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Whid IgkViWViVgTV wbka BRfbey Gnv nesdm g`ud xnt dwodqhdmbdc d`bg ne sgd enkknvhmf ctqhmf sgd o`rs sgqdd lnmsgr> '0( ( = 23c8Ry ()) ) = SbS8eiS8d    . = O=e8a     0 = Mbde b= eO8 eiS8 ) Okd`rd mnsd9 Sgd vnqcr Õodqrnm`k qdronmrhahkhshdrŒ `qd trdc hm rdudq`k hsdlr- Enq sgd otqonrdr ne sgd hsdlr hm sghr hmrsqtldms+ sgd bnmbdos ne odqrnm`k qdronmrhahkhshdr g`r addm nodq`shnm`khydc sn hmbktcd s`rjr rtbg `r fdsshmf bgnqdr cnmd+ s`jhmf b`qd ne nsgdqr+ nq rs`xhmf hm sntbg vhsg u`qhntr eqhdmcr nq qdk`shudr-Energy --------------H b`ld gnld eqnl vnqj snn shqdc sn cn rnld ne sgd sghmfr H v`msdc sn cn-'2( Adb`trd ne lx ina+ H chcm–s g`ud sgd dmdqfx sn cn sghmfr vhsg lx e`lhkx nq nsgdq hlonq, s`ms odnokd hm lx khed-'3( Strain --------------H v`r oqdnbbtohdc vhsg lx vnqj vghkd H v`r `s gnld-'4( Lx ina l`cd hs cheehbtks sn l`hms`hm sgd jhmc ne qdk`shnmrghor vhsg lx e`lhkx sg`s H vntkc khjd-'5( Time ----------------Sgd `lntms ne shld lx ina s`jdr to l`cd hs cheehbtks sn etkehkk odqrnm`k qdronmrhahkhshdr-'6( Lx vnqj rbgdctkd l`jdr hs cheehbtks sn etkehkk odqrnm`k qdronmrhahkhshdr-Adb`trd ne lx ina+ H chcm–s g`ud dmntfg shld sn o`qshbho`sd hm mnmvnqj `bshuhshdr H ehmc qdk`whmf `mc dminx`akd-'7( Behavior ----------Lx ina l`cd ld adg`ud hm v`xr sg`s `qd tm`bbdos`akd `s gnld-'8( Adg`uhnq sg`s v`r deedbshud `mc mdbdrr`qx enq ld `s vnqj v`r bntmsdqoqnctbshud `s gnld-'0/(
(,) TSN pJcNaTfgf LSdfN J gSeNN bdcgS gTbN PeJbN KNLJhfN J jNJe fNNbf gdd adcR Pde eNfpdcMNcgf gd JLLheJgNaj eNLJaa  Khg adcR  NcdhRS gd NiNc dhg geJcfTNcg iJeTJgTdc&  TSeNN bdcgSf Tf gSN gTbN PeJbN hfNM Kj gSN NH7W& (-) TSNfN JcfwNe LSdTLNf JeN JMJpgNM Pedb ?ezjwJLz JcM FJeWf (,443) wSd phg kbdfg dP gSN gTbNÓ Jf JcfwNe LSdTLN #. JcM kJaa dP gSN gTbNÓ Jf JcfwNe dpgTdc #/& (.) JMJpgNM Pedb ?hgNW HNJeaN & DaNpJ ,44, (deTRTcJa: 5PgNe wdeW B LdbN SdbN gdd gTeNM gd Md fdbN dP gSN gSTcRf BÕM aTWN gd Md&) (/)JMJpgNM Pedb 6dcM  ?JaTcfWj  & :eTNMbJc (deTRTcJa:  cdg SJM gSN NcNeRj gd Md gSTcRf wTgS jdhe PJbTaj de dgSNe TbpdegJcg pNdpaN Tc jdhe aTPN KNLJhfN dP jdhe VdK) (0)JMJpgNM Pedb ?hgNW  HNJeaN  & DaNpJ  ,44, (deTRTcJa: Fj PJbTaj(PeTNcMf MTfaTWN Sdw dPgNc B Jb peNdLLhpTNM wTgS bj wdeW wSTaN B Jb Jg SdbN&) (1)JMJpgNM Pedb HgNpSNcf & HdbbNe  ,441 (deTRTcJa: TSN MNbJcMf dP bj VdK bJWN Tg MTPPTLhag Pde bN gd bJTcgJTc gSN WTcM dP eNaJgTdcfSTp wTgS bj fpdhfN JcM LSTaMeNc gSJg B wdhaM aTWN&) (2)JMJpgNM Pedb NNgNebNjNe  6daNf  FLFheeTJc  ,441 (deTRTcJa: TSN Jbdhcg dP gTbN bj VdK gJWNf hp bJWNf Tg MTP# PTLhag gd PhaPTaa PJbTaj eNfpdcfTKTaTgTNf&) (3)JMJpgNM Pedb 6dcM  ?JaTcfWj  & HwJcKNeR  ,442 (deTRTcJa: cdg SJM NcdhRS gTbN Pde jdhefNaP KNLJhfN dP jdhe VdK) (4)JMJpgNM Pedb DTeLSbNjNe (,44-) (deTRTcJa: bJWNf bN KNSJiN Tc wJjf wSTLS JeN hcJLLNpgJKaN Jg wdeW) (,))JMJpgNM Pedb HgNpSNcf & HdbbNe (,441) (deTRTcJa: 6NSJiTde gSJg Tf NPPNLgTiN JcM cNLNffJej Pde bN Jg wdeW wdhaM KN LdhcgNepedMhLgTiN Jg SdbN&)
0
Whid IgkViWViVgTV wbka BRfbey (ThgkbguVU) Gnv nesdm g`ud xnt dwodqhdmbdc d`bg ne sgd enkknvhmf ctqhmf sgd o`rs sgqdd lnmsgr> '00( ( = 23c8Ry (()) ) = SbS8eiS8d    . = O=e8a     0 = Mbde b= eO8 eiS8 
¥ QAMNIIHN IB ODA 78IQA IOAGN :IMA9OA: OIW7M: NKIPNAN IM K7MOHAMN: (.0) Energy --------------Adb`trd ne vnqj+ lx rontrd nq o`qsmdq chcm–s g`ud sgd dmdqfx sn cn sghmfr vhsg ntq e`lhkx-'03( Strain --------------Lx rontrd nq o`qsmdq–r ina l`cd hs cheehbtks sn l`hms`hm sgd jhmc ne qdk`shnmrghor vhsg ntq e`lhkx sg`s gd.rgd vntkc khjd-'04( Time ----------------Sgd `lntms ne shld lx rontrd nq o`qsmdq–r ina s`jdr to l`cd hs cheehbtks enq ghl nq gdq sn etkehkk odqrnm`k qdronmrhahkhshdr-'05( Lx rontrd nq o`qsmdq–r vnqj rbgdctkd l`cd hs cheehbtks enq ghl nq gdq sn etkehkk odqrnm`k qdronmrhahkhshdr-Behavior ----------Adg`uhnq sg`s hr deedbshud `mc mdbdrr`qx enq lx rontrd nq o`qsmdq `s vnqj v`r bntmsdq, oqnctbshud `s gnld-'06( ¥ lMAKMANAHO7OIQAHANNÓ IOAG Ctqhmf sgd o`rs sgqdd lnmsgr+ lx ina g`r hmsdqedqdc vhsg lx od `k khed9 qrnm 0- Ltbg kdrr sg`m hr mnql`k enq ld 1- Kdrr sg`m hr mnql`k enq ld 2- @ants sgd r`ld `r hs trt`kkx cndr enq ld  3- Lnqd sg`m hr mnql`k enq ld 4- Ltbg lnqd sg`m hr mnql`k enq ld
(,,) TSN pJcNaTfgf LSdfN J gSeNN bdcgS gTbN PeJbN KNLJhfN J jNJe fNNbf gdd adcR Pde eNfpdcMNcgf gd JLLheJgNaj eNLJaa  Khg adcR  NcdhRS gd NiNc dhg geJcfTNcg iJeTJgTdc&  TSeNN bdcgSf Tf gSN gTbN PeJbN hfNM Kj gSN NH7W& (,-)JcfwNe LSdTLNf JeN JMJpgNM Pedb ?ezjwJLz JcM FJeWf (,443)  wSd phg kbdfg dP gSN gTbNÓ Jf JcfwNe LSdTLN #. JcM kJaa dP gSN gTbNÓ  Jf JcfwNe dpgTdc #/& (,.)TSN pJcNaTfgf fhRRNfg TcLahMTcR dcaj SJaP Jf bJcj TgNbf pNegJTcTcR gd fpdhfNfÕ VdKf& (,/)JMJpgNM Pedb 6dcM  ?JaTcfWj  & :eTNMbJc (deTRTcJa: cdg SJM gSN NcNeRj gd Md gSTcRf wTgS jdhe PJbTaj de dgSNe TbpdegJcg pNdpaN Tc jdhe aTPN KNLJhfN dP jdhe VdK) (,0) JMJpgNM Pedb ?hgNW HNJeaN & DaNpJ ,44, (deTRTcJa: Fj PJbTaj(PeTNcMf MTfaTWN Sdw dPgNc B Jb peNdLLhpTNM wTgS bj wdeW wSTaN B Jb Jg SdbN&) (,1) JMJpgNM Pedb NNgNebNjNe 6daNf FLFheeTJc ,441 (deTRTcJa: TSN Jbdhcg dP gTbN bj VdK gJWNf hp bJWNf Tg MTP# PTLhag gd PhaPTaa PJbTaj eNfpdcfTKTaTgTNf&) (,2)JMJpgNM Pedb DTeLSbNjNe (,44-) (deTRTcJa: bJWNf bN KNSJiN Tc wJjf wSTLS JeN hcJLLNpgJKaN Jg wdeW)
1
IgkViWViVgTV wbka BRfbey (ThgkbguVU)
¥ NAQAMIOY IOAGN Ctqhmf sgd o`rs sgqdd lnmsgr+ H vntkc q`sd sgd hmsdqedqdmbd ne lx ina vhsg lx odqrnm`k khed `r9 (. ). .. 0. SiaiS3R Sb68c3e8 d8v8c8 v8cy d8v8c8 Ctqhmf sgd o rs sgqdd lnmsgr+ H g`ud l`cd odqrnm`k r`bqhehbdr sn fds vnqj cnmd9 '07( ` (. ). .. 0. c3c8Ry dbS8eiS8d b=e8a Sbde b= eO8 eiS8 BRfbey IgkViWViVgTV wbka Whid Gnv nesdm g`ud xnt dwodqhdmbdc d`bg ne sgd enkknvhmf ctqhmf sgd o`rs sgqdd lnmsgr> '08( ( = 23c8Ry () ) ) = SbS8eiS8d    . = O=e8a     0 = Mbde b= eO8 eiS8 Energy --------------H v`r snn shqdc sn ad deedbshud `s vnqj adb`trd ne sghmfr H g`c sn cn `s gnld-'10( Lx e`lhkx nq odqrnm`k khed cq`hmdc ld ne sgd dmdqfx H mddcdc sn cn lx ina-'11( Strain --------------H v`r oqdnbbtohdc vhsg odqrnm`k qdronmrhahkhshdr vghkd H v`r `s vnqj-'12( Lx odqrnm`k qdronmrhahkhshdr l`cd hs cheehbtks sn fds `knmf vhsg lx rtodquhrnq `mc bnvnqjdqr sgd ` `s H vntkc khjd-'13( v x sg Time ----------------Sgd `lntms ne shld lx odqrnm`k qdronmrhahkhshdr snnj to l`cd ld vnqj kdrr sg`m H v msdc sn-'14( ` Sgd rbgdctkd cdl`mcr ne lx odqrnm`k qdronmrhahkhshdr jdos ld eqnl fdsshmf vnqj cnmd nm shld ` lx ina-'15(  s
(,3) fhRRNfgNM Kj FJeLT DdKaNcz (,4) TSN pJcNaTfgf LSdfN J gSeNN bdcgS gTbN PeJbN KNLJhfN J jNJe fNNbf gdd adcR Pde eNfpdcMNcgf gd JLLheJgNaj eNLJaa  Khg adcR  NcdhRS gd NiNc dhg geJcfTNcg iJeTJgTdc&  TSeNN bdcgSf Tf gSN gTbN PeJbN hfNM Kj gSN NH7W& (-))TSNfN JcfwNe LSdTLNf JeN JMJpgNM Pedb ?ezjwJLz JcM FJeWf (,443) wSd phg kbdfg dP gSN gTbNÓ Jf JcfwNe LSdTLN #. JcM kJaa dP gSN gTbNÓ Jf JcfwNe dpgTdc #/& (-,)JMJpgNM Pedb ?hgNW  HNJeaN  & DaNpJ  ,44, (deTRTcJa: BÕb dPgNc gdd gTeNM Jg wdeW KNLJhfN dP  gSN gSTcRf B SJiN gd Md Jg SdbN&) (--)JMJpgNM Pedb 6dcM  ?JaTcfWj  & HwJcKNeR  ,442 (deTRTcJa:  Adw dPgNc SJf jdhe PJbTaj de pNefdcJa aTPN MeJTcNM jdh dP gSN NcNeRj jdh cNNMNM gd Md jdhe VdK)? (-.)JMJpgNM Pedb ?hgNW  HNJeaN  & DaNpJ  ,44, (deTRTcJa: Fj fhpNeTdef JcM pNNef MTfaTWN Sdw dPgNc B Jb peNdLLhpTNM wTgS bj  pNefdcJa aTPN wSTaN Jg wdeW&) (-/) JMJpgNM Pedb HgNpSNcf & HdbbNe ,441 (deTRTcJa: TSN MNbJcMf dP bj VdK bJWN Tg MTPPTLhag Pde bN gd bJTcgJTc gSN WTcM dP eNaJgTdcfSTp wTgS bj fpdhfN JcM LSTaMeNc gSJg B wdhaM aTWN&) (-0)JMJpgNM Pedb HgNpSNcf & HdbbNe  ,441 (deTRTcJa: TSN MNbJcMf dP bj VdK bJWN Tg MTPPTLhag Pde bN gd bJTcgJTc gSN WTcM dP eNaJgTdcfSTp wTgS bj fpdhfN JcM LSTaMeNc gSJg B wdhaM aTWN&) (-1)JMJpgNM Pedb 6dcM  ?JaTcfWj  & HwJcKNeR  ,442 (deTRTcJa: Adw dPgNc SJf jdhe PJbTaj de pNefdcJa aTPN WNpg jdh Pedb RNggTcR wdeW MdcN dc gTbN Jg jdhe VdK)?
2
BRfbey IgkViWViVgTV wbka Whid  (ThgkbguVU) Gnv nesdm g`ud xnt dwodqhdmbdc d`bg ne sgd enkknvhmf ctqhmf sgd o`rs sgqdd lnmsgr> '16( ( = 23c8Ry ())8 ) = SbS8eiS8d . = O=e8a 0 = Mbde b= eO8 eiS8 Behavior ----------Lx odqrnm`k qdronmrhahkhshdr l`cd ld adg`ud hm v`xr sg`s vdqd tm`bbdos`akd `s vnqj-'18( Adg`uhnq sg`s v`r deedbshud `mc mdbdrr`qx enq ld `s gnld v`r bntmsdqoqnctbshud `s vnqj-'2/( ¥ lMAKMANAHO7OIQAHANNÓ IOAG Ctqhmf sgd o`rs sgqdd lnmsgr+ lx odqrnm`k khed g`r hmsdqedqdc vhsg lx ina9 (. ). .. 0. 1. Sf5O R8dd eO3a R8dd eO3a 34bfe eO8 d3S8 3d Sbc8 eO3a Sf5O Sbc8 eO3a id abcS3R =bc S8 id abcS3R =bc S8 ie fdf3RRy 6b8d =bc S8 id abcS3R =bc S8 id abcS3R =bc S8 ¥ NAQAMIOY IOAGN Ctqhmf sgd o`rs sgqdd lnmsgr+ H vntkc q`sd sgd hmsdqedqdmbd ne lx odqrnm`k khed vhsg lx ina `r9 (. ). .. 0. SiaiS3R Sb68c3e8 d8v8c8 v8cy d8v8c8 Ctqhmf sgd o`rs sgqdd lnmsgr+ H g`ud r`bqhehbdc vnqj hm e`unq ne ` odqrnm`k fn`k nq bnllhsldms9 '20( (. ). .. 0. c3c8Ry dbS8eiS8d b=e8a Sbde b= eO8 eiS8
Whid AgaRgTVfVgk hW BRfbey FbWV ' Gnv nesdm g`ud xnt dwodqhdmbdc d`bg ne sgd enkknvhmf ctqhmf sgd o`rs sgqdd lnmsgr> 21( ( = 23c8Ry (..) ) = SbS8eiS8d . = O=e8a 0 = Mbde b= eO8 eiS8 Energy --------------Lx ina f`ud ld dmdqfx sn cn sghmfr vhsg lx e`lhkx nq nsgdq hlonqs`ms odnokd hm lx khed-'23(
(-2) TSN pJcNaTfgf LSdfN J gSeNN bdcgS gTbN PeJbN KNLJhfN J jNJe fNNbf gdd adcR Pde eNfpdcMNcgf gd JLLheJgNaj eNLJaa  Khg adcR NcdhRS gd NiNc dhg geJcfTNcg iJeTJgTdc&  TSeNN bdcgSf Tf gSN gTbN PeJbN hfNM Kj gSN NH7&W (-3)TSNfN JcfwNe LSdTLNf JeN JMJpgNM Pedb ?ezjwJLz JcM FJeWf (,443)  wSd phg kbdfg dP gSN gTbNÓ Jf JcfwNe LSdTLN #. JcM kJaa dP gSN gTbNÓ Jf JcfwNe dpgTdc #/& (-4)JMJpgNM Pedb DTeLSbNjNe (,44-) (deTRTcJa: FJWNf bN KNSJiN Tc wJjf wSTLS JeN hcJLLNpgJKaN Jg wdeW&) (.))JMJpgNM Pedb HgNpSNcf & HdbbNe (,441) (deTRTcJa: 6NSJiTde gSJg Tf NPPNLgTiN JcM cNLNffJej Pde bN Jg wdeW wdhaM KN LdhcgNepedMhLgTiN Jg SdbN&) (.,)fhRRNfgNM Kj FJeLT DdKaNcz (. ) TSN pJcNaTfgf LSdfN J gSeNN bdcgS gTbN PeJbN KNLJhfN J jNJe fNNbf gdd adcR Pde eNfpdcMNcgf gd JLLheJgNaj -eNLJaa  Khg adcR NcdhRS gd NiNc dhg geJcfTNcg iJeTJgTdc&  TSeNN bdcgSf Tf gSN gTbN PeJbN hfNM Kj gSN NH7W& (..)TSNfN JcfwNe LSdTLNf JeN JMJpgNM Pedb ?ezjwJLz JcM FJeWf (,443)  wSd phg kbdfg dP gSN gTbNÓ Jf JcfwNe LSdTLN #. JcM kJaa dP gSN gTbNÓ Jf JcfwNe dpgTdc #/& (./) JMJpgNM Pedb 6dcM ?JaTcfWj & HwJcKNeR ,442 (deTRTcJa: Adw dPgNc SJiN jdh SJM bdeN NcNeRj gd Md gSTcRf wTgS jdhe PJbTaj de dgSNe TbpdegJcg pNdpaN Tc jdhe aTPN KNLJhfN dP jdhe VdK?)
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