Cet ouvrage fait partie de la bibliothèque YouScribe
Obtenez un accès à la bibliothèque pour le lire en ligne
En savoir plus

European green city index. Assessing the environmental impact of Europe's major cities.

51 pages
Les villes européennes sont-elles "vertes " ? Cette étude mesure la performance environnementale de trente grandes villes européennes et évalue leur engagement à réduire leur impact sur l'environnement. Elle cherche à mettre en évidence les difficultés, les points forts et les points faibles de chaque ville et à souligner les initiatives particulièrement innovantes qui pourraient servir d'exemples.
Munich. http://temis.documentation.developpement-durable.gouv.fr/document.xsp?id=Temis-0066017
Voir plus Voir moins

European Green City Index
Assessing the environmental impact of Europe’s major cities
A research project conducted by the Economist Intelligence Unit, sponsored by SiemensEuropean Green City Index | Contents
06 Executive summary City portraits 40 Amsterdam, Netherlands 70 London, United Kingdom
42 Athens, Greece 72 Madrid, Spain10 The results
44 Belgrade, Serbia 74 Oslo, Norway
12 Analysis of city trends
46 Berlin, Germany 76 Paris, FranceWealth matters
History matters: infrastructure and attitudes 48 Bratislava, Slovakia 78 Prague, Czech Republic
People matter
50 Brussels, Belgium 80 Riga, LatviaSize matters — at first
Europe matters: money and culture 52 Bucharest, Romania 82 Rome, Italy
Location matters
Looking ahead: implementing sustainable cities 54 Budapest, Hungary 84 Sofia, Bulgaria
56 Copenhagen, Denmark 86 Stockholm, Sweden22 Lessons from the leaders
CO emissions2 58 Dublin, Ireland 88 Tallinn, Estonia
60 Helsinki, Finland 90 Vienna, AustriaTransport
Waste 62 Istanbul, Turkey 92 Vilnius, Lithuania
64 Kiev, Ukraine 94 Warsaw, PolandAn interview with Ritt Bjerregaard, Lord Mayor of Copenhagenerview with Vilius Navickas, Mayor of Vilnius 66 Lisbon, Portugal 96 Zagreb, Croatia
36 Methodology 68 Ljubljana, Slovenia 98 Zurich, Switzerland
2 3European Green City Index | The cities
The cities
Helsinki, Finland
Oslo, Norway
Stockholm, Sweden Tallinn, Estonia
Riga, Latvia
Copenhagen, Denmark
Vilnius, Lithuania
Dublin, Ireland
The European Green City Index measures
and rates the environmental performance
of 30 leading European cities from Amsterdam, Netherlands
Berlin, Germany Warsaw, Poland
London, United Kingdom
30 European countries. It takes into account
Kiev, Ukraine30 individual indicators per city, touching Brussels, Belgium
on a wide range of environmental areas, Prague, Czech Republic
Paris, Francefrom environmental governance and water
Bratislava, Slovakia
consumption to waste management and Vienna, Austria
Budapest, Hungary
greenhouse gas emissions. Zurich, Switzerland
Ljubljana, Slovenia
Zagreb, Croatia
Bucharest, Romania
Belgrade, Serbia
Sofia, Bulgaria
Rome, Italy
Madrid, Spain
Istanbul, Turkey
Lisbon, Portugal
Athens, Greece
4 5European Green City Index | Executive summary
Executive summary
Why cities matter: More than one-half of the ways, from increased use of public transport due stability, with only the Balkan wars breaking the ernment to modify their actions or policies. In back on the methodology. This study is not the
world’s population now lives in urban areas, but to greater population density to smaller city general peace of recent decades. Moreover, citi- particular, increased costs or taxes are usually first comparison of the environmental impact of
they are blamed for producing as much as 80% dwellings that require less heating and lighting. zen awareness of the importance of protecting met with scepticism, if not hostility. In the cur- European cities, nor does it seek to supplant
of humanity’s greenhouse gas emissions. Fur- Many European cities have demonstrated their the environment and of green objectives has rent financial situation, this difficulty may well other worthwhile initiatives, such as the Euro-
thermore, increasing urbanisation can negative- commitment to reducing their environmental markedly increased in recent years. This is boost- grow. Although many green technologies help pean Urban Ecosystem Survey or the European
ly impact everything from the availability of impact by joining the Covenant of Mayors, a ed in part by a growing body of environmentally to reduce costs in the long run, immediate finan- Green Capital Award. Instead, its value lies in the
arable land and vital green spaces to potable European Commission initiative launched in focussed EU legislation. cial concerns may impede the greater upfront breadth of information provided and in the form
water and sanitary waste disposal facilities. Liv- January 2008 that asks mayors to commit to cut- But even in environmentally conscious investment which they also frequently require. in which it is presented. The index takes into
ing in such close proximity tends to intensify ting carbon emissions by at least 20% by 2020. Europe, problems abound. Across the cities account 30 individual indicators per city that
thedemands that urban settlements impose on This is encouraging the creation — often for the profiled in this report, an average of one in How the study was conducted: To aid efforts touch on a wide range of environmental areas
their surrounding environments. very first time — of a formal plan for how cities three residents drive to work, contributing to and understanding in this field, the European — from environmental governance and water
It is clear, then, that cities must be part of the can go about reducing their carbon impact, increased CO emissions and general air pollu- Green City Index seeks to measure and rate the consumption to waste management and green-2
solution if an urbanising world is to grapple suc- which bodes well for the future. tion. The average proportion of renewable ener- environmental performance of 30 leading Euro- house gas emissions — and ranks cities using a
cessfully with ecological challenges such as cli- Of course, environmental performance gy consumed is just 7.3%, a long way short of pean cities both overall and across a range of transparent, consistent and replicable scoring
mate change. In concentrated urban areas, it is inevitably varies from city to city, but some the EU’s stated goal of increasing the share of specific areas. In so doing, it offers a tool to process. The relative scores assigned to individ-
possible for environmental economies of scale encouraging trends are emerging. Of the 30 renewable energy usage to 20% by 2020. Nearly enhance the understanding and decision-mak- ual cities (for performance in specific categories,
to reduce the impact of human beings on the diverse European cities covered by this study, one in four litres of water consumed by cities is ing abilities of all those interested in environ- as well as overall) is also unique to the index and
earth. This has already started to happen in nearly all had lower carbon dioxide (CO ) emis- lost through leakage. And less than one fifth of mental performance, from individual citizens allows for direct comparison between cities.2
Europe. According to the UN Population Divi- sions per head than the overall EU27 average of overall waste is currently recycled. Moreover, through to leading urban policymakers. The Of course, numbers alone only give part of
1sion, 72% of the continent’s population is urban 8.46 tonnes . Part of this success comes from encouraging environmentally helpful behav- methodology was developed by the Economist the picture. To complement the core data within
but the European Environment Agency (EEA) several advantages which European urban areas ioural change is not a straightforward matter: Intelligence Unit in co-operation with Siemens. the index, this study also seeks to provide con-
says that its cities and towns account for just share. Compared to other regions of the world, cities often have little leverage to induce citi- An independent panel of urban sustainability text, with in-depth city portraits that not only
69% of energy use. This is achieved in a range of the continent has enjoyed remarkable political zens, companies, or even other levels of gov- experts provided important insights and feed- explain the challenges, strengths and weakness-
6 1) Based on the most recently available data, the majority of which was for 2006-07. 7European Green City Index | Executive summary
es of each city, but also highlight emerging best also face the legacy of history, dealing with scale, such as district heating or large public trans- Copenhagen, Stockholm and Amsterdam fea-
practice and innovative ideas that others might decades of environmental neglect during the port networks, come into their own. According- tured in the top places in both lists, whereas
wish to emulate. communist period. This is most visible in the ly, the index’s larger cities, with populations of 3 Bucharest and Sofia fared poorly in both.Key findingsThe index also differs from other studies in poorly insulated concrete-slab mass housing that million or more, perform relatively well, general-
the fact that it is independently researched, was widely used, as well as the remains of highly ly occupying the top half of the rankings. Berlin The complete results from the index, includ-
rather than being reliant on voluntary submis- polluting heavy industry. Although many have does best overall (8th), followed closely by Paris ing both overall rankings and individual rank-
sions from city governments. This has enabled Highlights of the 2009 European Green unsurprising: wealthier cities can invest more innovative ideas regarding specific environmen- (10th), London (11th) and Madrid (12th). This ings within the eight sub-categories, follows
us to cover 30 main cities — either political or City Index include the following: heavily in energy-efficient infrastructure and tal initiatives, such as a “lottery” in Ljubljana that isn’t universal, though: Athens (22nd) and Istan- next. For insights into what some of the leading
business capitals — from 30 European countries. afford specialist environmental managers, for promotes the sorting of waste for recycling, bul (25th) both perform relatively poorly. cities have done to top the rankings within indi-
The goal of the index is to allow key stake- Nordic cities dominate the index top tier. example. Wealth isn’t everything, however: some these cities must also balance with other press- vidual categories, specific case studies are avail-
holder groups — such as city administrators, Copenhagen leads the index overall, coming individual cities punch above their weight within ing issues, ranging from unemployment and Cities with an active civil society perform well able from page 22. Finally, detailed insights into
policymakers, infrastructure providers, environ- marginally ahead of Stockholm, while third- individual sub-categories: low-income Vilnius, for economic growth to informal settlements. in the index. Although it was beyond the scope the individual performances of all 30 cities
mental non-governmental organisations (NGOs), place Oslo rounds out a trio of Scandinavian example, leads the air quality category; while of this study to measure specific citizen engage- included in the European Green City Index are
urban sustainability experts, and citizens — to cities on the medal podium. Fellow Nordic capi- Berlin, with a relatively low GDP per head, tops The index shows little overall correlation ment in environmental issues, a strong correla- available within the city portraits section of this
compare their city’s performance against others tal Helsinki follows in seventh place. Vienna, the buildings category and is ranked eighth overall. between city size and performance. However, tion exists between high-performing cities in report, starting on page 40. These explore both
overall, and within each category. The index also Amsterdam and Zurich occupy fourth, fifth and the leading cities in both the East and the West this index and other independent studies that the current status within each city on all eight
allows for comparisons across cities clustered by sixth places, respectively. Among east European cities (which also rep- do tend to be smaller, with populations of less than explore the strength of civil society in European categories, while also highlighting past, current
a certain criteria, such as geographic region or resent the low-income cities of the index, with 1 million. To some degree, this makes sense: physi - countries. The rank of a country in the voluntary and planned future initiatives to improve their
income group. In short, this tool is provided in There is a strong correlation between wealth GDP per head below €21,000), Vilnius performs cally smaller cities make it easier for people to participation of citizens in organisations—from relative performance. The wealth and diversity
the hope that it will help European cities move and a high overall ranking on the index. Nine of best of all, ranked in 13th place. It is followed cycle or walk to work, for example. However, religious groups to professional and charitable of initiatives detailed here provide encouraging
towards being a bigger part of the solution to cli- the top 10 cities in the index have a GDP per most closely by Riga, in 15th place. The rest of wealth, and more importantly experience, can bodies — was a strong predictor of the perfor- insights into the current directions that Europe’s
mate change and other environmental chal- head (measured at purchasing power parity, the east European cities rank at the bottom of overcome the difficulties of size as policies that mance of that country’s main city in the Euro- main cities are taking and their varying paths
lenges. PPP) of more than €31,000. In many ways, this is the index. The wealth divide aside, these cities take advantage of environmental economies of pean Green City Index. Of the applicable cities, towards a more sustainable future.
8 More detailed city portraits can be found at www.siemens.com/greencityindex 9European Green City Index | The results
The results
Overall CO Energy Buildings Transport Water Waste and Air quality Environmental2
land use governance
City Score City Score City Score City Score City Score City Score City Score City Score City Score
1 Copenhagen 87,31 1Oslo 9,58 1Oslo 8,71 =1 Berlin 9,44 1 Stockholm 8,81 1 Amsterdam 9,21 1 Amsterdam 8,98 1 Vilnius 9,37 =1 Brussels 10,00
2 Stockholm 86,65 2 Stockholm 8,99 2 Copenhagen 8,69 =1 Stockholm 9,44 2 Amsterdam 8,44 2 Vienna 9,13 2 Zurich 8,82 2 Stockholm 9,35 =1 Copenhagen 10,00
3 Oslo 83,98 3 Zurich 8,48 3 Vienna 7,76 3Oslo 9,22 3 Copenhagen 8,29 3 Berlin 9,12 3 Helsinki 8,69 3 Helsinki 8,84 =1 Helsinki 10,00
4 Vienna 83,34 4 Copenhagen 8,35 4 Stockholm 7,61 4 Copenhagen 9,17 4 Vienna 8,00 4 Brussels 9,05 4 Berlin 8,63 4 Dublin 8,62 =1 Stockholm 10,00
5 Amsterdam 83,03 5 Brussels 8,32 5 Amsterdam 7,08 5 Helsinki 9,11 5Oslo 7,92 =5 Copenhagen 8,88 5 Vienna 8,60 5 Copenhagen 8,43 =5 Oslo 9,67
6 Zurich 82,31 6 Paris 7,81 6 Zurich 6,92 6 Amsterdam 9,01 6 Zurich 7,83 =5 Zurich 8,88 6Oslo 8,23 6 Tallinn 8,30 =5 Warsaw 9,67
The complete 7 Helsinki 79,29 7Rome 7,57 7Rome 6,40 7 Paris 8,96 7 Brussels 7,49 7Madrid 8,59 7 Copenhagen 8,05 7Riga 8,28 =7 Paris 9,44
8 Berlin 79,01 8 Vienna 7,53 8 Brussels 6,19 8 Vienna 8,62 8 Bratislava 7,16 8 London 8,58 8 Stockholm 7,99 8 Berlin 7,86 =7 Vienna 9,44
results from the 9 Brussels 78,01 9Madrid 7,51 9 Lisbon 5,77 9 Zurich 8,43 9 Helsinki 7,08 9 Paris 8,55 9 Vilnius 7,31 9 Zurich 7,70 9 Berlin 9,33
10 Paris 73,21 10 London 7,34 10 London 5,64 10 London 7,96 =10 Budapest 6,64 10 Prague 8,39 10 Brussels 7,26 10 Vienna 7,59 10 Amsterdam 9,11
index, including 11 London 71,56 11 Helsinki 7,30 11 Istanbul 5,55 11 Lisbon 7,34 =10 Tallinn 6,64 11 Helsinki 7,92 11 London 7,16 11 Amsterdam 7,48 11 Zurich 8,78
12 Madrid 67,08 12 Amsterdam 7,10 12 Madrid 5,52 12 Brussels 7,14 12 Berlin 6,60 12 Tallinn 7,90 12 Paris 6,72 12 London 7,34 12 Lisbon 8,22
the overall result 13 Vilnius 62,77 13 Berlin 6,75 13 Berlin 5,48 13 Vilnius 6,91 13 Ljubljana 6,17 13 Vilnius 7,71 13 Dublin 6,38 13 Paris 7,14 =13 Budapest 8,00
14 Rome 62,58 14 Ljubljana 6,67 14 Warsaw 5,29 14 Sofia 6,25 14 Riga 6,16 14 Bratislava 7,65 14 Prague 6,30 14 Ljubljana 7,03 =13 Madrid 8,00
of each city as 15 Riga 59,57 15 Riga 5,55 15 Athens 4,94 15 Rome 6,16 15 Madrid 6,01 15 Athens 7,26 15 Budapest 6,27 15 Oslo 7,00 =15 Ljubljana 7,67
16 Warsaw 59,04 16 Istanbul 4,86 16 Paris 4,66 16 Warsaw 5,99 16 London 5,55 =16 Dublin 7,14 16 Tallinn 6,15 16 Brussels 6,95 =15 London 7,67
well as the indi - 17 Budapest 57,55 =17 Athens 4,85 17 Belgrade 4,65 17 Madrid 5,68 17 Athens 5,48 =16 Stockholm 7,14 17 Rome 5,96 17 Rome 6,56 17 Vilnius 7,33
18 Lisbon 57,25 =17 Budapest 4,85 18 Dublin 4,55 18 Riga 5,43 18 Rome 5,31 18 Budapest 6,97 18 Ljubljana 5,95 18 Madrid 6,52 18 Tallinn 7,22
vidual rankings 19 Ljubljana 56,39 19 Dublin 4,77 19 Helsinki 4,49 19 Ljubljana 5,20 =19 Kiev 5,29 19 Rome 6,88 19 Madrid 5,85 19 Warsaw 6,45 19 Riga 6,56
20 Bratislava 56,09 20 Warsaw 4,65 20 Zagreb 4,34 20 Budapest 5,01 =19 Paris 5,29 20 Oslo 6,85 20 Riga 5,72 20 Prague 6,37 20 Bratislava 6,22
within the eight 21 Dublin 53,98 21 Bratislava 4,54 21 Bratislava 4,19 21 Bucharest 4,79 =19 Vilnius 5,29 21 Riga 6,43 21 Bratislava 5,60 21 Bratislava 5,96 =21 Athens 5,44
22 Athens 53,09 22 Lisbon 4,05 22 Riga 3,53 22 Athens 4,36 =19 Zagreb 5,29 22 Kiev 5,96 22 Lisbon 5,34 22 Budapest 5,85 =21 Dublin 5,44
categories. 23 Tallinn 52,98 23 Vilnius 3,91 23 Bucharest 3,42 23 Bratislava 3,54 23 Istanbul 5,12 23 Istanbul 5,59 23 Athens 5,33 23 Istanbul 5,56 =23 Kiev 5,22
24 Prague 49,78 24 Bucharest 3,65 24 Prague 3,26 24 Dublin 3,39 24 Warsaw 5,11 24 Lisbon 5,42 24 Warsaw 5,17 24 Lisbon 4,93 =23 Rome 5,22
25 Istanbul 45,20 25 Prague 3,44 25 Budapest 2,43 25 Zagreb 3,29 25 Lisbon 4,73 25 Warsaw 4,90 25 Istanbul 4,86 25 Athens 4,82 25 Belgrade 4,67
26 Zagreb 42,36 26 Tallinn 3,40 26 Vilnius 2,39 26 Prague 3,14 26 Prague 4,71 26 Zagreb 4,43 26 Belgrade 4,30 26 Zagreb 4,74 26 Zagreb 4,56
27 Belgrade 40,03 27 Zagreb 3,20 27 Ljubljana 2,23 27 Belgrade 2,89 27 Sofia 4,62 27 Ljubljana 4,19 27 Zagreb 4,04 27 Bucharest 4,54 27 Prague 4,22
28 Bucharest 39,14 28 Belgrade 3,15 28 Sofia 2,16 28 Istanbul 1,51 28 Bucharest 4,55 28 Bucharest 4,07 28 Bucharest 3,62 28 Belgrade 4,48 28 Sofia 3,89
29 Sofia 36,85 29 Sofia 2,95 29 Tallinn 1,70 29 Tallinn 1,06 29 Belgrade 3,98 29 Belgrade 3,90 29 Sofia 3,32 29 Sofia 4,45 29 Istanbul 3,11
30 Kiev 32,33 30 Kiev 2,49 30 Kiev 1,50 30 Kiev 0,00 30 Dublin 2,89 30 Sofia 1,83 30 Kiev 1,43 30 Kiev 3,97 30 Bucharest 2,67
10 11European Green City Index | Analysis of city trends
Analysis of city trends
he European Green City Index makes an urban Europe where most economic growth is their less wealthy peers. To give but one exam- Helsinki’s Air Protection Group, “but it is possible
The link between wealth Teffort to quantify and compare environmen- oriented towards services-led industries. Here, ple, two of the three cities that lack even a basic to do quite a lot without having to pay more.”
tal performance. Analysing the results more an increase in average output per person of environmental plan are also two of the three She notes that energy efficiency, for example, and environmental performance
deeply reveals relationships and factors which €1,000 seems to yield a gain of two-thirds of a poorest. can save money and cut emissions. Similarly,
help to explain why some cities are more suc- point in a city’s overall index score — a relation- “Money is extremely important,” says Pedro Guttorm Grundt, Environment Coordinator in
cessful in a range of environmental areas than ship that on its own explains up to two-thirds of Ballesteros Torres, principal administrator at the Oslo’s Department of Transport, Environment
100 European Green City Index Score
others. In particular, the data strongly suggest the variance between cities. European Commission’s Directorate-General for and Business, agrees that Oslo’s relative wealth
the following key correlations: At an infrastructure level, the link is obvious. Energy and Transport and in charge of the helps, but notes that measures such as eco-certi- actual90
Copenhagenfitted StockholmHigh-quality green infrastructure typically Covenant of Mayors. “Normally, the most fication are not expensive, and that the city’s
Vienna OsloAmsterdam
Wealth matters: The European Green City involves up-front costs that wealthier govern- advanced cities in environmental terms in own efforts to lead by example in increasing the 80 ZurichBerlin HelsinkiBrussels
Index shows a close correlation between wealth ments can better afford. Conversely, poorer Europe are also the richest. When you have a efficiency of buildings and vehicles “is saving us
Paris Londonand overall performance. cities must simultaneously grapple with a wider good infrastructure, it is easier to implement money, together with reducing consumption 70
This link is not only evident in infrastructure, range of development issues, from unemploy- things.” and waste.” Mr Grundt adds that the link may be Vilnius RomeRiga
60 Warsawbut also in policy: richer cities appear more ment levels to growing informal settlements, It need not be this way. As the city portraits indirect. A relatively wealthy place like Oslo does Budapest Lisbon
Bratislava Ljubljanaambitious with their goals. which can easily distract from a green agenda. later in this report show, Berlin, with only a mid- not have certain policy concerns – there are no DublinTallinn Athens
50 PragueOne of the closest correlations in the data But a further finding is that the link between level GDP per capita, has a score that benefits slums for example – which poorer cities need to
Istanbulcollected for the index is that between the GDP GDP and the policy indicators within the index from advanced policy in various areas, and War- address, drawing on time and resources which Belgrade Zagreb
40 Bucharestper head of cities and their overall score — an (which track environmental action plans and saw, while in the bottom half of the wealth richer peers might use elsewhere.
aggregate figure between 0 and 100 reflecting public participation in green policy, among table, is ranked in joint-fifth place in the environ- The tie between money and environmental Kiev
performance across all the environmental indi- other things) is statistically even stronger. In mental governance category. Moreover, while performance, however, looks set to grow GDP
per person cators measured. Although greater pollution is other words, wealthier cities are not only able to costs may constrain certain policy options, they stronger as a result of the current economic (Euros)20
often associated with economic development, afford more sustainable infrastructure, they are do not do so in general. “Money is in some ways downturn. Ms Väkevä notes that even relatively 10,000 20,000 30,000 40,000 50,000 60,000 70,000 80,000
at least in early stages, the reverse holds true in also setting more ambitious policy goals than very difficult,” admits Outi Väkevä, part of well-off Helsinki has little money to devote to
12 13European Green City Index | Analysis of city trends
the expansion of current environmental efforts. ronmental effect from the former divide that is the mirror image of the east. As the city in the index’s building category — has had tively on the environment choices. For example, citizen engagement and environmental perfor-
The city portraits for this report note specifically between East and West. Thirteen of the top 15 portraits note, Copenhagen has been taking tremendous success in retrofitting housing many eastern urban areas — including the top mance.
that cities as far apart as Dublin, Budapest and index performers are in western Europe; 11 of environmental issues and sustainable energy stock, including nearly halving the energy use of five performers in this metric — score highly in Good environmental results generally do not
Belgrade are likely to scale back because of cur- the bottom 15 were part of the old eastern bloc. seriously since the oil shock of the 1970s; Stock- 273,000 concrete-slab buildings in the eastern the index on the number of people taking public happen by chance. European governments, for
rent economic troubles, and others will doubt- Aside from the wealth divide, this also has to holm also has a long tradition, and is now on its part of the city. Looking forward, Oslo’s efforts transport to work while Copenhagen, Stock- example, have had to regulate private carbon
less be doing so as well. It remains to be seen do with legacy. As the city portraits show, sixth consecutive environmental plan. to provide charging points for electric cars and holm and Oslo are amongst the lowest scorers. use through carbon trading because existing
how cities will balance maximising the benefits various eastern cities are still dealing with the As with wealth, history has a variety of Vienna’s to promote vehicles that run on natural This superior eastern performance, however, economic markets did not price the negative
of enhanced environmental performance while fallout from decades of environmental neglect impacts, some less obvious than others. Infra- gas are both creative ways to use existing infra- seems less a result of enlightened environmen- externalities of carbon emission. Even with such
minimising the financial costs in the near term. during the communist period: for example, even structure — whether building stock, transport structure — in this case roads — in a more envi- tal choice than a lack of alternatives, and there efforts, green choices sometimes still have a
though polluting industries have mostly disap- facilities, or water pipes — develops over the ronmentally friendly way. are signs that the balance may be shifting. higher price tag than other options, especially in
History matters: infrastructure and attitudes: peared in the face of market competition, poorly long term, and is hard to change quickly. More difficult to change than the physical Bratislava is a case in point. The city has the the short term. Moreover, city administrations,
Cities in eastern Europe have a tougher chal- insulated, concrete-slab, mass housing remains. Longevity of systems does not seem to matter so environment are the attitudes and aspirations of highest share of people taking public transport on their own, have relatively limited power. The
lenge to overcome, in terms of their relatively In Belgrade’s case, its relatively recent interna- much as upkeep. individual citizens. With so much of a city’s envi- to work but has also seen a surge in newly regis- sum of the individual decisions of their residents
aged and inefficient infrastructure. tional isolation — it was embargoed for years For example, Vienna’s and Ljubljana’s water ronmental performance reliant on how its resi- tered cars in the last decade. Tallinn, Zagreb, — from actions such as choosing to insulate
Historical attitudes and aspirations are also and eventually bombed in 1999 — only adds to systems both date back to the late 1800s, but dents act individually, in groups and as a whole, Ljubljana, and Prague all have similar news, and their homes, to opting to commute to work via
difficult to overcome. For example, the adop- the difficulty. Similarly, certain bureaucratic the former city comes in second in the water cat- winning hearts and minds is crucial (see next the Mayor of Vilnius cites this increased car public transport — have a deeper impact on the
tion of consumer culture in the East has led, habits can also outlive the transition to democ- egory, and the latter 27th. Whatever the diffi- section). Accordingly, one area of concern is usage as his city's leading environmental chal- environment than an army of policies. Accord-
understandably, to greater demand for vehicles. racy. “People (in the east) are ready to learn and culties — practical and financial — of upgrading how the legacy of suppressed demand in the lenge. ing to a 2008 report produced by Siemens in
Twenty years ago, the Berlin wall fell and change things quickly, but the inertia is quite physical assets, however, infrastructure age is countries of eastern Europe, after decades of conjunction with McKinsey & Company and the
2Europe moved toward binding the wounds heavy,” argues Mr Ballesteros Torres. certainly not decisive. Co pen hagen’s buildings, being economically less well off than their west- People matter: The individual decisions of Economist Intelligence Unit , about three-quar-
inflicted from a turbulent century. While there On the other hand, if three Nordic cities are for example, are among the most energy-effi- ern neighbours, may play out. As these commu- cities’ inhabitants are, collectively, more power- ters of the existing technological changes that
has been much progress on the political and jostling each other for the overall leading posi- cient anywhere, even though only 7% were built nities get wealthier, some citizens may use new- ful than their governments’ ability to intervene. would help London to meet its long-term carbon
economic levels, there remains a marked envi- tion in the index, it is because they have a legacy in the last 20 years, and Berlin — the joint leader found wealth to make choices that impact nega- Accordingly, there is a correlation between reduction targets depended on the decisions of
14 2) Sustainable Urban Infrastructure: London Edition – a view to 2025, Siemens AG, 2008. 15European Green City Index | Analysis of city trends
citizens or companies, not of governments. As a meetings or contacting officials). Twenty-three poorer performance. Each additional 120,000 slightly more likely to have people walk or cycle
Comparison of rankings: EFILWC Voluntary result, the engagement of individuals with soci- of the countries in these indices contain cities inhabitants correlates, approximately, with a to work — the average distance obviously being
eties around them — or the strength of civil soci- that are included in the European Green City score that is one point lower less in a physically smaller place. Even here,Participation Index and European Green City Index
ety in a city — has a strong link to environmental Index. A comparison between these indices Greater city size could be either a drawback however, the correlation is weak.
performance. yields two interesting findings. The first is a rela- or an advantage in this index. All things being Looking at eastern and western cities sepa-
This link is underscored by comparing the tively low correlation between the level of politi- equal, a given environment should be able to rately, however, it becomes clearer that small
results of the European Green City Index with an cal participation and a city’s environmental per- handle the emissions and activities of a million urban areas have some advantage. The highestBest Rank (European Green City Index) Copenhagen
Stockholmindependent report from the European Founda- formance. The second is a high correlation people more easily than those of ten million — scores in the survey overall, belong to smaller
tion for the Improvement of Living and Working between voluntary participation and a city’s the wind could blow the resultant air pollutants western cities (Copenhagen, Stockholm andactual Amsterdam
fitted Helsinki3Conditions (EFILWC) . The Foundation’s 2006 environmental performance. In other words, away more quickly and waste would build up Oslo), and the top performers in the old east, Vil-
Brusselsstudy looked specifically at participation in civil while political engagement is not closely linked more slowly. On the other hand, larger cities can nius and Riga, are also on the small side for that
society, based on a wide-ranging survey of Euro- to environmental strength, an active civil society benefit from economies of scale, having greater grouping. All of these cities have populations ofLondon
Madridpean citizens. As part of this study, the Founda- is extremely important. City leaders hoping to collective resources to pursue policies or create less than one million people. For east European
Rometion created two indices. One was of voluntary improve their city’s overall performance would greener infrastructure. cities, there is an identifiable correlation bet ween
participation in organisations (based on the do well to explore ways of engaging more close- At first glance, there seems to be little link higher population and poorer index perfor-
Budapestaverage number of voluntary organisations, ly with their citizens. between the size and population of cities and mance. Onehundred and twen ty thousand mor e
such as religious groups, trade unions and Ljubljana their index performance, with smaller ones scat- people leads to, roughly, one less point. In par-
Dublinsports, professional or charitable bodies that cit- Size matters — at first: Although there is tered between Copenhagen at number one ticular, an increase in population has a notice-Athens
Tallinnizens belonged to), which is a useful proxy for little correlation between city size and perfor- (with a population of about half a million) and able negative effect on scores for measures of
Best Rankthe strength of civil society. mance in the index overall, the leading cities do Zagreb at twenty-six (with a population of about air pollutants and carbon dioxide intensity.Bucharest
(Index of Voluntary SofiaThe second was of political participation tend to be smaller in both the East and the West three-quarters of a million). Individual metrics Nature’s greater ability to cope with the environ-Participation)
(based on the proportion of citizens engaging in Among east European cities, however, there also demonstrate few links with size, except that mental demands of small cities than of large
political activities, such as voting, attending is a correlation between larger populations and those cities with lower populations may be ones remains relevant in these urban areas.
16 3) First European Quality of Life Survey: Participation in civil society, European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, Dublin, 2006. 17European Green City Index | Analysis of city trends
In western cities the effect, if still present, is EU funding is a crucial factor in enabling low- ing a huge portion of the continent. Broad Euro- urban governments large and small. The EU is
The link between population and environmentalresidual. The statistical significance of the link is income cities to improve their environmental pean goals, such as the EU’s 20-20-20 goal of now tapping into the same sentiment. In early
very low, and it takes nearly a million extra peo- performance. cutting carbon emissions, increasing renew- 2008 it launched the Covenant of Mayors, whichperformance in east European cities
ple before a city’s score goes down a point. The This study highlights ways in which Europe ables and cutting energy consumption are also focuses specifically on matters of climate
explanation for the strong correlation in east — both through its institutions and more amor- driving change. The requirements of accession change and sustainable energy. The covenant
European cities is likely — again — to be histori- phously as a community — is having an impor- have led to the adoption of much more too has over 600 signatories and, as several ofEuropean Green City Index Score65 Vilniuscal. Eastern cities have less experience with envi- tant impact on urban environmental performance. advanced environmental legislation and policy the city portraits later in this report show, the
Rigaronmental policy. The first, very practical contribution of European in all of the newest eastern members of the very fact of membership is committing a num-60 actual
WarsawLjubljana fittedThe disadvantages of greater size, while pre- institutions is cash. As noted above, there is an Union in recent years, as they did for south Euro- ber of cities to put forward sustainable energy
BudapestBratislava55sent initially, may be possible to overcome as important link between money, at the very least pean entrants before them. It is having a similar plans for the first time.
larger cities gain more experience in environ- for investment, and environmental success. As effect on candidate countries and it may be no Ultimately, although money spent on physi-
50 Prague
mental management. “Some smaller cities are the city portraits show, inter alia, the EU is pro- accident that the one eastern city whose coun- cal infrastructure is important, it is this increas-
doing very well because at one moment or viding funding for water plants in Budapest and try is not yet an EU accession candidate scores ingly pervasive notion that responsible and45
Zagrebanother there were leaders who decided policy Vilnius, as well as for Prague’s ring road; the worst in the survey. effective environmental governance ought to be
Belgrade40and there was a consensus among the popula- European Investment Bank (EIB) is helping with In addition to the force of law, voluntary insti- the norm for all European countries that couldBucharest
Sofiation in order to make things exemplary,” says Mr Tallinn’s water supply and sewage systems; and tutions have been developing that seek to har- provide the long-term political foundation
Ballesteros Torres. “In absolute and statistical the European Bank for Reconstruction and ness and increase a growing sense that environ- which green efforts need for success.
terms, large cities have more resources, and Development is providing finance for the reha- mental stewardship is part of what is expected30
some are doing particularly well.” bilitation of Zagreb’s largest landfill site. As the from a modern European city. The European Location matters: Environmental sustain-
25 downturn hits city budgets more deeply, such Sustainable Cities and Towns campaign, for ability depends as much on the resources avail-
Europe matters: public funding and cul- assis tance will be more important. example, dates back to 1994, and its 2004 Aal- able as how they are used.Population (in millions)20
ture: Accession to the EU has had a huge posi - The expansion of the EU is also having an borg Commitments on a series of sustainability A problem of any comparative environmen-0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5
tive impact in energising environmental policy. impact, with EU environmental law now cover- issues have been signed by over 600 European tal index is that the natural resources available,
18 19

Un pour Un
Permettre à tous d'accéder à la lecture
Pour chaque accès à la bibliothèque, YouScribe donne un accès à une personne dans le besoin