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European electricity market indicators 2008.

De
16 pages

Ganea (Dc), Goerten (J). http://temis.documentation.developpement-durable.gouv.fr/document.xsp?id=Temis-0066349

Ajouté le : 22 février 2010
Lecture(s) : 50
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Transport

Author: Giuliano AMERINI


S t a t i s t i c s i n F o c u s
11/2010

General economic crisis hits European port activity
Freight handling in EU ports fell by 0.5% in 2008, after almost a decade of continuous
growth. The downturn began as the global financial crisis materialised: after a slowdown
in the 3rdquarter of 2008, a substantial fall was registered in the 4thquarter.
In 2008, the total weight of goods handled in In 2008, more than 60% of EU-27 seaborne goods
EU-27 maritime ports is estimated at 3.9 billion transport concerned an extra-EU-27 partner port.
tonnes.Of these, nearly two thirds were goodsInternational intra-EU-27 transport represented
unloaded. Almost all Member States unloaded more25% and national transport 10%.However, the
than they loaded. situation varies widely among countries.
At 562 million tonnes, the United Kingdom had the The number of passengers who passed through
highest share (14%) of goods handled in EU-27 EU-27 ports in 2008 is estimated at 413 million
ports,followed by the Netherlands, Italy and Spain.(0.3% down compared with 2007).Unlike goods
In 2008, liquid bulk goods (which includeorsf erence bant diffehn muebteewnet rehe t),edadlo3 cifingis on saw ng (ndliha ,/1dadenuol/2 3
petroleum products) was the largest type of cargo
handled in tonnage terms,embarking and disembarking, due to the accounting for 40% of passengers
the total cargo handled in EU-27 ports, followed by fact that most of this transport activity corresponds to
dry bulk (25%) and containers (18%). the main national and intra-EU-27 ferry connections.
Rotterdam, Antwerp and Hamburg all located onThe number of vessel calls at EU main ports showed
the North Sea coast - maintained their positionst noanegfog orssn terms wever, i7002oH .dera ot % .8mpcoe as 1ofceerad wtro g a ofh eht fo ,slessev
as the three largest EU portsin terms of both gross
weight of goods and volume of containers handled.o1.f5v%e swsaesl sr eocpoerrdaetidn.gT hiins EreUfl epcotrsts. th e increasing size

Figure 1: Gross weight of seaborne goods handled in all ports (in million tonnes)

4 000

3 800

3 600

3 400

3 200

3 000

2 800

2 600

2 400

2 200

2 000

1997 1998

1999

Source: Eumar_ g_ a_cwh)
rostatm a

2000

2001

2002
EU-27

2003
EU-15

2004

-0.5%

Quarterly results for 2008 in EU-27 main ports: growth
rate on the same uarter of the revious ear %
4%

2%

0%

-2%

-4%
-6%
2005

Q1
2006

Q2

2007

Q3

2008

Q4

A decade of continuous growth in EU ports freight activity was brought to an end
by the impact of the current economic crisis.

Table 1: Gross weight of seaborne goods handled in all ports (in million tonnes)
1997 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Growth rate
2007-2008
Total Total Total Total Total Total Total Total Inwards OutwardstaTo)%(l
BE 140.2 103.6174.2 173.8 181.1 187.9 206.5 218.9 236.3161.6 243.8 +3.2%
BG 9.8 16.820.2 20.4 21.4 23.1 24.8 27.5 24.9: 26.6 +6.7%
DK 99.7 104.0 100.4124.0 94.0 94.3 107.7 109.7 60.7 45.3106.1 -3.2%
DE 196.7 123.9213.3 246.1 246.4 254.8 271.9 284.9 302.8 315.1320.6 +1.8%
EE: 8.140.4 44.7 47.0 44.8 46.5 50.0 45.0 28.036.2 -19.5%
IE36.3 45.8 44.9 46.2 47.7 52.1 53.3 54.1 36.0 15.051.1 -5.6%
EL101.3 122.2 147.7 162.5 157.9 151.3 159.4 164.3 89.1 63.4152.5 -7.2%
ES270.6 290.1 126.1315.1 326.0 343.7 373.1 400.0 414.4 426.6416.2 -2.5%
FR305.1 318.2 319.0 330.1 334.0 341.5 350.3 346.8 249.4 102.6352.0 +1.5%
IT444.8 458.0 477.0 485.0 508.9 520.2 537.3 358.8 167.5434.3 526.2 -2.1%
CY 7.2 7.3 6.8 7.3 7.6 7.5: : 6.7 1.27.9 +6.2%
LV: 56.8 52.0 54.7 54.8 59.7 56.9 61.1 6.1 55.361.4 +0.6%
LT21.0 24.4 30.2 25.8 26.1 27.2 29.3 15.4 21.0: 36.4 +24.4%
MT 4.3 1.2: : 5.0 5.2 5.3 5.3 5.5 5.35.5 +4.7%
NL 396.7 133.6405.9 413.3 410.3 440.7 460.9 477.2 507.5402.2 530.4 +4.5%
PL: 46.2 48.1 51.0 52.3 54.8 53.1 52.4 28.1 20.848.8 -6.9%
PT56.2 55.6 57.5 59.1 65.3 66.9 68.2 43.6 21.654.7 65.3 -4.3%
RO 29.6 20.927.6 32.7 35.9 40.6 47.7 46.7 48.9: 50.5 +3.1%
SI 10.8 12.1 12.6 15.5 15.9 11.8: 9.1 9.3 4.716.6 +4.4%
FI 104.4 106.5 99.675.3 96.2 99.1 64.3 50.5 110.5 114.8114.7 -0.1%
SE152.8 154.6 161.5 167.4 178.1 180.5 185.1149.9 87.0 100.8187.8 +1.5%
UK 346.5 215.7558.5 566.4 558.3 555.7 573.1 584.9 583.7 581.5562.2 -3.3%
EU-25 3 646.1 3 761.7 2 863.7 1 453.5 3 3 388.2: : -0.6% 3 841.6 281.7 3 395.1 3 506.5
2 887.2 3 037.6 3 091.0 3 188.8 3 304.6 3 433.8 3 545.9 3 647.3 2 373.0 1 255.8 3 628.8 -0.5%
: 19.1 18.6 20.3 25.2 26.2 26.3 30.1 18.6 10.629.2 -2.9%
IS5.0 4.8 5.0 5.3 5.7 5.9: : : :: :
NO 60.6 132.8: : 190.0 186.8 198.2 201.7 196.8 198.5193.4 -2.6%

EEA-IS+HR 1 562.2 4 141.2 166.1 4 579.0 2 946.6 3 059.1 4 659.4 3 793.7 3: : 543.4 3
Source: Eurostatmar_mg_aa_cwhd)

-0.6%

EU port activity declined in the second half of transport of refined oil products), Bulgaria and
2008, especially in the 4thquarter (Figure 1)1 Cyprus.: this
downturn reflects the impact of the economic crisis A rise in port traffic in the Netherlands of about 23
on maritime transport. million tonnes (mainly due to Amsterdam
EU-27 ports faced a 0.5% decrease in the handling performance: see also Table 3 on page 4),
of goods on an annual basis (Table 1), the most combined with a fall in Italian port activity, means
substantial decreases at individual Member State that the Netherlands has replaced Italy as the
level being recorded in Estonia (-20%), Greece and second largest EU country (13.5% of EU total) for
Poland. maritime transport, with the United Kingdom in
Nevertheless, about half of the countries registered first place (14.3%).
an increase between 2007 and 2008, the most In 2008, around 64% of the tonnage handled in
(si+g2n4if%ic, amnta ionnley s dbueei ntog irnecwoarrdde tdr abnys pLoitrth uoaf nRiau ssian EU-27 ports was goods unloaded (inwards).
crude oil from the Gulf of Finland and outward Of the total weight of goods handled in ports in
2008, the percentage unloaded was 84% in Cyprus,

⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯


1 This “Statistics in Focus is based on data collected in the framework of the EU maritime transport statistics Directive (Directive
2009/42/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 6 May 2009 on statistical returns in respect of carriage of goods and
passengers by sea). Not all Member States have reported for all aspects during the period 1997-2008. Methodological and other

explanatory notes, including country-specific remarks are available at the end of the publication (pages 14-15).

2

11/2010 Statistics in Focus

followed by Malta and the Netherlands (with 77% Latvia and 77% in Estonia: these countries' share in
and 75% respectively). total EU-27 maritime freight is however small.
In general more seaborne goods are unloaded than In Norway the outward weight was also dominant,
loaded in the EU-27 countries as well as in Croatia with a share of 69%.
and Iceland (2006 data). For the three Baltic countries the outward weight is
However, in the three Baltic countries (Estonia, largely due to oil products, whereas for Norway it
Latvia and Lithuania) the outward movement of mainly reflects exports of crude oil, oil products
goods was dominant, its share reaching 90% in and ores1.

In 2008, liquid bulk goods accounted for 40% of the total cargo handled in EU-27
ports, followed by dry bulk (25%) and containers (18%).

Table 2: Gross weight of seaborne goods handled (inwards and outwards) in main ports(1)in 2008
by type of cargo(2)(in % of total cargo handled)
Share in % of total cargo handled in main ports
handled in handled in
Liquid bulk Dry bulk Large Ro Ro Other smain o
goodsgoodscontainersMUonbitilsecargo, nesUnknownTotal(meisl)lion tonneimllst( otnnoip tnrllaor p)s
20% 20% 38% 13% 9% 0% 100% 241.3 243.8
BG 100% 7% 1%44% 38% 0% 10% 26.6 26.6
DK 27% 5% 0%30% 33% 6% 100% 96.2 106.1
DE 100% 6% 0%22% 20% 39% 13% 315.7 320.6
EE 0% 21% 100% 4% 0%65% 10% 32.9 36.2
IE 100%28% 32% 17% 20% 3% 0% 46.9 51.1
EL 100% 5% 0% 19% 5%42% 29% 121.6 152.5
ES 100%37% 24% 28% 4% 6% 0% 416.2 416.2
FR 100% 9% 4% 0%52% 24% 11% 346.2 352.0
IT45% 19% 16% 12% 8% 0% 100% 513.5 526.2
CY 4% 9% 0%33% 22% 32% 100% 7.9 7.9
LV 100%39% 47% 3% 3% 7% 0% 60.1 61.4
LT55% 27% 7% 5% 6% 0% 100% 36.4 36.4
MT 100%46% 20% 22% 10% 2% 0% 3.4 5.5
NL 3% 4% 0%46% 31% 16% 100% 529.4 530.4
PL28% 41% 12% 12% 8% 0% 100% 48.7 48.8
PT 100% 1% 7% 0%46% 27% 19% 64.4 65.3
RO 100% 11% 0%28% 39% 22% 0% 49.8 50.5
SI 100% 0% 8% 0%17% 58% 17% 16.5 16.6
FI 100%32% 29% 11% 15% 13% 0% 111.2 114.7
SE 100% 6%40% 17% 0% 27% 10% 171.2 187.8
UK 100% 4% 0%44% 23% 11% 19% 548.1 562.2
40% 25% 18% 11% 6% 0% 100 3 804.0 3 918.6
37% 49% 6% 3% 6% 0% 100% 25.3 29.2
IS :: : : : : :::
50% 33% 3% 5% 9% 0% 100%170.2 193.4
40% 25% 17% 11% 7% 0% 100 3 999.4 4 141.2

(1) According to Directive 2009/42, “main ports, in termsof transport of goods, are ports handling more than 1 million tonnes of
goods annually (see also methodological notes).
(2) Liquid bulk: Liquefied gas, Crude oil, Oil products, other liquid bulk goods
Dry bulk: Ores, Coal, Agricultural products (e.g. grain, soya, tapioca), other dry bulk goods
Large containers: 20 ft freight units, 40 ft freight units, Freight units > 20 ft and < 40 ft, Freight units > 40 ft
Ro Ro mobile units: a) Mobile self-propelled units: Road goods vehicles and accompanying trailers, Passenger cars,
motorcycles and accompanying trailers/caravans, Passenger buses, Trade vehicles (including
import/export motor vehicles), Live animals on the hoof, Other mobile self-propelled units.
b) Mobile non-self-propelled units: Unaccompanied road goods trailers and semi-trailers, Unaccompanied
caravans and other road, agricultural and industrial vehicles, Rail wagons, shipborne port-to-port trailers,
and shipborne barges engaged in goods transport, Other mobile non-self-propelled units
Other cargo, not elsewhere specified: Forestry products, Iron and steel products, other general cargo.
Source:Eurostatmar_mg_am_cwhc)


⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯

1 Detailed data are available in the maritime transport database, freely accessible on Eurostat web site (see link on page 16)
Statistics in Focus 11/2010

3


In most countries, liquid bulk goods had the highest (41%). For these three countries, dry bulk volumes
share in total goods (Table 2). This share was 65% were mainly coal.
for Estonia (reflecting outward movement of large Container transport was substantial for Germany,
fvoorl uFmraens coef aRndu s5si0a%n foiolr) , N5o5r%w afyo r( dLuite htuoa sniigan, i5fi2ca% Belgium and Cyprus, with a 39%, 38% and 32%
nt share respectively of total goods handled,
vexotlruemmees wofe rNe oSrltoh vSeenai ao (il1)7, %w)h, eBreealsg iaut mth (e2 o0t%he) r and compared with the EU-27 average of 18%.
The share of Ro-Ro units was high for Sweden and
Germany (22%), with the EU-27 average at 40%. Denmark (both 27%). The United Kingdom
Dry bulk goods represented 25% of the total cargo recorded by far the highest tonnage (102 million
hbaulnkd lwede rien hEanUd-l2e7d pboyr ttsh. eL aNregteh eqrulaanntdist,i etsh eo f Udnriyt ed tonnes) for Ro-Ro mobile unit movements, mainly
due to cross-Channel transport.
Kingdom and Spain (162 million, 124 million and Estonia, Finland and Romania had significant
1w0e1r e mdilolimoinn atontn nine st orteaslp gecotoidvse lhya).n dDlreyd binu ltkh eg omoadisn shares of “other cargo (21%, 13% and 11%
respectively), the category that includes, amongst
p2o0r0t6s aonf dS l6o0v%e niina (250807%) , cLoamtvpiaar e(d4 7w%it)h a6n5d %P oilna nd others, forestry products as well as iron and steel
products.

Rotterdam, Antwerp and Hamburg remained the three largest ports, for both the
gross weight of goods ...

Table 3: Top 20 cargo ports in 2008 - on the basis of gross weight of goods handled (in
million tonnes)

1997 200720B0y8Growth Average
Rank Po tBy directiontype of cargo handled (%) rate annual
2008 r * 2007-2008 growth rate
Liquid Ro
rds OutwardsTotalbulk arge
TotalTotalInwagoodsgboDuorlykd sconLtainersMuon ibtRilseo cOantrehgseor, %) ( 7(-%9)90820 1
1Rotterdam (NL)= 294.3303.4 374.2 89.9384.2 2% 2% 22%49% 24%+2.7%+2.2%
2Antwerpen (BE)= 95.8 75.5104.6 165.5171.2 10% 48% 4%23% 16%+3.5%+4.6%
3Hamburg (DE)=69.6 118.2 70.9 48.0118.9 0% 2%13% 22% 62%+0.6%+5.0%
4Marseille (FR)= 19.1 73.492.9 92.692.572% 15% 3% 7% 2%-0.0%-0.0%
5Le Havre (FR)= 56.458.2 73.9 19.275.665% 6% 27% 2% 0%+2.4%+2.4%
6Amsterdam (NL)+136.9 62.5 50.6 23.874.4 4% 4% 1%45% 46%+19.0%+6.6%
7Immingham (UK)-148.0 66.3 49.9 15.465.3 23% 2%38% 35% 2%-1.5%+2.8%
8Algeciras (ES)= 35.2 26.734.2 62.161.936% 3% 2% 57% 2%-0.4%+5.5%
9London (UK)+1 43.955.7 52.7 9.153.039% 27% 16% 14% 4%+0.4%-0.5%
10Bergen (NO)-1: 61.2 41.6 10.752.4 4%91% 4% 0% 0%-14.5%:
11Dunkerque (FR)=36.4 50.2 37.1 13.450.5 15% 0%29% 53% 3%+0.4%+3.0%
12Valencia (ES)+3 28.7 21.516.3 45.950.2 10% 67% 0%12% 10%+9.2%+10.7%
13Taranto (IT)=36.0 49.2 29.8 19.749.515% 50% 11% 5% 18%+0.6%+2.9%
14Bremerhaven (DE)+416.6 43.6 23.1 25.949.0 3% 89% 7%1% 0%+12.2%+10.3%
15Genova (IT)-142.2 48.4 34.2 12.346.5 3% 12% 35%42% 8%-3.9%+0.9%
16Constanta (RO)= 28.0 17.7: 44.945.826% 41% 9% 0% 24%+1.9%:
17Tees & Hartlepool (UK)-551.2 49.8 17.1 28.445.460% 24% 3% 7% 6%-8.7%-1.1%
18Göteborg (SE)+331.3 40.4 22.6 19.742.3 17% 28%54% 0% 0%+4.9%+2.8%
19Barcelona (ES)+122.9 41.0 26.2 15.341.529% 8% 48% 12% 2%+1.2%+5.5%
20Southampton (UK)-333.1 43.8 15.3 25.741.0 0% 21% 3%71% 5%-6.5%+2.0%
Total top 20 ports(1)- 4% +1.4% : 588.8: 1 5% 29% 41% 21% 610.9 1 557.5 053.4 1
EEA-IS+HR (all ports) -: 4 166.1 2 579.0 1 562.2 4 141.2 : -0.6%

* This column indicates the number of positions lost or gained compared to 2007
(1) Information about the ports being part of the top 20 ports during the reference year concerned. The composition of the top 20
changes over time.
Source: Eurostatmar_mg_aa pwhd)
_

In 2008 the top 20 ports accounted for 39% of the addition, Rotterdam is Europe’s largest container
total tonnage of goods handled in the countries port. Rotterdam plays an important role in the
reporting data (EU27 + HR + NO). Rotterdam on transport of products from/to intercontinental
its own accounted for 9% (Table 3). partners like Brazil (mainly inward traffic), South
Most of the cargo handling in Rotterdam involves Africa (mainly inward traffic), the United States
bulk goods such as oil, chemicals, coal and ores. In and the Far East.

4

11/2010 Statistics in Focus

Map 1: Main European cargo ports in 2008(1)by gross weigh

(1) 2006 data for Iceland.

Source: Eurostatmar_mg_aa_pwhd)

The most “specialised port in the top-20 is
Bergen, 91% of cargo handled being “liquid bulk
goods, while Immingham, London and Constanta
have a much more diversified business.
In all of the top 20 ports, inward activity was
prevalent with the exception of Bergen and Tees &

Statistics in Focus 11/2010

t of goods handled

Hartlepool (where the tonnage of outward “crude
oil represented alone 55% and 39% of total
handling respectively) and Bremerhaven (where the
weight of goods in containers is broadly in balance
between inward and outwards).

5

The negative effects of the economic crisis in the
top three EU ports (Rotterdam, Antwerp and
Hamburg) were mainly felt during the 4thquarter of
20081annual results in each case stillbut left the
showing a positive growth in tonnage compared to
2007.
Amsterdam recorded the highest increase in tonnes
handled compared to the previous year (+19%;
“liquid bulk: +34%), following a growth of 10%
in 2007.
In contrast, Bergen registered a substantial 14%
decrease in 2008 following an earlier fall of 10% in
2007. In general, ports more reliant on liquid bulk
goods recorded the largest falls in their activity in
2008. One example is Wilhelmshaven (-5%),
falling out of the top 20 ranking. Against this,
Göteborg, with an increase of +5% in the weight of
goods handled, entered the top 20.
Since 1997, the ports of Valencia and Bremerhaven
have grown on average by +11% and +10% per
year respectively. All top 20 ports for which 1997
data are available registered an increase compared
with 1997, except for the ports of Marseille,
London and Tees & Hartlepool. Apart from
Amsterdam, the ports recording a long term (1997-
2008) average annual growth rate higher than 5%
(Hamburg, Amsterdam, Algeciras, Valencia,
Bremerhaven and Barcelona) are those where
goods in containers was the port’s predominant
activity in 2008.
Map 1 on the previous page shows that half the 20
top ports in 2008 were located on the North Sea
coast2In addition to these, seven other ports,.

which handled more than 20 million tonnes of
goods in 2008, were also located on the North Sea
coast: Wilhelmshaven (DE), Forth (UK),
Zeebrugge (BE), Felixstowe (UK), Gent (BE),
Velsen/Ijmuiden (NL) and Brofjorden Preemraff
(SE).
Six of the top 20 ports are Mediterranean ports (see
map) and there are another nine Mediterranean
ports which handled more than 20 million tonnes of
goods in 2008: Tarragona (ES), Trieste (IT), Gioia
Tauro (IT), Ravenna (IT), Livorno (IT), Venezia
(IT), Porto Foxi (IT), Cartagena (ES) and
Augusta (IT).
Three ports among the top 20 are located on the
Atlantic coast (on the Channel), while nine other
Atlantic ports handled more than 20 million tonnes
of goods: Bilbao (ES), Milford Haven (UK),
Nantes Saint-Nazaire (FR), Liverpool (UK), Sines
(PT), Dover (UK), Rouen (FR), Dublin (IE) and
Huelva (ES).
Constanta (RO) is the only EU port on the Black
sea in the top 20 and handling more than 20 million
tonnes of goods.
None of the 2008 top 20 ports is located on the
Baltic, where seven ports handled more than
20 million tonnes of goods: Tallinn (EE), Riga
(LV), Ventspils (LV), Klaipeda (LT), Sköldvik
(FI), Lübeck (DE) and Rostock (DE).
Denmark and Greece are the two countries with a
high number of medium size ports (handling
between 1 and 20 million tonnes per year) but with
no port above the 20 million tonnes threshold.

and the volume of containers handled.
Table 4 (on page 7) focuses on a specific market Apart from London (which registered a 16% fall in
segment: goods in containers. Here, the movements the 4thquarter of 2008), all these ports recorded a
are expressed in volume terms (TEUs) and not in quite substantial rise in the last quarter of 2008.
weight (tonnes) as in the previous tables. On the other side, the negative results of
Rotterdam and Hamburg, the top two ports, both Southampton (-15%, due mainly to the decrease of
recorded a fall of 1% in 2008 compared to 2007, this activity with Far East ports, especially Hong
largely reflecting the impact of the economic crisis, Kong and Singapore) and Marseille (-15%, mainly
since the fall only began in the 4thquarter of 2008. China and Singapore) are related to a change in the
In contrast, the impact of the economic crisis is less trend which had already started in the second
clear for a number of other ports operating in this quarter of 2008 and reflected mainly changes in the
sector. Some continued to register strong growth port calls made by the large shipping companies
and also, for Marseille, industrial action in the port.
rates in 2008, like Genoa (+19%, due mainly to the
increase of this activity with ports located in Piraeus (EL) left the top 20 in 2008 losing 18
Egypt), Valencia (+18%, mainly Brazil and China), places and registering a decrease in the total
Zeebrugge (+18%; China), London (+15%; Chile) volume of containers handled of around 68%, a
and Bremerhaven (+12%; China, Russia, Brazil). reflection of labour troubles in the port.

1

2

6


For more details please refer to publication "Maritime transport of goods 4thquarter 2008" (see link on page 16)
The definitions of sea regions are available in the publication "In 2007, EU-27 Short Sea Shipping continued growing but at a slower rate"
(see link on page 16). Top 20 ports are named and their handling activity shown as bars in the map.
11/2010 Statistics in Focus

Table 4: Top-20 container ports in 2008 - by volume of containers handled in (1000 TEUs(1))

Growth rate
Ran
2008k Port*20012002200320042005200620072008200(7%-2)008
Total Total Total Total Total Total Total tyTotal empty Total empty
emp
1Rotterdam (NL)= 344 773 2 575 10 195 9 242 9 118 8 505 76 061 6 -5.1% 210 631 -1.3% 224
2Hamburg (DE)= 9 914 1 937 8 084 8 878 6 126 7 0044 665 5 3769 767 1 825 -1.5% -5.8%
3Antwerpen (BE)(2)= 1 225 7 8793 001 153 3 012 4 055 5 221 6 718 6 1 2488 379 +6.3% +1.8%
4Bremerhaven (DE)= 32 945 3 159 3 004 4 696 3 501 479 4 884 6775 451 694 +11.6% +2.5%
5Valencia (ES)(4)+3 049 776 615 3 415 2 2 012 2 156 11 512 2 8263 606 +8.9% 845 +18.3%
6Algeciras (ES)(3) (4)= 970 024 2 732 11 737 184 3 262 3 420 3 590 4763 298 -19.4% -3.6%
7Gioia Tauro (IT)-2 3 835 2 123 606 4642 393 2 883 3 094 3 170 3 -49.0% -8.6% 3093 165
8Felixstowe (UK)-1 2 482 2 682 2 760 2 7172 839 923 030 3 342 3 -10.3% -6.3% 8283 131
9Barcelona (ES)(4)+1 668 606 2 315 2 071 2 1 765 2 0841 404 1 122 -1.6% -1.6% 6572 565
10Le Havre (FR)-11 85 471 -10.6% 421 -6.4%2 512
550 1 754 2 015 2 158 2 144 2 119 2 6
11Southampton (UK)= 435 1 375 1 275 11 213 1 905 576 1 384 1 5021 617 521 -15.1% -9.6%
12Genova (IT)+3 146 1 038 1 230 15 1 591 1 437 11 536 1 499 +66.0% 24 +18.9%1 462
13Constanta (RO)-1 1 867 391 : 467 445 1 170: :1 405 454 -2.7% -2.6%
14Zeebrugge (BE)+2279 329 895 328 458 682 191 1 356 4521 401 +26.9% +17.6%
15Las Palmas (ES)(4)-1 319 296 303 1 222 1 1 111 1 966664 7261 312 +9.9% 325 -0.5%
16La Spezia (IT)+1758 780 176 130 1 836 879 916 1 086 180 +4.9% +2.2%1 186
17London (UK)+3 858 247 743 895 966 765749 875 +21.9% +14.7%983 301
18Marseille (FR)=745 811 1 058 835 920 911 950 149901 142 -14.8% -4.4%
19Bilbao (ES)(4)= 468 498 863447 454 956 233 899894 219 -6.5% -6.0%

20Göteborg (SE)+1 812 841 153624 725 634 722 772 +2.7% +2.0%864 156
Total top 20 ports36 561 105 13 531 64 003 57 491 64 352 47 032 53 141 39 674 43 +0.1% -6.1% 12 302

* This column indicates the number of positions lost or gained compared to 2007
(1) TEU = Twenty-foot Equivalent Unit (unit of volume equivalent to a 20 foot ISO container).
(2) Partial data up to 2nd quarter 2004.
(3) Data for 2004 are underestimated.
(4) Data for the period 2003-2008 are provisional and likely to be revised.
(5) Information about the ports being part of the top 20 ports during the reference year concerned. The composition of the top 20
changes over time.

Source: Eurostatmar_mg_am_pvh)

In 2008, over 60% of EU-27 seaborne goods moved to or from a port outside the
EU. International transport inside the EU accounted for some 25% and national
transport about 10%.
The results shown in Table 5 (page 8) are calculated For example, maritime transport between the EU and
from the statistics provided by main ports for their Nigeria (mainly liquid bulk) increased by 25%
partner ports. Unlike figures shown in the earlier part between 2007 and 2008, while activity with Saudi
of this publication, these statistics do not correspond Arabian ports on the Persian Gulf (again mainly
to the total handling of goods in ports (inwards plus liquid bulk) grew by more than 100%.
outwards, i.e. unloading plus loading), but estimate In contrast, national transport fell in some EU
the tthrandsoploorgti coafl gnoootedss obny pseaag eb e1t5w).e en ports (see countries (for example Italy and Spain). led
me o
In 2008, 63% of EU-27 maritime transport, as sHeoewmes vteor ,h tahvee ostvoepraplel da vgerroawgien dgi sitna 2nc0e0 8tr acvoemlpared to
estimated from the declarations by main ports,
2007. Indeed, early estimates suggest that transport
expressed in tonnes of goods, concerned an extra-EU
demand to/from the main EU-27 ports expressed in
partner port. The globalisation of trade underlines the
tonn w b about ½% to 1½ %
strategic role of maritime transport for the EU (simiel-akrillyo tmo ettrraenss gproert exypressed in tonnes).
economy: it is by far the most important mode for
long distance transport of goods. EThUi sa insd i n“ slihnoer t wdiitsht atnhcee teoxntnraa-gEe iUn cpraertanseerss be t(wsuecehn aths e
The total EU-27 maritime transport was little changed Turkey +9%, Algeria +13%, Russia-Gulf of Finland
(+0.9%) between 2007 and 2008. However, while +6%, Russia-Barents and White Sea +20%, Ukraine
there was a 3% growth in extra-EU tonnages, for +13%) and the corresponding decreases with “long
intra-EU (national and international) transport there distance extra-EU partners (such as China -8%,
was a 2% fall.
South Africa -9%, and Australia -10%).

Statistics in Focus 11/2010 7

Table 5: Seaborne transport of goods between main ports in the reporting country and their
partner ports grouped by main geographical areas (in % of total gross weight of goods
transported)

transport
transport transport growth rate
(millionNational Unknown(millionNational Unknown2007-2008

tonnes)EU-27 EU-27tonnes)EU-27 EU-27(%)
BG 12% 87% 0% 24.9 1% 26.60% 12% 87% 1%+6.7%
DK 20% 53% 23% 89.4 4% 89.1 4%19% 53% 24%-0.4%
DE 43% 56% 0% 306.9 1% 312.8 1%1% 41% 57%+1.9%
EE 1% 65% 33% 2% 41.5 32.8 1%1% 62% 36%-20.9%
IE 48.4 2% 71% 27% 0% 46.02% 72% 25% 0%-5.0%
EL 0% 32% 24% 44% 108.3 100.531% 26% 43% 0%-7.2%
ES 399.4 0% 12% 20% 68% 390.511% 19% 69% 0%-2.2%
FR 3% 31% 59% 7% 333.8 338.4 3%7% 30% 61%+1.4%
IT 443.2 20% 14% 66% 1% 444.118% 16% 64% 2%+0.2%
CY 1% 7.5 16% 25% 59% 7.91% 19% 20% 60%+6.2%
LV 59.5 0% 76% 22% 2% 60.00% 76% 23% 1%+0.8%
LT 1% 53% 46% 0% 29.3 36.4 1%0% 50% 48%+24.4%
MT 0% 0% 78% 22% 3.2 3.40% 75% 25% 0%+4.5%
NL 506.6 0% 1% 30% 69% 529.40% 29% 71% 0%+4.5%
PL 1% 69% 30% 52.0 0% 48.41% 63% 35% 1%-6.9%
PT 0% 13% 32% 55% 60.6 60.0 0%13% 30% 57%-1.0%
RO 10% 63% 27% 48.2 0% 49.80% 12% 76% 13%+3.3%
SI 42% 58% 0% 0% 15.8 16.5 0%0% 41% 59%+4.4%
FI 71% 23% 0% 102.2 6% 105.5 0%6% 69% 25%+3.2%
SE 71% 19% 8% 157.4 2% 161.5 2%8% 69% 21%+2.6%
UK 4% 516.8 17% 45% 34% 497.617% 44% 36% 3%-3.7%
3 081.0 11% 25% 62% 2% 3 108.1 10% 25% 63% 2 +0.9%
HR 29% 62% 1% 8% 23.7 24.47% 29% 63% 0%+2.6%
IS(1):: : : ::: : : ::
(1) 2% 169.8 28% 54% 16% 157.129% 55% 14% 1%-7.4%

(1) The percentages of international intra-EU-27 and extra-EU-27 transport for non-EU-27 countries express the share of total
transport with EU-27 and non-EU-27 countries respectively.
Source: Eurostatmar_ g_ _cwtandmar_mg_am_cwtt)
m am

As Table 5 shows, there are significant variations
between countries. In terms of the share of national
transport, one large group of countries (either
relatively small ones or countries with relatively
limited shorelines) on the one hand had a very low
share (less than 3%) of national transport compared
with the high share for Greece (31%), due to its
numerous islands, followed by Denmark (19%), Italy
(18%) and the United Kingdom (17%). Because of its
very long coastline and “difficult topography
(fjords), Norway also recorded a very high share of
national transport (29%).
For international intra-EU-27, Latvia and Malta stand
out with such transport accounting for more than
75%.

8

Bulgaria (87%) and Romania (76%, excluding
“unknown partners) recorded very high shares of
extra-EU-27 transport in 2008, largely due to their
geographical position. Other countries, the
Netherlands (71%), Spain (69%), Italy (66%), and
Belgium (65%), also recorded high shares of extra-
EU-27 transport along with Croatia, where 63% of
the maritime transport was with non-EU-27 countries
(mainly liquid bulk goods from Russia).
Between 2007 and 2008, Poland registered a
noticeable decrease of the share of intra-EU-27
transport to the benefit of extra-EU-27 transport.
Poland registered a fall of the traffic with Germany
and Denmark and an increase in its traffic with the
United States.

11/2010 Statistics in Focus

Passenger traffic through EU-27 ports in 2008 is estimated at 413 million (a fall of
0.3% compared with 2007).
Three countries Greece (22%), Italy (22%) and Denmark (11%) accounted for
more than half of total passenger movements in EU-27 ports.

Table 6: Number of seaborne passengers embarked and disembarked in all ports (in 1000)

1997 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Growth rate
2007-2008
Total Total Total Total Total Total Total Inwards Outward CruiseT(%)alot
BE 1 125 739 787 922 891 909 396 403 1271 946 672799 -12.2%
BG 8 0: 6 4 6 4 4 13 15 108 -17.8%
DK 342 46 924 48 555 47 653 48 178 48 328 315 329 23 409 23 145 48 4875 928 -3.6%46 657
DE 815 29 490 29 256 30 200 14 485 14 460 721 28 224 29 146 32 222: 33 -4.2%28 945
EE 665 4 546 8 605 0 585 4 9 190: 5 5 136 6 172 8 452 8 6399 190 +6.1%
IE4 380 747 3 893 3 275 3 550 3 225 3 207 3 2 146 962 638 1 470 1 -3.6%3 108
EL(2) (3) 440 90 660 512 45 589 45 90 402 92 423 96 744 86 068 101 210 102 76032 259 -1.4%91 101

ES 11 291 2 186 20 040 437 134 11 167 23 410 22 694 22 041 21 947 2013 939 18 -2.8%22 478
FR 510 26 303 334 804 26 402 27 048 13 479 1333 124 29 110 27 405 27 068 25 -0.9%26 813
IT 45 643 86 970 1 752 44 514 83 316 82 576 85 984 78 753 700 8280 181 88 404 +3.7%90 156
CY 2 74 75 148: 339 287 247 194 228 174150 -13.9%
LV: 23 437 0 118 130 144 217 362 213 223437 +20.7%
LT 0 212: 107 135 146 166 190 212 103 109212 +0.0%
MT: 6 789 103 7 328 7 942 6 250 7 969 3 8 29 802 7 162 4 1038 132 +4.2%
NL(4) 2 2021 964 012 2 015 2 127 2 116 2 : 977 982 871 1 959 1 +4.7%1 959
PL: 3 304 3 188 2 031 1 640 1 2 737 1 456 1 325 0 322 646 22 647 +7.8%
PT(4) 762 :34 502 616 650 662 686 735 382 380762 +3.6%
RO 5 0: 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 25 :
SI 31: 42 47 42 35 30 51 27 23 1850 -3.5%
FI 806 16 112 17 577 16 341 1615 191 40 16 935 8 517 8 458 16 739 16 45016 975 +3.2%
SE 32 318 33 748 32 334 32 617 32 112 3240 949 551 16 662 16 32 705 194 40 +0.3%32 745
UK 207 30 930 29 465 30 658 1436 287 623 35 708 33 837 32 14 897 1 414 28 141 -3.0%29 555
EU-25: 421 141 222 414 423 207 445 205 753 7 384 419 452 413 281 395 546 406 405 115 412 868 -0.3%
(2) 558 7 118 195 052 392 494 384 271 388 359 377 934 196 501 394 -0.6%: 405 400 403 494 397 153
HR 483 21 410 19 182 23 519 22: 18 021 26 13 994 23 050 24 061 12 611 +5.8%26 044
IS : : : : :: 393 407 404 422 433: :
NO 75 327 3 882 2 447 6 280 6 663 6 787 5 656 4 077 6 133: 6 -3.7%6 208
EEA-IS+HR 424 139 435 902 445 290 223 305 221 828 7 856 437 277 445 133 -0.0% 440 763 443 527: 445 634

(1) The increase registered between 2004 and 2005 is partly due to an improvement of the data reporting system.
(2) EL from 1997 to 2001: partial data.
(3) EL: up to 2003 data exclude cruise passenger; the number of passengers excluding cruise passengers is 96 416 in 2004, 85 392
in 2005, 89 973 in 2006, 91 894 in 2007 and 90 440 in 2008.
(4)NL and PT: data exclude cruise passengers.
Source: Eurostatmar_mp_aa_cphandmar_mp_aa_cphd)

The total number of passengers (inwards + Greece (91 million total passengers, embarked and
outwards) who passed through EU-27 ports in 2008 disembarked) and Italy (90 million passengers) are
is estimated at about 413 million (Table 6). the leading countries in sea passenger transport.
-
For the EU27, the total number of passengers cTohnensee cftiigounrse, ss iuncchl uads eP emraaimn an-aPtiaolonualk ifae,r rby
remained largely unchanged (-0.3%) compared to Attica and Salamis Island, and Reggio Caeltawberiean-
2007.
Unlike goods movements in ports (2/3 of goods are TMaebslsei n7a ,o nb eptawgeee 1n 0)m. a inland Italy and Sicily (see also
unloaded and 1/3 loaded), no significant difference
emerges between the number of passengers pGarseseecne greergs isetmerbeadr kae 1d %a ndde dcirseeasmeb ianr ktheed . nAusm ab er of
embarking (“outwards) and disembarking
(“inwards). This reflects the fact that most passenger rceocnosveeqruineng cfer,o Greheec ed iesc rsetialls ea rleognigs tewraeyd fbreotmw een 2003
transport takes place on the main ferry connections and 2005: this md otwnturn was minly explained by the
(where the same passengers are counted in the port a
of both embarkation and disembarkation), with ompaeinnilnagn do fG ar ebercide g(e“ Cbehtawrileaeons t hTrei kPoeluoppisonn bersied gaen)d in
cruise passengers representing less than 2% of the
total number of passengers in EU-27 ports. 2A0n0ti4r,i competing with the ferry connection Rio-
o.
Statistics in Focus 11/2010 9

Denmark, the country with the third highest number The major drop that occurred in some countries
of passengers embarked and disembarked, has seen between 1997 and 20081is mainly explained by the
its total fall by 39% since 1997. Denmark has opening and progressive use of new alternatives to
numerous ferry connections both between its various sea routes. In addition to the mentioned “Charilaos
islands, and with Germany, Sweden and Norway. The Trikoupis and “Great Belt bridges, the following
fall largely reflected the opening of the “Great Belt cases can be listed: the Øresund bridge (2000)
bridge in 1997 (rail) 1998 (road) connecting its two connecting Sweden with Denmark and the Channel
main islands (Sjælland and Fyn) and the Tunnel (1994). Another factor has been the rapid
corresponding closure of the ferry link between growth of low cost flights. The same explanations
Korsør and Nyborg (both ports recorded more than 8 apply to the major changes in the top-20 passenger
million passengers in 1997). ports' statistics (see below).


Table 7: Top-20 passenger ports in 2008 - on the basis of number of passengers embarked and
disembarked (in 1000)

2008 Growth
R20a0n8k PortSea199720042005200620072007-2008 groanwtnhu raal te
* rate
Total Total Total Total Total Inwards OutwardsTotal (%) 1997-2008
21 236 14 429 13 501 13 987 14 433 6 911 7 095
-3.7%
2 Mediter.Paloukia Salaminas (EL)=: 11 11 568 11 663 13 981 518 6 546 6 066 -0.013 063:
3 Mediter.Perama (EL)= 518 6 546 6 13 066 11 981 11 663: 11 56813 063 -0.0:
4Piraeus EL(1)Mediter.+18 707 10 713 11 730 11 539 11 076 5 349 5 063 +0.111 079+2.2%
5 AtlanticCalais (FR)-1 450 11 695 11 460 5 519 5 552 259 1120 060 13 -4.511 002-5.3%
6 BalticHelsingør (Elsinore) (DK)=13 302 11 612 11 966 5 461 5 023 10 721 10 45110 912 -0.5-1.8%
7Helsingborg (SE) Baltic= 447 5 966 5 776 10 102 10 465 1113 397 11 80810 911 -0.5-1.8%

8 Mediter.Messina (IT)= 1011 157 128 9 802 10 834 10 603 5 254 5 12610 380 -2.1-0.7%
9Reggio Di Calabria (IT) Mediter.= 645 10 992 9 336 4 669 10 142 975 5 911 00010 116 -2.1-0.8%
10 BalticHelsinki (FI)= 88 146 4 520 455 8 548 4 561 8 747 8 854 +4.88 976+0.9%

11 BalticStockholm (SE)= 352 4 325 4 127 8 054 8 211 8 823 77 499 +6.88 677+1.3%
12 Mediter.Capri (IT)+4 3 421 3 629 540 44 995 3 771 4 860 5 940 +32.37 169+3.3%
13Tallinn (EE) Baltic+2 450 3 420 6 701 6 452 3 220 6 447: 6 +106 870
.5:
14 BalticPuttgarden (DE)-2 3 346 7 069 3 422: 6 741 6 789 6 7606 768 -4.3:
15 BalticRødby (Færgehavn) (DK)-2 7 058 3 378 3 3785 975 6 744 6 761 6 7896 756 -4.3+1.1%
16 Mediter.Napoli (IT)-2 3 033 3 153 6 598 6 804 6 084 6 8017 2776 185 -6.3-1.5%
(2)
17Palma de Mallorca (ES) Mediter.= 2 531 2 517 4 942 5 275907 3 773 4 6115 048 -4.3+16.9%
18 Mediter.Piombino (IT)+22 678 277 3 702 3 982 3 948 3 576 2 460 2 +26.55 036+5.9%
19Algeciras (ES)(2)Mediter.-1 227 2 448 2 540 43 528 4 605 5 828 5 1664 988 -4.6+3.2%
20(2)Atlantic-1 092 098 2 592 2 343 4 4 564 4 164 53 9804 191 -8.7+0.5%
Total top 20 ports 717 170 149 174181 135 100 166 198 175 : +0.6 320 87 878 87
EEA+HR (all ports)440 763 424 139 : 435 902 : : : : :
441 167 424 561 436 335 445 290 223 305 221 828 445 133

* This column indicates the number of positions lost or gained compared to 2007
(1) In 1997 data exclude cruise passengers; the number of passengers excluding cruise passengers is 10 584 in 2004, 10 458 in
2005, 11 204 in 2006, 10 697 in 2007 and 10 611 in 2008.
(2) Data for the period 2003-2008 are provisional and likely to be revised.
(3) Information about the ports being part of the top 20 ports during the reference year concerned. The composition of the top 20
changes over time.
Source: Eurostatmar_mp_aa_pphd)

In 2008, there were 5 Italian, 3 Greek and 3 are Mediterranean (see Table 7), seven ports are
Spanish ports amongst the top 20 passenger ports located on the Baltic coast and the remaining three
(Table 7). Denmark and Sweden had two ports ports are situated on the Atlantic coast (including the
each in the top 20, and Germany, Estonia, France, Channel).
Finland and the United Kingdom are represented Ten of the twenty ports in Table 7 registered a clear
by 1 port each. There were two additional Greek decline in the total number of passengers between
ports in the list, Rio and Antirio, which registered a 2007 and 2008; the largest being 9% for Santa Cruz
dramatic fall (from 14 million passengers in 2002- de Tenerife. The three Greek orts r
2003 to only about 2 million since 2005) due to the The most significant increases ipn the teotmala innuemd bstear bolfe .
previously mentioned opening of the “Charilaos passengers between 2007 and 2008 have been
Trikoupis bridge between the Corinth Gulf and the re
Patraikos Gulf in 2004. This fact on its own largely gistered by two Italian ports: Capri (3d2a% s)i annd

explains the fall in the total number of passengers for iPnicoremabsien (o 1(026%)%. ). Tallinn also registeregificant
the top 20 ports between 2004 and 2005. Helsingborg and Helsingør, connected by a frequent
Ten of the ports amongst the top 20 passenger ports ferry link, remained relatively unchanged compared

⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯

1 Only very partial data are available for Greece for the period 1997 to 2001.
10 11/2010 Statistics in Focus