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Future of transport. Analytical report.

De
67 pages
L'enquête a d'abord examiné les moyens de transport utilisés au quotidien par les citoyens européens. Elle présente ensuite leurs avis sur différentes questions en rapport avec la politique des transports :
- leur soutien à une tarification du transport en fonction du comportement du conducteur ;
- leur disponibilité à acheter un véhicule propre plutôt qu'un véhicule traditionnel ;
- les raisons pour lesquelles les automobilistes n'utilisent pas les transports publics ;
- leurs idées pour rendre les transports publics plus faciles d'utilisation ;
- leurs idées pour encourager les automobilistes à moins utiliser leur voiture.
Bruxelles. http://temis.documentation.developpement-durable.gouv.fr/document.xsp?id=Temis-0069775
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European
Commission
oAnnex Flash EB N 258 – Survey on the attitudes of Europeans towards tourism
Flash Eurobarometer European
Commission


Future of transport

Analytical report



Fieldwork: October 2010
Publication: March 2011

This survey was requested by the Directorate General Mobility and Transport, and
coordinated by the Directorate General for Communication.

This document does not represent the point of view of the European Commission.
The interpretations and opinions contained in it are solely those of the authors.

page 1
Flash Eurobarometer 312 – The Gallup Organization







Flash EB Series #312




Future of transport




Conducted by
The Gallup Organisation, Hungary
upon the request of Directorate General
Mobility and Transport










Survey co-ordinated by
Directorate General Communication

This document does not represent the point of
view of the European Commission.
The interpretations and opinions contained in it
are solely those of the authors.



THE GALLUP ORGANIZATION


oFlash EB N 312 – Future of transport Analytical report
Table of contents

Introduction ........................................................................................................................................... 4
Main findings ......... 5
1. Main means of transport for getting around on a daily basis ....................................................... 7
2. Level of support for “pay-as-you-drive” schemes ........................................................................ 10
3. Compromises to be made, in order to reduce emissions, when buying a car ............................. 13
4. Reasons why car users don’t use public transport ....................................................................... 17
5. Opinions about a single ticket covering all means of public transport ....... 22
6. Ideas to encourage car users to combine different modes of transport ...................................... 25
I. Annex tables ..................................................................................................... 29
II. Survey details .................................. 62
III. Questionnaire ................................................................................................ 65


page 3 oAnalytical report Flash EB N 312 – Future of transport

Introduction

oThis Flash Eurobarometer “Future of transport” (N 312) was conducted at the request of Directorate
General Mobility and Transport in the 27 EU Member States.

Initially the survey examined the current means of transport that EU citizens used to get around on a
daily basis. These ranged from a car or motorbike, to public transport, cycling and walking.

The survey then looked at various transport policy issues and asked EU citizens for their views. These
topics included:

 the level of support for “pay-as-you-drive” policies
 people’s readiness to buy a “cleaner” vehicle as opposed to a traditional one
 car users’ reasons for not using public transport
 ideas for making public transport easier to use
 ideas that could encourage car users to consider reducing the amount they use their car.

The survey obtained interviews predominantly through fixed-line telephone, with nationally
representative samples of EU citizens (aged 15 and older) living in the 27 Member States. The target
sample size in most countries was 1,000 interviews, but in Cyprus, Luxembourg and Malta the sample
size was 500 interviews; in total, 25,570 interviews were conducted by Gallup’s network of fieldwork
organisations from October 15 to October 19, 2010. Statistical results were weighted to correct for
known demographic discrepancies.


page 4 oFlash EB N 312 – Future of transport Analytical report
Main findings

Main modes of transport to get around on a daily basis

 A slim majority (53%) of EU citizens said they used a car as their main mode of transport and
about one in five (22%) used public transport. “Walking” was mentioned by 13% of EU citizens
and 7% selected “cycling”. The least popular choice was a motorbike, mentioned by 2%.

 Men were more likely to say that they used a car to get around on a daily basis (59% vs. 47% of
women). Women more frequently said they usually walked (16% vs. 9% of men) or used public
transport (25% vs. 18%).

 Almost two-thirds (64%) of rural residents said that they used a car to get about on a day-to-day
basis; metropolitan residents, on the other hand, were almost as likely to mention public transport as
they were to say they used a car as their main mode of transport (37% vs. 43%).

Level of support for “pay-as-you-drive” schemes

 Half of EU citizens said they would agree with existing car charges being replaced by new “pay-
as-you-drive” schemes; almost a sixth (16%) of respondents agreed strongly with such a proposal.
About 3 in 10 respondents disagreed with this suggestion and a fifth were unable – or unwilling –
to say whether they would support “pay-as-you-drive” schemes.

 The highest level of support for “pay-as-you-drive” schemes existed in Luxembourg (71%), Italy
(68%), the Netherlands (64%), Cyprus (61%) and Belgium (60%).

1 Car users were more likely to disagree with the replacement of existing car charges by “pay-as-
2you-drive” schemes (37% vs. 24% of public transport users ).

Compromises to be made, in order to reduce emissions, when buying a car

 About two-thirds (68%) of EU citizens said they would compromise on a car’s speed in order to
reduce emissions; 62% would be likely to compromise on the car’s size and 56% said the same
about the car’s range – i.e. the distance that one could drive before needing to refuel/recharge the
vehicle. EU citizens were the least likely (54%) to say that they would be willing to compromise
on purchase price (i.e. they would not pay more).

 Cyprus, Luxembourg, Greece and France were the countries where the largest proportions of
respondents were willing to compromise on a car’s speed, size and range, when making a
purchase, in order to reduce emissions. The same was true for price, in the first three countries, but
the French were much less likely to be willing to buy a “clean” car if it was more expensive.

 After controlling for the different levels of “don’t know” responses, it was noted that men and the
self-employed would be somewhat less likely to compromise on a car’s speed, price or range in
order to be able to buy a “cleaner” car. Similarly, 15-24 year-olds would be less willing than their
older counterparts to compromise on a car’s speed or range.

Reasons why car users don’t use public transport

 A large majority (71%) of car users felt that public transport was not as convenient as a car, a
similar proportion (72%) said that a lack of connections was a problem, about two-thirds (64%)
mentioned a low frequency of services and 54% said they did not use public transport because it

1
Those respondents who said they used a car as their main mode of transport.
2
Those respondents who said they used public transport as their main mode of transport.

page 5 oAnalytical report Flash EB N 312 – Future of transport

was not reliable. Half (49%) of car users said public transport was too expensive and a similar
proportion (49%) stressed a lack of information about schedules. Security concerns were
considered as an important reason not to use public transport by 40% of car users.

 In a majority of countries (19 out of 27), about three-quarters – or more – of car users felt that
public transport was not as convenient as a car. In all Member States, at least half of car users said
that they did not use public transport because of a lack of connections.

 Cyprus, Malta, Poland, Bulgaria and the UK were the countries most frequently featuring at the
top end of the distributions, i.e. car users describing multiple numbers of reasons why they did not
use public transport.

Opinions about a single ticket covering all means of public transport

 One in two EU citizens said they would definitely consider using public transport more frequently
if they could buy a single ticket for their complete journey that covered bus, train or tram, etc. A
quarter would not use public transport more frequently even if such a single ticket was available.

 Across the EU, about 3 in 10 car users compared to 11% of public transport users said they would
not consider using public transport more frequently, even if a single ticket for all means of such
transport was made available.

 In Spain, Cyprus and Greece, more than 6 in 10 car users said they would definitely consider
using public transport more frequently if they could buy a single ticket for their whole journey.

Ideas to encourage car users to combine different modes of transport

 Roughly two-thirds (65%) of car users thought they would be more liable to combine different
modes of transport if they could transfer easily from one transport mode to another; more
attractive terminals would be an encouragement for just under half (47%) of car users.

 About half (52%) of car users said that better (online) information about schedules would
encourage them to combine different modes of transport instead of using their car, and 38% would
be more likely to do this if it would be possible to buy tickets online.

 Greece, Malta, Cyprus, Spain and Ireland tended to be the countries where the largest proportions
of respondents said they would be encouraged to combine different modes of transport and reduce
their use of a car if various suggestions were implemented (easy transfers, online information etc.).





page 6 55% 20%
oFlash EB N 312 – Future of transport Analytical report
1. Main means of transport for getting around on a
daily basis

A slim majority (53%) of EU citizens named a car as their main mode of transport that they used on a
daily basis, followed by public transport (22%). “Walking” was mentioned by 13% of EU citizens and
7% selected “cycling” as their primary means of transport. The least popular choice was a motorbike,
mentioned by 2%.

The different methods of transport can be classified into three major groups:
 motorised individual transport (car and motorbike): selected as a main mode of transport for daily
activities by 55% of EU citizens
 non-motorised individual transport (cycling and walking) – mentioned by 20% of EU citizens
 public transport – selected by 22% of EU citizens

Main mode of transport
Car 53
Motorbike 2
Public transport 22
Walking 13
Cycling 7
Other 1
No daily / regular mobility 2
D7. What is the main mode of transport that you use for your
daily activities?
Base: all repondents, % EU27

Cyprus stood out from the pack with 91% of respondents who said they used a car or motorbike as their
main means of transport for getting around on a daily basis. In France, Ireland and Slovenia, roughly
two-thirds of respondents mentioned motorised individual transport (66%-69%). In the five countries at
the bottom of the distribution, however, a third or fewer respondents listed a car or motorbike as their
main means of transport: 29% in Latvia and Hungary, 31% in Romania, and 33% in Slovakia and
Bulgaria.

Note that virtually all respondents that listed motorised individual transport named a car as their main
mode of transport. Motorbikes were used by very few respondents in most countries; the main
exceptions were Greece (7% said that a motorbike was their main mode of transport), Italy (5%) and
Spain (4%).

Using public transport on a daily basis was most frequently mentioned by respondents in Hungary
3(35%), Latvia (36%) and the Czech Republic (37%). This proportion dropped to 5% in Cyprus .
Slovenia and the Netherlands were close to Cyprus with roughly a tenth of interviewees who said they
mainly used public transport (10%-11%).

A third of respondents in Bulgaria, Slovakia, Latvia, Romania and the Netherlands (32%-34%) said
that they mainly got around on a daily basis by walking or cycling. In the Netherlands, interviewees
who used a bicycle as their main means of transport largely outnumbered those who said that they
usually walked (31% “cycling” vs. 3% “walking); in the other four countries, most respondents said
that they usually walked (for example, Latvia: 25%” walking” vs. 8% “cycling”).

3 The results in Cyprus can be explained by the limited availability of public transport; the country has no rail
infrastructure and the public transport system (buses) is not developed.

page 7 oAnalytical report Flash EB N 312 – Future of transport

Main mode of transport
Motorised individual transport
Car Motorbike Car and motorbike
91100
80 69 68 66 65 64 64 62 62 62 62 60 58 55 54 53 52 51 5060 49 44 38 38 33 33 3140 29 29
20
0
Public transport
100
80
60
37 36 35 31 31 31 3040 30 28 28 27 26 25 22 22 22 20 20 18 17 17 15 14 13 12 11 1020 5
0
Non motorised individual transport
100 Walking Cycling Walking and cycling
80
60
34 34 33 32 32 3140 29 27 24 23 23 23 20 20 20 19 19 19 19 18 16 16 16 15 1220 7 6 3
0
D7. What is the main mode of transport that you use for your daily activities?
Base: all repondents, % by country

In the remainder of this report, two groups of respondents will be compared in regard to their opinions
about the available means of transport (i.e. how they travel on a daily basis, their views on “green”
travel, reasons for not using public transport, etc.).

 Those using a car as their main mode of transport – for reasons of simplicity, this group will be
labelled as car users throughout this report
 Those using public transport as their main mode of transport – labelled public transport users.

As discussed above, Cyprus has the largest proportion of car users (89%), but the proportion was also
high in countries such as Slovenia and Ireland (both 68%). The largest shares of public transport
users, on the other hand, were found in Hungary (35%), Latvia (36%) and the Czech Republic (37%).

Main mode of transport
Car Public transport Other answers
100
6 89
165 18 1921 21 2222 2225 26 24 25 25 26 2727 2931 32 3537 3780 394128 43261410 20 2012 1713 15 22
18 22 22 30 3060 17 3125
3711 31
3128 36 3589 27
40
68 68 65 64 64 63 62 61 61 61 57 54 53 53 52 49 49 47 46 4320 37 36 33 32 30 29 28
0
D7. What is the main mode of transport that you use for your daily activities?
Base: all repondents, % by country


page 8
3
NL 31 CZ CY 89 2
CY
29 5 68 1
RO LV SI
SI
25
LV 8 HU IE 68 0
IE
23 10 64 2
SK PL FR
MT
30
BG 2 EE MT 65 1
FR
12
HU 19 SK DK 63 0
LU
11
17
SE ES LU 64 0
DK
22
EE 5 LT DE 61 2
FI
14
9 61 1
PL LU AT
AT
CZ 16 7 BG FI 62 0
BE
10
13 61 0
FI RO BE
DE
4
DK 19 MT IT 54 5
UK
7
DE 13 EL UK 57 1
IT
13
7
EU27 UK EU27 53 2
EU27
13
SI 7 PT PT 53 1
PT
18
2 46 7
PT EU27 EL
SE
17
EL 3 FR SE 52 0
LT
14
5 47 4
IT AT ES
NL
5
BE 13 IT NL 49 2
ES
13
LT 5 SE LT 49 0
EL
15
ES 2 BE PL 43 1
PL
8
AT DE CZ 36 2
EE
8
13
2 37 0
UK IE EE
CZ
12
IE 3 FI BG 33 0
BG
9
3 32 1
SK FR DK SK
6
LU 2 NL RO 30 1
RO
6
MT 0 SI HU 28 1
LV
3
HU CY CY LV 29 0
0oFlash EB N 312 – Future of transport Analytical report
Socio-demographic considerations

Men were more likely than women to say that they used a car to get around on a daily basis (59% vs.
47% of women). Women, on the other hand, more frequently said that they usually walked (16% vs.
9% of men) or used public transport (25% vs. 18%).

While 61%-64% of 25-54 year-olds said a car was their main mode of transport, only half as many 15-
24 year-olds gave this response (33%), as did just under half (47%) of the over 54s. The youngest
respondents were more likely to use public transport to travel around (41% vs. 15%-22% across other
age groups); the oldest respondents were more likely to say that they usually walked (17% vs. 10%-
11% across other age groups).

Respondents with the highest level of education were most likely to use a car as their main mode of
transport for daily activities (62% vs. 43% of those with the lowest level of education). Full-time
students, on the other hand, were more likely to use public transport (47% vs. 18%-22% of all other
educational segments) and those with the lowest level of education most frequently mentioned
“walking” as their main method of getting around (19% vs. 9% of the most educated).

Almost two-thirds (64%) of rural residents said that they used a car to get around on a day-to-day basis;
metropolitan residents, on the other hand, were almost as likely to mention public transport as they were
to say they used a car as their main mode of transport (37% vs. 43%). Those living in towns or urban
centres were more likely than their counterparts to say that they walked (16% vs. 10% in metropolitan
or rural areas).

Finally, about 7 in 10 (71%) self-employed respondents said they used a car to get around, compared
to 39% of non-working respondents. The latter were more likely to say that they usually walked (17%
vs. 7%-12% for the other occupational groups) or travelled by public transport (29% vs. 11% of the
self-employed, 16% of employees and 20% of manual workers).

For more details, see annex table 1b.





page 9 oAnalytical report Flash EB N 312 – Future of transport

2. Level of support for “pay-as-you-drive” schemes

The current Flash Eurobarometer examined EU citizens’ opinions about replacing existing car
charges, such as initial registration cost and circulation taxes, with new charging schemes that would
take into account the actual use of a car, such as the kilometres/miles driven or its use during peak
hours – typically known as “pay-as-you-drive”.

Replacing existing car charges by “pay-In total, half of EU citizens said they would
as-you-drive” schemesagree with existing car charges being replaced
by new charging schemes that took into account
a car’s actual use. Furthermore, almost a sixth 1620
(16%) of respondents agreed strongly with such Agree strongly
a proposal.
Agree

DisagreeAbout 3 in 10 respondents disagreed with the 13
idea of charging car owners via a system that
Disagree strongly
would take into account a car’s actual use (18% 34
DK/NAdisagreed and 13% disagreed strongly).
18

Finally, a fifth of EU citizens were unable – or
Q1. To what extent do you agree with replacing existing car
unwilling – to say whether they would support charges such as registration and circulation taxes with charging
schemes that take into account the actual use of the car such as new charging schemes based on a car’s actual
the kilometers driven, or the use of it in peak hours?
use. Base: all repondents, % EU27

In five Member States, 6 in 10 – or more – respondents would agree to replace existing car charges
with new schemes that took into account a car’s actual use: Luxembourg (71%), Italy (68%), the
Netherlands (64%), Cyprus (61%) and Belgium (60%).

Support for such schemes was the lowest in Lithuania (21%). In this country, respondents were twice
as likely to disagree with a proposal to introduce charging schemes based on the extent to which a car
was used (i.e. kilometres/miles driven) than they were to agree with it (46% vs. 21%). In the Czech
Republic, Estonia and Portugal, a similar number of respondents agreed or, alternatively, disagreed
with this concept (the UK: 42% vs. 42%; the Czech Republic: 41% vs. 45%; Estonia: 35% vs. 37%;
Portugal: 35% vs. 34%).

Replacing existing car charges by “pay-as-you-drive” schemes
Agree strongly Agree Disagree Disagree strongly DK/NA
100
10 10 13 13 1315 15 15 14 15 1317 18 1819 20 19 1926 256 29 29 289 31 31 328 348880 5 13 3810 11 1414 1812 12 13 15 1710 17 1920 713 522 1522 718 18 710 1422 12 112160 14 18 17 2210 19 3118 2017 1320 17 2143 40 25 21 23 2341 37 1340 40 38 39 3446 37 36 34 34 2632 30 2739 38 36 2734 29 2226 232720 35
28 28 24 1723 19 2018 17 17 1816 16 16 16 15 15 1412 12 1210 11 11 11 11 8 40
Q1. To what extent do you agree with replacing existing car charges such as registration and circulation taxes
with charging schemes that take into account the actual use of the car such as the kilometres driven, or the
use of it in peak hours?
Base: all repondents, % by country


page 10
LU
IT
NL
CY
BE
SI
DK
EL
FI
HU
ES
BG
FR
EU27
SE
SK
AT
IE
DE
PL
MT
UK
CZ
LV
RO
PT
EE
LT

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