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75GENDER AUDITMINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE,SUGAR AND LAND RESETTLEMENTMinistry for Women, Social Welfare & Poverty Alleviation,Republic of the Fiji IslandsP.O. Box 14068 Suva, FFunded by the Asian Development Bank,Manila, PhilippinesNovember 2003Agriculture Audit-5 Dec.pmd 75 11/12/2003, 8:48 AMThis report is the result of a technical assistance project (TA No. 3360-FIJ) from theAsian Development Bank, carried out by a team of consultants from Agriteam CanadaConsulting Ltd.USP Library Cataloguing-in-Publication DataGender audit. Ministry of Agriculture, Sugar and Land Resettlement - Suva, Fiji : Ministry forWomen, Social Welfare & Poverty Alleviation, 2003.p. : ill. ; 21 cm.ISBN 982-9007-09-X1. Women in development - Fiji 2. Women - Government policy - Fiji 3. Sex role -Government policy - Fiji 5. Fiji. Ministry of Agriculture, Sugar and Land Resettlement I. Fiji.Ministry for Women, Social Welfare & Poverty Alleviation II. Fiji. Ministry for Women, SocialWelfare & Poverty AlleviationHQ1240.5.F5G462 2003 305.231099611Copies of this Publication may be obtained fromMinistry for Women, Social Welfare & Poverty Alleviation,P.O. Box 14068 Suva, Fiji IslandsTelephone: (679) 3312 199Fax: (679) 3303 829E-mail: women@govnet.gov.fjWeb site: http://women.fiji.gov.fjandAsian Development BankP.O. Box 789 0980 Manila, PhilippinesFax: (632) 636 2648E-mail: adbpub@adb.orgWeb sites: http://www.adb.org/publications.adb.org/genderAgriculture Audit-5 Dec ...
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75
GENDER AUDIT
MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE,
SUGAR AND LAND RESETTLEMENT
Ministry for Women, Social Welfare & Poverty Alleviation,
Republic of the Fiji Islands
P.O. Box 14068 Suva, F
Funded by the Asian Development Bank,
Manila, Philippines
November 2003
Agriculture Audit-5 Dec.pmd 75 11/12/2003, 8:48 AMThis report is the result of a technical assistance project (TA No. 3360-FIJ) from the
Asian Development Bank, carried out by a team of consultants from Agriteam Canada
Consulting Ltd.
USP Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data
Gender audit. Ministry of Agriculture, Sugar and Land Resettlement - Suva, Fiji : Ministry for
Women, Social Welfare & Poverty Alleviation, 2003.
p. : ill. ; 21 cm.
ISBN 982-9007-09-X
1. Women in development - Fiji 2. Women - Government policy - Fiji 3. Sex role -
Government policy - Fiji 5. Fiji. Ministry of Agriculture, Sugar and Land Resettlement I. Fiji.
Ministry for Women, Social Welfare & Poverty Alleviation II. Fiji. Ministry for Women, Social
Welfare & Poverty Alleviation
HQ1240.5.F5G462 2003 305.231099611
Copies of this Publication may be obtained from
Ministry for Women, Social Welfare & Poverty Alleviation,
P.O. Box 14068 Suva, Fiji Islands
Telephone: (679) 3312 199
Fax: (679) 3303 829
E-mail: women@govnet.gov.fj
Web site: http://women.fiji.gov.fj
and
Asian Development Bank
P.O. Box 789 0980 Manila, Philippines
Fax: (632) 636 2648
E-mail: adbpub@adb.org
Web sites: http://www.adb.org/publications.adb.org/gender
Agriculture Audit-5 Dec.pmd 76 11/12/2003, 8:48 AMiii
Foreword
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n 1998, the Ministry for Women, Social Welfare & Poverty Alleviation launched the Women’sIPlan of Action (1999–2008). The five main areas of focus are mainstreaming women and
gender concerns, women and the law, microenterprise development, shared decision making,
and violence against women and children.
These are considered the priorities that the Fiji Islands must address if we are to improve
the status of women in our country.
Government’s commitment to gender equality is further reinforced in its endorsement of
the Millenium Development Goals, the overarching objectives of which are aimed at eradicating
absolute poverty and hunger by 2015. The third of the eight goals clearly states that promoting
gender equality and empowering women are critical if governments are to achieve sustainable
development and eliminate the root causes of poverty. There is growing and compelling
evidence that women not only bear the brunt of poverty but also that their empowerment is
critically important for eliminating poverty.
In stating our commitment to gender equity, we recognize that this must be accompanied
by practical, realistic, and achievable strategies. One such strategy is the focus on gender
mainstreaming as articulated in the Beijing Platform for Action:
…Governments and other actors should promote an active and visible policy of
mainstreaming a gender perspective in all policies and programs, so that before decisions
are made, an analysis is made of the effects on women and men, respectively.
The Ministry for Women supports this strategy and has established a Task Force on
Gender Mainstreaming that is chaired by the Ministry of Finance and National Planning. The
Task Force is mandated to implement gender mainstreaming and to support and strengthen
gender responsiveness in all government processes.
This gender audit is an outcome of an Asian Development Bank-funded technical assis-
tance (TA No. 3360-FIJ) for the Women’s Plan of Action, carried out during November 2001–
January 2003 and designed to support the gender mainstreaming strategy. The project assisted
the Ministry and the Task Force on Gender Mainstreaming to begin to assess and analyze
systematically national and sectoral policies/programs for their responsiveness to gender, based
on the Women’s Plan of Action. The approach was piloted in two ministries with the expectation
of replicability in other government organizations. This report provides a gender audit of the
Ministry of Ministry of Agriculture, Sugar and Land Settlement. A companion report covers
the Ministry of Health.
Mr. Rishi Ram
Permanent Secretary
Ministry for Women, Social Welfare & Poverty Alleviation
Agriculture Audit-5 Dec.pmd 77 11/12/2003, 8:48 AMAgriculture Audit-5 Dec.pmd 78 11/12/2003, 8:48 AMv
Contents
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FOREWORD ..................................................................................................................... iii
ABBREVIATIONS ............................................................................................................ vi
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY .............................................................................................. vii
INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................. 1
Background ................................................................................................................. 1
Rationale and Objectives .......................................................................................... 2
Methodology............................................................................................................... 4
OVERVIEW OF GENDER ISSUES AND ELEMENTS OF
THE ANALYTICAL FRAMEWORK ............................................................................ 7
Globalization and Commercialization of Agriculture ......................................... 10
Population Dynamics ............................................................................................... 11
Increasing Pressure on Natural Resources .......................................................... 14
Disaster-related Complex Emergencies ................................................................ 15
Technological Change ............................................................................................. 15
Summary ................................................................................................................... 16
GENDER AUDIT OF THE MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE, SUGAR AND
LAND RESETTLEMENT 17
Organizational Analysis of the Ministry .............................................................. 21
Analysis of the Policy Development Process in the Ministry ........................... 28
ANALYSIS OF KEY PERFORMANCE AREAS IN THE MINISTRY OF
AGRICULTURE, SUGAR AND LAND RESETTLEMENT .................................... 31
CASE STUDY: ANALYSIS OF THE FOOD SECURITY POLICY
USING THE GENDER ASSESSMENT PATHWAY (GAP) TOOL ....................... 55
STRATEGIC PLAN FOR INSTITUTIONALIZING GENDER
MAINSTREAMING IN THE MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE,
SUGAR AND LAND RESETTLEMENT .................................................................. 59
BIBLIOGRAPHY ............................................................................................................. 69
APPENDIXES
Appendix 1: Ministry of Health Core Team Members ........................................ 73
Appendix 2: Members of the Agriteam Canada Consulting Team .................... 74
Agriculture Audit-5 Dec.pmd 79 11/12/2003, 8:48 AMvi GENDER AUDIT – MINISTRY OF HEALTH
Abbreviations
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○○○○○○○○
ADB Asian Development Bank
ALTA Agricultural Land Tenancy Act
GAP gender assessment pathway
GDP gross domestic product
GFP Gender Focal Point
GTF Gender Task Force
HRD human resource development
KPA key performance area
MAFF Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry (former title)
MoAy of Agriculture, Sugar and Land Resettlement
MoF Ministry of Finance
MoWy for Women, Social Welfare and Poverty Alleviation
PSC Public Service Commission
SPIGM Strategic Plan for Institutionalizing Gender Mainstreaming
WPA Women’s Plan of Action
WTO World Trade Organization
Agriculture Audit-5 Dec.pmd 80 11/12/2003, 8:48 AMExecutive Summary vii
Executive Summary
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he goal of the gender audit was to contribute to strengthening government processesTby providing an assessment of any differential impact on males and females because
of policies, programs, organizational structures, and processes within the Ministry Agriculture,
Sugar and Land Resettlement (MoA) and to identify where strategic initiatives could be
implemented to build commitment to and strengthen capacities for gender mainstreaming.
The audit was a pilot activity, intended to be replicated in other ministries, and the
process assisted the Ministry for Women, Social Welfare & Poverty Alleviation to develop
appropriate support and guidance for further gender mainstreaming within the Government.
The study team assessed the presence and level of various factors that facilitate gender
mainstreaming, such as political will and leadership, an appropriate policy framework to
support a gender mainstreaming approach, and staff with the knowledge and skills to
carry out a gender analysis and gender-responsive planning and implementation.
In collaboration with a Core Team drawn from staff of the ministry, the study team
conducted surveys/interviews with ministry staff; reviewed relevant documents; verified
initial findings through follow-up interviews, focus-group sessions, and field visits;
selected one policy area as a case study in order to assess the design and implementation
of a policy from center to field level; and developed recommendations for entry points for
gender mainstreaming and provided suggested strategies for incorporating gender
mainstreaming into key performance areas for each ministry.
The gender audit of the MoA assessed international agricultural issues, such as
globalization, population dynamics, increasing pressure on natural resources, disaster-
related complex emergencies, and technological change in relation to the situation in the
Fiji Islands. The audit findings for each of these issues indicate that structural changes in
production, markets, and technology in agriculture affect women and men differently,
because their roles, responsibilities, needs, and constraints differ. Although women play a
central role in the Fijian economy, their contribution to agricultural production is largely
invisible in national statistics and is, thus, overlooked in both economic analyses and
policy formulation. The fact that agricultural sector planners rarely take rural women’s
needs into consideration can have a serious impact on food security; for example,
agricultural training and services are not targeted at rural women, despite the fact that
they grow a significant amount of the food for family consumption.
An assessment of the enabling factors for gender mainstreaming at MoA indicates
that members of the senior management team are not fully aware of the benefits of gender
mainstreaming. This lack of understanding results in a lack of commitment by staff to
incorporate gender issues into the policy and planning process, even though the Women’s
Plan of Action sets out specific roles and responsibilities for gender mainstreaming within
government departments. Senior managers need sensitizing and training in basic gender
Agriculture Audit-5 Dec.pmd 81 11/12/2003, 8:48 AMviii GGENDER AUDIT – MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE
concepts. This will enable senior decision makers to provide support and leadership in
the development of formal corporate statements to the effect that gender equality is a
critical starting point for increased efficiency and effectiveness in agricultural production
and that corporate planning exercises need to include gender mainstreaming at central
and divisional levels.
Staff at MoA do not currently have adequate training or skills to undertake a gender
analysis. While some gender training of trainers has been conducted, no resources—human
or financial—have been allocated to train others. As well, data collected within MoA are
production oriented, making it difficult to assess the impact of policies and programs
from a gender perspective. The gender audit recommended that formal presentations be
made to senior management to provide clear justification for the need to incorporate a
gender mainstreaming approach in order to strengthen MoA’s policy-making and program
delivery mechanisms. This should result in more efficient use of all the human resources
involved in agriculture and, thus, increase agricultural production.
The organizational analysis of MoA indicates the need for strengthening structures
and procedures to guide and monitor the overall progress for gender mainstreaming. For
example, the study team recommended changes to the vision and mission statements of
MoA to include a gender dimension. The absence of effective senior management political
will and technical support from the Gender Focal Point means that gender issues are not
being included in key corporate planning exercises. There is a lack of materials and tools
to assist MoA planners to identify and assess gender issues. The gender audit
recommended that responsibility for incorporating gender mainstreaming at MoA be
added to position descriptions of staff within the Planning and Policy Unit and that the
chief economist undertake the role of Gender Focal Point.
An analysis of the staff positions at MoA indicated a gender division of labor common
to the agricultural sector in many countries. Staff at MoA are primarily technical agricultural
specialists and often do not have the social assessment skills required to understand their
customers needs or to undertake a gender analysis to understand the different roles and
responsibilities of males and females in the agriculture sector. Women make up one quarter
of the staff positions at MoA. Within the senior executive positions, women make up 24%,
while they hold less than 13% at technical levels and 44% of the nontechnical positions.
There are currently many vacant positions at MoA. To create greater gender equality
within the ministry, the gender audit recommended that technically qualified women be
recruited to MoA from tertiary agricultural institutions and that female staff be provided
with overseas postgraduate training. To increase capacity for gender mainstreaming,
incorporating a gender perspective into MoA work should be included as part of position
descriptions, and training for gender-sensitive policy and planning should be incorporated
into the in-service staff training programs provided by MoA.
The policy development process at the MoA follows the process undertaken by
government ministries to develop policies, plans, and activities under key performance/
result areas. While the Government has made international commitments, for example at
Agriculture Audit-5 Dec.pmd 82 11/12/2003, 8:48 AMExecutive Summary ix
the World Food Summit in June 2002—which makes very specific reference to the impor-
tance of gender mainstreaming as a strategy for achieving food security—MoA has not
included a gender perspective in the strategic and corporate planning processes.
During the audit process, the study team confirmed that the planning process at
MoA has been largely top-down and communication channels have not been as open as
they might have been to supply appropriate data for planning. However, there is now
recognition that this system does not necessarily encourage ownership or initiative. The
ministry plans to pilot a participatory approach to planning and budgeting that will
encourage district-level agriculture officers to develop Tikina-level profiles by collecting
data to assess local needs and implement programs that respond to those needs. This
transformation will require more systematic collection of accurate sex-disaggregated
information and statistics on rural women and men.
The gender audit recommended that the current strategic and corporate plans be
reviewed to include gender responsiveness and that a review be made of the data-
collection methods used in each department to ensure that information available for the
planning process is sex disaggregated. The MoA should systematically identify and
incorporate action plans for gender mainstreaming emerging from regional and interna-
tional conferences, using local resources, to develop corporate and strategic plans. The
recent emphasis on results and measurable indicators in the MoA planning process
should support the inclusion of gender-sensitive indicators.
The TA gender audit team reviewed each of the eight key performance areas (KPAs)
in the draft MoA Strategic Plan, 2003–2005 to identify where gender concerns intersected
with current policy objectives. The audit provided information about the intersection of
gender issues and made recommendations for entry points to include gender
mainstreaming strategies under each KPA.
Agriculture Audit-5 Dec.pmd 83 11/12/2003, 8:48 AM