obtained data from a further nine random
sample surveys, increasing the number of countries where
survey data is available to a total of 19. In 2013, we released
the Index with a sense of urgency to raise awareness of
modern slavery while acknowledging that the figures were
an imperfect estimate. As modern slavery is a hidden crime
and notoriously difficult to measure, in 2014, these surveys
have enabled us to have a more precise measurement of the
number of people enslaved. We will continue to improve
the methodology by including more random sample surveys
every year.
Voir plus Voir moins
2.
Copyright © 2014. Hope for Children Organization Australia Ltd. All rights reserved. Printed in Australia.
You may choose to look the other way but you ‘‘ ’’  can never say again that you did not know. William Wilberforce
HIGHLIGHTS OF THE GLOBAL SLAVERY INDEX
This is the second edition of the Global Slavery Index (the Index). It is the first Index of its kind – providing an estimate, country by country, of the number of people living in modern slavery today.
Estimated people in modern slavery globally 35.8 MILLION
The prevalence of modern slavery is highest in:
Mauritania Uzbekistan Haiti Qatar India Pakistan Democratic Republic of the Congo Sudan Syria Central African Republic
The governments that are taking the most action to end modern slavery are:
Netherlands Sweden United States Australia Switzerland Ireland Norway United Kingdom Georgia Austria
Of those living in modern slavery are6in fi1ve coun%tries:India, China, Pakistan, Uzbekistan, Russia
In absolute terms, the countries with the highest number of people in modern slavery are: India China Pakistan Uzbekistan Russia Nigeria Democratic Republic of the Congo Indonesia Bangladesh Thailand
When economic capacity is taken into account, these countries are taking strong efforts to respond to modern slavery with relatively limited resources:
Georgia Philippines Macedonia Jamaica
The governments that are taking the least action to end modern slavery are: North Korea Iran Syria Eritrea Central African Republic Libya Equatorial Guinea Uzbekistan Republic of the Congo Iraq
The governments that should be doing more, given their wealth are: Hong Kong Kuwait Brunei Singapore Qatar
About the Index It provides an analysis of the prevalence of modern slavery in terms of the percentage of a national population and the total number of people living in modern slavery – country by country, region by region. For the first time, the Index includes an analysis of what governments are doing to eradicate modern slavery. It also looks at the contextual factors that make people vulnerable to modern slavery.
6.
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
From children denied an education by
being forced to work or marry early,
to men unable to leave their work
because of crushing debts they owe to
recruitment agents, to women and girls
exploited as unpaid, abused domestic
workers, modern slavery has many faces
and comes in many different forms.
It still exists today, in every country –
modern slavery affects us all.
Image – G.M.B.Akash
This is the second edition of the Global Slavery Index (‘the Index’).The Index estimates the number of people in modern slavery in 167 countries.This year’s Index also includes an analysis of what governments are doing to eradicate modern slavery. In addition to measuring the extent of the problem and the actions taken, the Index increases our understanding of the contextual factors that make people vulnerable to modern slavery. The Index is the flagship report produced by the Walk Free Foundation, a global human rights organisation dedicated to ending modern slavery.The Walk Free Foundationwas founded by Australian philanthropists, Andrew and Nicola Forrest.The methodology for the Index was developed by an internal research team and through external consultations with an international and independent Expert Advisory Group. The 2014 Global Slavery Index estimates there are 35.8 million people living in some form of modern slavery globally. The estimated prevalence of people in modern slavery has increased from 2013. It is important to note that we are not asserting that there has been an increase in modern slavery around the world over the last year.We believe that the majority of this increase is due to the improved accuracy and precision of our measures, and that we are uncovering modern slavery where it was not found before. This year’s improved methodology includesnationally representative random sample surveysundertaken in seven countries, which provided data points for ten countries. In addition, we obtained data from a further nine random sample surveys, increasing the number of countries where survey data is available to a total of 19. In 2013, we released the Index with a sense of urgency to raise awareness of modern slavery while acknowledging that the figures were an imperfect estimate. As modern slavery is a hidden crime and notoriously difficult to measure, in 2014, these surveys have enabled us to have a more precise measurement of the number of people enslaved.We will continue to improve the methodology by including more random sample surveys every year.
For 2014, the ten countries with the highest estimated prevalence of modern slavery by population are:Mauritania, Uzbekistan, Haiti, Qatar, India, Pakistan, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Sudan, Syria and the Central African Republic.These countries span different regions, they have diverse political systems, and range from low to high income economies.
When the absolute number of people in modern slavery per country is considered, the country ranking shifts.The ten countries with the largest estimated numbers of people in modern slavery are:India, China, Pakistan, Uzbekistan, Russia, Nigeria, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Indonesia, Bangladesh and Thailand. Taken together, these ten countries account for 71 percent of the total estimate of 35.8 million people living in modern slavery. The regions with the lowest estimates of people enslaved are Europe and North America. Iceland and Ireland have the lowest prevalence of modern slavery in the world. Scandinavian countries with comparatively low prevalence include Norway, Finland and Denmark. Canada has the lowest estimated prevalence in the Americas, and New Zealand,Taiwan and Australia have the smallest concentration of people enslaved in the Asia Pacific region. In 2014, the Index includes an analysis of 167 government responses based on five objectives that every single country should seek to accomplish in order to eradicate modern slavery: Survivors are identified, supported to exit and remain out of modern slavery. Criminal justice mechanisms address modern slavery. Coordination and accountability mechanisms for the central government are in place. Attitudes, social systems and institutions that enable modern slavery are addressed. Businesses and governments through their public procurement stop sourcing goods and services that use modern slavery.
It is promising that the majority of countries have a basic national action plan to address some forms of modern slavery, and/or a national body tasked with coordinating responses to this crime. However, implementation continues to be weak.
Aside from North Korea, all countries also have national lawsthat criminalise at least some form of modern slavery. While most countries have patchy, basic victim support services,very few countries have comprehensive servicesfor men, women and children, covering both emergency support and long term reintegration services. Norway is one of the few countries in the world which provides holistic services for victims of modern slavery.
Globally, only three of 167 governments are making some effort to address modern slavery in government procurement and in the supply chains of businesses
operating in their countries: theUnited States of America, Brazil and Australia.
Considered overall, countries taking the most action to end modern slavery are:the Netherlands, Sweden, the United States, Australia, Switzerland, Ireland, Norway, the United Kingdom, Georgia, and Austria.
Despite the fact that the highest ranking countries have comparatively more robust policies in place, most have the economic capacity to do significantly more to end modern slavery.
When national economic capacity is taken into account, countries that are making comparatively strong efforts with limited resources include:Georgia, the Philippines and Jamaica, with criminal justice responses in place, and Macedonia, with relatively strong support services for victims of modern slavery.
The countries with the weakest responses to modern slavery are:North Korea, Iran, Syria, Eritrea, the Central African Republic, Libya, Equatorial Guinea, Uzbekistan, the Republic of the Congo, and Iraq. Many of these countries have weak economies, such as Equatorial Guinea, or have been plaguedby conflict and political instabilityin recent years – for example, Libya, Central African Republic and Syria. Some governmentsimposestate-sponsored modern slavery, as experienced by the 1.2 million people forced to harvest cotton in Uzbekistan, or those forced to labour in prison camps in North Korea.
Lastly, thevulnerabilityof individuals to enslavement within countries was investigated by analysing five dimensions, including, state policy on modern slavery, human rights, human development, state stability, and levels of discrimination.The findings illustrate a strong link between the stability or instability of a country and the vulnerability of its population to modern slavery. Anti-slavery policies will have little impact when a country’s rule of law has broken down because of civil war, or ethnic or religious conflict.
High levels of prejudice and discrimination in a society can also create a context that marks some people as less important and less deserving of rights and protection, which in turn makes the crime of modern slavery easier to commit against them. Statistical testing confirms the connection between discrimination and modern slavery.
7.
8.
Contents
Highlights of the Global Slavery Index. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3
Executive Summary 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Terminology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . What is modern slavery? 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
About the 2014 Global Slavery Index 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Methodology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 How did we measure prevalence?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 How did we measure government responses?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 How did we measure vulnerability? 10  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Global Findings 13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . How big is the problem? 15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Estimates of people in modern slavery by absolute number. . . . . . . . . . . . . .18 How are governments tackling modern slavery? 20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Measuring vulnerability. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Regional Analysis 29 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Asia Pacific 31 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Europe 37 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Russia and Eurasia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43 Sub-Saharan Africa 47 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Middle East and North Africa 55 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Americas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .59 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Selected Country Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .65 Mauritania 66 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Uzbekistan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 Haiti 70  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Qatar 72  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . India 74  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pakistan 76 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Democratic Republic of the Congo. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .78 Sudan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .80 Syria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .82 Central African Republic. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .84 United Arab Emirates. . . . . .86 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Russia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .88 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Thailand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .90 Nigeria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .92 Bangladesh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .94 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Georgia 96 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Indonesia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .98 China 100 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Brazil 102  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . United States 104 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Australia 106 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Netherlands. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .108 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Appendices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .111
Appendix 1– Terminology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .112 .
Appendix 2– Methodology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 Estimating Prevalence 113  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Measuring Government Responses 117 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Measuring Vulnerability. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .125
Appendix 3130– Data Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Endnotes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .142
9.
10.
TERMINOLOGY
What is modern slavery?
Different countries use different terminology to describe modern forms of slavery, including the term slavery itself, but also other concepts such as human trafficking, forced labour, debt 1 bondage, forced or servile marriage, and the sale and exploitation of children. All of these crimes share some common features.For the purpose of the Index, modern slavery involves one person possessing or controlling another person in such as a way as to significantly deprive that person of their individual liberty, with the intention of exploiting that person through their use, management, profit, transfer or disposal. The Walk Free Foundation definition of modern slavery encompasses the definitions outlined in the box below:
Modern Slavery
TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS
1 2
3
Recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons; By means of threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person (these means are not required in the case of children); With the intent of exploiting that person through: Prostitution of others; Sexual exploitation; Forced labour; Slavery (or similar practices); Servitude; and Removal of organs. (UN Trafficking Protocol, 2000)
SLAVERY AND SLAVERY LIKE PRACTICES
The status or condition of a person over whom any or all of the powers attaching to the right of ownership are exercised. Includes slavery-like practices: debt bondage, forced or servile marriage, sale or exploitation of children (including in armed conflict) and descent-based slavery. (The Slavery Convention (1926) and Supplementary Slavery Convention (1956))
FORCED LABOUR
All work or service which is exacted from any person under the menace of any penalty and for which the said person has not offered himself voluntarily. (ILO Forced Labour Convention, 1930 (No. 29))
1 See Appendix 1 for full list of meanings of these terms, reflecting their origins in international law.
ABOUT THE 2014 GLOBAL SLAVERY INDEX
Modern slavery is a hidden crime. It takes many forms, and is known by many names: slavery, forced labour, or human trafficking. All forms involve one person depriving another person of their freedom: their freedom to leave one job for another, their freedom to leave one workplace for another, their freedom to control their own body.Modern slavery involves one person possessing or controlling a person in such as a way as to significantly deprive that person of their individual liberty, with the intention of exploiting that person through their use, management, profit, transfer or disposal. Modern slavery contributes to the production of at least 122 goods from 58 countries worldwide.The International Labour Organization (ILO) estimates the illicit profits of forced 2 labour to be $US150 billion a year. From the Thai fisherman trawling fishmeal, to the Congolese boy mining diamonds, from the Uzbek child picking cotton, to the Indian girl stitching footballs, from the women who sew dresses, to the cocoa pod pickers, their forced labour is what we consume. Modern slavery is big business. Acknowledging the problem, and advocating against it is not philanthropy – it is our responsibility. Nearly every country in the world has committed to eradicate modern slavery, through their national policies and agreements to international conventions.While we all have a role to play, the actions of government are paramount in addressing this problem. Only governments can ensure that victims are not treated as criminals. Only governments can adopt national action plans and allocate budgets to fund responses. The Global Slavery Index is a tool for citizens, non-government organisations (NGOs), businesses, and public officials to understand the size of the problem, existing responses and contributing factors, so they can build sound policies that will end modern slavery. What information is included in the Global Slavery Index? The Global Slavery Index has quantified data across three dimensions: 1.Size of the problem:What is the estimated prevalence of modern slavery country by country, and what is the absolute number by population? 2.Government response:How are governments tackling modern slavery? 3.Vulnerability:What factors explain or predict the prevalence of modern slavery?
All of the supporting data tables and methodology are available to download on the Global Slavery Index websitewww.globalslaveryindex.org
2 International Labour Organization, ‘Profits and Poverty:The economics of forced labour’, (ILO, 2014), accessed 06/10/14: http://www.ilo.org/ wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_norm/---declaration/documents/publication/wcms_243391.pdf
11.
12.
THE METHODOLOGY
How did we measure prevalence?
Measuring modern slavery is a very difficult undertaking due to the hidden nature of this crime. Surveys represent the most accurate method for estimating the numbers of people living in modern slavery.This year, the Walk Free Foundation 3 commissioned Gallup Inc. to conductnationally representative, random-sample surveysin seven countries: Nepal, Indonesia, Brazil, Ethiopia, Russia, Pakistan, and Nigeria.The results from these surveys were considered alongside data from other pre-existing surveys and a review of secondary sources for 58 countries. Data from a total of 19 countries were obtained from random sample surveys, including the seven Gallup survey countries.An extrapolation methodwas developed for the remaining countries that took into account factors including vulnerability, geography, and country context to produce an appropriate estimate.The preliminary prevalence estimates were then reviewed against secondary source estimates and qualitative information collated for 58 countries.Final country level adjustmentswere made to specific 4 countries where the evidence suggested it was justified, in particular for Small Island Developing States.
How did we measure government responses?
A methodology was developed to measure how governments are responding to modern slavery in 167 countries. A team of researchers collected data against the following five objectives for each country: 1.Survivors are identified, supported to exit and remain out of modern slavery. 2.Criminal justice mechanisms address modern slavery. 3.Coordination and accountability mechanisms for the central government are in place. 4.Attitudes, social systems and institutions that enable modern slavery are addressed. 5.Businesses and governments through their public procurement stop sourcing goods and services that use modern slavery.
In April 2014, the Walk Free Foundation also conducted a survey of 167 governments; information from the 38 responses 5 received was incorporated into relevant country research. Where possible, the Walk Free Foundation researchers verified data obtained through desk review with experts in each country.This occurred in 60 countries.
How did we measure vulnerability?
The Global Slavery Index examines the contextual factors that impact on the vulnerability of people in a country to modern slavery. Information was collected from reputable sources on 37 variables across five dimensions that affect vulnerability to enslavement such as: National policies to combat modern slavery. The availability of human rights protections in a country. The level of economic and social development in a country. The level of state stability in a country. The extent of women’s rights and levels of discrimination in a country.
Through statistical testing the Index examines the relationship between these factors and the prevalence of modern slavery. An outline of the methodology for assessing prevalence, government responses and vulnerability is available in Appendix 2, and a detailed Methodology Paper is available to download on the Global Slavery Index website.
3 Gallup Inc. is an international research-based company, http://www.gallup.com/home.aspx 4 “International Year of Small Developing States 2014”,United Nations, last modified 2014, accessed 22/09/14: http://www.un.org/en/events/islands2014/smallislands.shtml 5 Full list of responses can be found at: “What is the progress update?”Walk Free Foundation, last modified May, 2014, accessed 22/09/14: http://www.globalslaveryindex.org/update/#about
“I was born in a small village in Nepal.
When I was almost 12 years old I worked
in a restaurant. I trusted the woman that I
worked for so when she said that I should
go with a friend of hers to work in India it
never occurred to me that I would be sold
into slavery for a brothel.”
Voice of a Nepali survivor of sexual exploitation.
13.
14.
Global Findings
Estimated Prevalence of Modern Slavery
Low
High
The colour of the countries as shown on this map designate from lowest to highest prevalence of modern slavery. Those in grey were not included in the Index.
15.
16.
How big is the problem?
The 2014 Global Slavery Index presents a ranking of 167 countries based on the percent of a country’s population that is estimated to be in modern slavery. Five countries are appearing in the Global Slavery Index for the first time:Taiwan, South Sudan, North Korea, Kosovo and Cyprus. A ranking of one in the Index indicates the most severely concentrated modern slavery situation; a ranking of 167 indicates the least severely concentrated modern slavery problem. A detailed description of the methodology underpinning this process is provided in Appendix 2 and on the Global Slavery Index website (www.globalslaveryindex.org). In the second year of the Index, an estimated35.8 million people are enslaved around the world. It is important to note that we are not asserting that there has been an increase in modern slavery around the world over the last year.We believe that this increase is due to the improved accuracy and precision of our measures and that we are uncovering modern slavery where it was not seen before. As was the case in 2013, the West African nation ofMauritaniaranks number one in the Index. In 2014, an estimated four percent of the population – approximately 155,600 people – are enslaved in Mauritania, a country with deeply entrenched hereditary slavery. In the past 12 months, the Mauritanian Government has taken positive steps to address slavery, adopting a plan of action recommended by the United Nations Special Rapporteur on Contemporary Forms of Slavery.The government has agreed, amongst other things, to establishing a special tribunal to adjudicate cases of slavery.While this progress is important, it may be several years before these changes have any impact on the size of the problem. The Republic of Uzbekistan, a Central Asian nation whose economy relies heavily on cotton production and export, is second in the Index.The rise in Uzbekistan’s ranking is a direct reflection of government-imposed forced labour.While it is very difficult to obtain accurate estimates of modern slavery in Uzbekistan, the role of the government in forcing citizens 6 to pick cotton for two months every year has been well-documented by numerous organisations. The most conservative of available estimates indicates that almost four percent – approximately 1,201,400 people – of the Uzbek population is subjected to modern slavery during the annual cotton harvest. Several other countries rose in the rankings in 2014.Those that entered the top ten include:Qatar, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Sudan, Syriaandthe Central African Republic. Qatarhosts significant numbers of foreign workers, and has risen in the ranking due to improved survey data giving better insight to the high number of enslaved migrant workers in the nation. It is ranked fourth with an estimated 1.4 percent of the population in modern slavery.We consider this to be a conservative estimate. The ranking ofPakistan, theDemocratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Sudan, Syriaandthe Central African Republicin the top ten reflects the impact of war and conflict on modern slavery. Conflict brings an almost immediate end to the rule of law, as well as bringing most infrastructure, normal services and governmental processes to a halt. In conflict, exploitation becomes an immediate threat to an increased proportion of the population. Over one percent of the population ofPakistan, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Sudan,SyriaandCentral African Republicis estimated to be in modern slavery. In absolute terms, this is approximately 2,058,200 people from Pakistan, 762,900 people from DRC, 429,000 people from Sudan, 258,200 people from Syria, and 52,200 people from the Central African Republic.
IrelandandIcelandsit at 166 and 167 in the 2014 Index with the lowest prevalence of modern slavery.While the estimated proportion of the population in modern slavery in each country is small (0.0007, or seven in every 10,000 persons in the population), no country in the Global Slavery Index is free of modern slavery. Ireland and Iceland are estimated to have approximately 300 and up to 100 people in modern slavery, respectively.
6 “Follow-up to the conclusions of the Committee on the Application of Standards International Labour Conference, 102nd Session, June 2013: Uzbekistan (Ratification: 2008)”, (International Labour Organization, 2014), accessed 22/09/14: http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3149080; see also“Forced Labor in Uzbekistan: Report on the 2013 Cotton Harvest”, (Uzbek-German Forum for Human Rights, 2014), accessed 22/09/14: http://uzbekgermanforum.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/06/ Forced-Labor-in-Uzbekistan-Report-2013.pdf
17.
106,000 237,500 93,700 77,300 71,900 13,400 18,200 2,300 4,200 400 64,900 30,400 11,500 22,600 2,300 5,400 6,500 155,300 4,100 60,100 11,400 10,500 8,600 8,300
52,981,991 127,338,621 50,219,669 41,446,246 38,530,725 7,187,500 10,403,761 1,341,151 2,715,000 284,644 44,353,691 22,924,851 9,466,000 19,963,581 2,013,385 5,399,200 8,059,400 200,361,925 11,265,629 316,128,839 59,831,093 80,621,788 66,028,467 64,097,085 46,647,421 35,158,304 23,340,000 23,130,900
Estimated population in modern slavery
Population
0.286 0.266 0.254 0.248 0.248 0.248 0.248 0.239 0.230 0.218 0.218 0.218 0.218 0.218 0.218 0.218 0.218 0.218 0.218 0.210 0.210 0.210 0.210 0.200
Hungary Serbia Slovakia Georgia Croatia Bosnia and Herzegovina Armenia Lithuania Albania
0.360 0.360 0.360
10,700 10,600 10,000
80
2,976,566 2,956,121 2,773,620
0.360
37,964,306 22,845,550
429,000 258,200
1.130
762,900
67,513,677
4.000 3.973 2.304 1.356 1.141 1.130
3,889,880 30,241,100 10,317,461 2,168,673 1,252,139,596 182,142,594
155,600 1,201,400 237,700 29,400 14,285,700 2,058,200
Rank of countries by prevalence of population in modern slavery (1 = most severe problem, 167 = least severe problem)
Nigeria Egypt Algeria Morocco Malaysia Jordan Lebanon Bangladesh Iran Myanmar Afghanistan North Korea Yemen Angola Zimbabwe Somalia Eritrea Libya Equatorial Guinea Ethiopia Guyana Bulgaria Czech Republic
Rank
Country
0.711 0.711 0.709 0.709 0.709 0.709 0.709 0.637 0.536 0.500 0.481 0.480 0.480 0.480 0.480 0.480 0.480 0.435 0.435 0.435 0.435 0.435 0.435 0.435 0.435 0.435 0.435 0.435 0.435 0.414 0.387 0.380 0.360 0.360 0.360 0.360 0.360 0.360
42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79
1.057 1.035 1.029 0.936 0.907 0.907 0.907 0.907 0.823 0.746 0.746 0.746 0.746 0.746 0.746 0.746 0.746 0.746 0.746 0.746 0.732 0.711 0.711 0.711 0.711 0.711 0.711 0.711 0.711 0.711
7
12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
10
11
Mauritania Uzbekistan Haiti Qatar India Pakistan Democratic Republic of the Congo Sudan Syria Central African Republic Republic of the Congo United Arab Emirates Iraq Cambodia Moldova Mongolia Namibia Botswana Suriname Nepal Ghana Mozambique Niger Burkina Faso Malawi Zambia Senegal Benin Togo Liberia Lesotho Russia Tanzania
1 2 3 4 5 6
Côte d’Ivoire Mali Chad Rwanda Guinea South Sudan Burundi Sierra Leone
18.
8 9
25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41
1.130 1.130
1.130
1.106
Percent of population in modern slavery
3,829,307
81 82 83
13,800
Indonesia Philippines Mauritius Turkey Ukraine Kosovo Gabon China Papua New Guinea Mexico Colombia Peru Ecuador Guatemala Bolivia Honduras Paraguay El Salvador Nicaragua Chile Costa Rica Panama Uruguay Venezuela
Estimated population in modern slavery
0.360 0.360 0.360 0.360 0.360 0.359 0.359 0.359 0.359 0.359 0.359 0.359 0.359 0.359 0.359 0.340 0.306 0.292
Macedonia Slovenia Estonia Cyprus Montenegro Vietnam Uganda Cameroon Sri Lanka Kazakhstan Azerbaijan Tajikistan Lao PDR Kyrgyzstan Turkmenistan Timor-Leste Tunisia Saudi Arabia
84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99
Estimated population in modern slavery
Estimated population in modern slavery
Country
Percent of population in modern slavery
Population
Percent of population in modern slavery
Rank
Country
Population
100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125
Rank
1,849,285 872,932 67,010,502 3,632,444 3,368,572 1,332,171 417,784 498,897 1,249,514 1,704,255 173,615,345 82,056,378 39,208,194 33,008,150 29,716,965 6,459,000 4,467,390 156,594,962 77,447,168 53,259,018 30,551,674 24,895,480 24,407,381 21,471,618 14,149,648 10,495,583 6,333,135 6,201,521 757,014 94,100,756 799,613 7,265,115 10,521,468 9,897,247 7,163,976 5,414,095 4,476,900 4,252,700
13,200 6,200 475,300 25,800 23,900 9,400 3,000 3,200 6,700 8,500 834,200 393,800 188,200 158,400 142,600 31,000 21,400 680,900 336,700 231,600 132,800 108,200 106,100 93,400 61,500 45,600 27,500 27,000 3,300 389,700 3,100 27,600 37,900 35,600 25,800 19,500 16,100 15,300
Population
Country
Rank
Percent of population in modern slavery
Gambia Djibouti Thailand Oman Kuwait Bahrain Brunei Cape Verde Swaziland Guinea-Bissau
South Africa Japan South Korea Argentina Poland Hong Kong Dominican Republic Trinidad and Tobago Jamaica Barbados Kenya Madagascar Belarus Romania Latvia Singapore Israel Brazil Cuba United States Italy Germany France United Kingdom Spain Canada Taiwan Australia Netherlands Belgium Greece Portugal Sweden Austria Switzerland Denmark Finland Norway New Zealand Luxembourg Ireland Iceland
19.
9,346,129 33,417,476 15,135,169 3,559,000 2,839,073 2,303,315 2,021,144 539,276 27,797,457 25,904,598 25,833,752 17,831,270 16,934,839 16,362,567 14,538,640 14,133,280 10,323,474 6,816,982 4,294,077 2,074,465 143,499,861 49,253,126 20,316,086 15,301,650 12,825,314 11,776,522 11,745,189 11,296,173 10,162,532 6,092,075
52,200
4,616,417
98,800 345,900 155,800 33,300 25,700 20,900 18,300 4,900 228,700 193,100 192,600 132,900 126,300 122,000 108,400 105,400 77,000 50,800 32,000 15,500 1,049,700 350,400 144,500 108,900 91,200 83,800 83,600 80,400 72,300 43,300
4,447,632
49,200
16,804,224 11,195,138 11,032,328 10,459,806 9,592,552 8,473,786 8,081,482 5,613,706 5,439,407 5,084,190 4,470,800 543,202 4,595,281 323,002
6,100 4,600 3,000 3,000 2,200 1,500 1,400 1,400 1,200 1,100 1,100 700 700 700 600 <100 300 <100
126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167
2,107,158 2,060,484 1,324,612 1,141,166 621,383 89,708,900 37,578,876 22,253,959 20,483,000 17,037,508 9,416,598 8,207,834 6,769,727 5,719,500 5,240,072 1,178,252 10,886,500 28,828,870 249,865,631 98,393,574 1,296,303 74,932,641 45,489,600 1,824,000 1,671,711 1,357,380,000 7,321,262 122,332,399 48,321,405 30,375,603 15,737,878 15,468,203 10,671,200 8,097,688 6,802,295 6,340,454 6,080,478 17,619,708 4,872,166 3,864,170 3,407,062 30,405,207
7,600 7,400 4,800 4,100 2,200 322,200 135,000 79,900 73,600 61,200 33,800 29,500 24,300 20,500 18,800 4,000 33,300 84,200 714,100 261,200 3,300 185,500 112,600 4,500 4,100 3,241,400 16,800 266,900 105,400 66,300 34,300 33,800 23,300 17,700 14,800 13,800 13,300 36,900 10,200 8,100 7,100 60,900
0.200 0.187 0.187 0.187 0.187 0.187 0.175 0.169 0.155 0.149 0.146 0.133 0.122 0.113 0.113 0.100 0.081 0.078 0.036 0.019 0.019 0.013 0.013 0.013 0.013 0.013 0.013 0.013 0.013 0.013 0.013 0.013 0.013 0.013 0.013 0.013 0.013 0.013 0.013 0.013 0.007 0.007
Un pour Un
Permettre à tous d'accéder à la lecture
Pour chaque accès à la bibliothèque, YouScribe donne un accès à une personne dans le besoin