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Bacteriological Technique, by John William Henry
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Title: The Elements of Bacteriological Technique
A Laboratory Guide for Medical, Dental, and Technical Students. Second Edition Rewritten and Enlarged.
Author: John William Henry Eyre
Release Date: January 5, 2009 [eBook #27713]
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BACTERIOLOGICAL TECHNIQUEA LABORATORY GUIDE FOR MEDICAL, DENTAL, AND TECHNICAL
BYJ. W. H. EYRE, M.D., M.S., F.R.S. (Edin.)
Director of the Bacteriological Department of Guy's Hospital, London, and Lecturer on Bacteriology in the
Medical and Dental Schools; formerly Lecturer on Bacteriology at Charing Cross Hospital Medical School,
and Bacteriologist to Charing Cross Hospital; sometime Hunterian Professor, Royal College of Surgeons,
SECOND EDITION REWRITTEN AND ENLARGED
PHILADELPHIA AND LONDON
W. B. SAUNDERS COMPANY
Copyright, 1902, by W. B. Saunders and Company Revised, entirely
reset, reprinted, and recopyrighted July, 1913
Copyright, 1913, by W. B. Saunders Company
Registered at Stationers' Hall, London, England
PRINTED IN AMERICA
W. B. SAUNDERS COMPANY
TO THE MEMORY OF
JOHN WICHENFORD WASHBOURN, C.M.G., M.D., F.R.C.P.
Physician to Guy's Hospital and Lecturer on Bacteriology in the
Medical School, and Physician to the London Fever Hospital
MY TEACHER, FRIEND, AND CO-WORKERPREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION
Bacteriology is essentially a practical study, and even the elements of its technique can only be taught by personal
instruction in the laboratory. This is a self-evident proposition that needs no emphasis, yet I venture to believe that the
former collection of tried and proved methods has already been of some utility, not only to the student in the absence of
his teacher, but also to isolated workers in laboratories far removed from centres of instruction, reminding them of
forgotten details in methods already acquired. If this assumption is based on fact no further apology is needed for the
present revised edition in which the changes are chiefly in the nature of additions—rendered necessary by the
introduction of new methods during recent years.
I take this opportunity of expressing my deep sense of obligation to my confrère in the Physiological Department of our
medical school—Mr. J. H. Ryffel, B. C., B. Sc.—who has revised those pages dealing with the analysis of the metabolic
products of bacterial life; to successive colleagues in the Bacteriological Department of Guy's Hospital, for their ready
co-operation in working out or in testing new methods; and finally to my Chief Laboratory Assistant, Mr. J. C. Turner
whose assistance and experience have been of the utmost value to me in the preparation of this volume. I have also to
thank Mrs. Constant Ponder for many of the new line drawings and for redrawing a number of the original cuts.
John W. H. Eyre.
Guy's Hospital, S. E.
July, 1913.PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION
In the following pages I have endeavoured to arrange briefly and concisely the various methods at present in use for the
study of bacteria, and the elucidation of such points in their life-histories as are debatable or still undetermined.
Of these methods, some are new, others are not; but all are reliable, only such having been included as are capable of
giving satisfactory results even in the hands of beginners. In fact, the bulk of the matter is simply an elaboration of the
typewritten notes distributed to some of my laboratory classes in practical and applied bacteriology; consequently an
attempt has been made to present the elements of bacteriological technique in their logical sequence.
I make no apology for the space devoted to illustrations, nearly all of which have been prepared especially for this
volume; for a picture, if good, possesses a higher educational value and conveys a more accurate impression than a
page of print; and even sketches of apparatus serve a distinct purpose in suggesting to the student those alterations and
modifications which may be rendered necessary or advisable by the character of his laboratory equipment.
The excellent and appropriate terminology introduced by Chester in his recent work on "Determinative Bacteriology" I
have adopted in its entirety, for I consider it only needs to be used to convince one of its extreme utility, whilst its inclusion
in an elementary manual is calculated to induce in the student habits of accurate observation and concise description.
With the exception of Section XVII—"Outlines for the Study of Pathogenic Bacteria"—introduced with the idea of
completing the volume from the point of view of the medical and dental student, the work has been arranged to allow of
its use as a laboratory guide by the technical student generally, whether of brewing, dairying, or agriculture.
So alive am I to its many inperfections that it appears almost superfluous to state that the book is in no sense intended as
a rival to the many and excellent manuals of bacteriology at present in use, but aims only at supplementing the usually
scanty details of technique, and at instructing the student how to fit up and adapt apparatus for his daily work, and how to
carry out thoroughly and systematically the various bacterioscopical analyses that are daily demanded of the
bacteriologist by the hygienist.
Finally, it is with much pleasure that I acknowledge the valuable assistance received from my late assistant, Mr. J. B. Gall,
A. I. C., in the preparation of the section dealing with the chemical products of bacterial life, and which has been based
upon the work of Lehmann.
John W. H. Eyre.
Guy's Hospital, S. E.CONTENTS
I. Laboratory Regulations 1
II. Glass Apparatus in Common Use 3
The Selection, Preparation, and Care of
Glassware, 8—Cleaning of Glass
Apparatus, 18—Plugging Test-tubes and
III. Methods of Sterilisation 26
Sterilising Agents, 26—Methods of
Application, 27—Electric Signal Timing
IV. The Microscope 49
Essentials, 49—Accessories, 57—Methods
of Micrometry, 61.
V. Microscopical Examination of Bacteria and Other
Apparatus and Reagents used in Ordinary
Microscopical Examination, 69—Methods of
VI. Staining Methods 90
Bacteria Stains, 90—Contrast Stains,
93—Tissue Stains, 95—Blood Stains,
97—Methods of Demonstrating Structure of
Bacteria, 99—Differential Methods of
VII. Methods of Demonstrating Bacteria in Tissues 114
Freezing Method, 115—Paraffin Method,
117—Special Staining Methods for
VIII. Classification of Fungi 126
Morphology of the Hyphomycetes,
126—Morphology of the Blastomycetes,
IX. Schizomycetes 131
X. Nutrient Media 146
Meat Extract, 148—Standardisation ofMedia, 154—The Filtration of Media,
156—Storing Media in Bulk, 159—Tubing
Nutrient Media, 160.
XI. Ordinary or Stock Culture Media 163
XII. Special Media 182
XIII. Incubators 216
XIV. Methods of Cultivation 221
Aerobic, 222—Anaerobic, 236.
XV. Methods of Isolation 248
XVI. Methods of Identification and Study 259
Scheme of Study, 259—Macroscopical
Examination of Cultivations,
272—Biochemical Methods, 276—Physical
Methods, 295—Inoculation Methods,
Immunisation, 322—The Preparation of
Hæmolytic Serum, 327—The Titration of
Hæmolytic Serum, 328—Storage of
XVII. Experimental Inoculation of Animals 332
Selection and Care of Animals,
335 —Methods of Inoculation, 352.
XVIII. The Study of Experimental Infections During Life 370
General Observations, 371—Blood
381—Opsonin, 387—Immune Body, 393.
XIX. Post-mortem Examination of Experimental Animals 396
XX. The Study of the Pathogenic Bacteria 408
XXI. Bacteriological Analyses 415
Bacteriological Examination of Water,
416—Examination of Milk, 441—Ice Cream,
457—Examination of Cream and Butter,
457—Examination of Unsound Meats,
460—Examination of Oysters and Other
Shellfish, 463—Examination of Sewage and
Sewage Effluents, 466—Examination of
Air, 468—Examination of Soil,
470—Testing Filters, 478—Testing of
Disinfectants, 480.Appendix 492