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RE-thinking 2050. A 100 % renewable energy vision for the European Union.

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76 pages
Cette étude estime qu'en 2050, les pays de l'Union européenne pourraient produire 100 % de leur énergie (électricité, chauffage, transport) grâce à des sources renouvelables. Elle détaille les mesures qu'il serait nécessaire d'adopter pour atteindre cet objectif et montre les bénéfices économiques, sociaux et environnementaux qui pourraient ainsi être réalisés.
Bruxelles. http://temis.documentation.developpement-durable.gouv.fr/document.xsp?id=Temis-0067216
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E U R o p E A n R E n E w A b
RE-thk
A 100% Reeae Eer Vs fr the Eurea U
l E E n E R g y c o U n c i l
Who is ErEc
EREc, the Eurea Reeae Eer cu, s the umrea rasat f the majr Eurea reeae eer dustr, trade ad researh assats atve  the fied f htvtas, sma hdrer, sar therma, eer, ea & mare, etherma, d eer, ad sar therma eetrt. it reresets a dustr th a aua turver f mre tha €70  ad th mre tha 550,000 emees.
EREc shares ts ffies th ts memer assats  the Reeae Eer Huse  brusses, a mde shase fr terat f eer effie ad reeae eer tehes  a hstr ud.
EREC’ members: AEBioM(Eurea bmass Assat) EGEc(Eurea getherma Eer cu) EPiA(Eurea phtvta idustr Assat) ErEF(Eurea Reeae Eeres Federat) EshA(Eurea Sma Hdrer Assat) EsTELA(Eurea Sar Therma Eetrt Assat) EsTiF(Eurea Sar Therma idustr Federat) EUBiA(Eurea bmass idustr Assat) EU-oEA(Eurea oea Eer Assat) EUrEc Ageny(Eurea Assat f Reeae Eer Researh cetres) EWEA Eer Assat)(Eurea w d
Contact details of EREC European Renewable Energy Council Renewable Energy House Rue d’Ar 63-67 - b-1040 brusses, beum T: +32 2 546 1933 - F: +32 2 546 1934 E: ere@ere.r - i: .ere.r
Text ad aass: prf. Arthurs Zervs, chrste ls ad Jshe Muth ctrutr: Eear Smth Des ad rdut: .mard.e pushed  Ar 2010
Table of Contents
Frerd 4 itrdut 6 01 7 ojetve 02 Reeae 9 Eer Sures ad Tehes 03 11 curret Status f Reeae Eer  the EU 04 15 Arah ad Defit f geera ptetas 05 Assumts ad Sears overa 18 06 Reeae Eer Sures’ ctrut 22 t Fa Eer csumt   23Reeae Eetrt u t 2050   27Reeae Heat ad c u t 2050  Reeae Trasrt u t 2050 29  Reeae Eer u t 2050 32 07 Em, Evrmeta ad 34 Sa beefits  Em beefits 35  Evrmeta beefits 41  Sa beefits 43 08 p 45 Remmedats 09 gssar 52 10 Referees 54  Aex: 57  EREc Memers´ Teh-sefi  Vss u t 2050
Foreword
Eure’s urret eer sstem s frted th a umer f uertates: uredtae ad hh vate fss fue res ad the resut em haees, eta rsks reated t mrt deede, ad the harmfu evrmeta sequees f fss fue ased eer eerat. Hever, hat remas erta, s that f e tue  the eer atha f the ast fe deades, mate hae  have a mre ad mre uredtae ad dsastrus mat  ur ves, ur eer mrt deede  rse, ad fss fues  eme sarer ad etrated  a fe utres arud the rd.
ierta s t a sut  the fae f these haees. The aser t these haees s t ed ur reah, the sut,  fat, es  ur hads ad th t ur at t hae the future. b sth frm fss fue, reehuse as tesve sures f eer t reeae sures f eer, Eure s ae t fu ras ts sustaae teta -  em, e ad sa terms.
Sfiat reas eer effie ad de reeae eer tehes s the mst rms effrt e a make t mtate ma-made mate hae ad redue hazardus ut, ehae a ad rea eer deedee, stmuate rd-ass hh-teh dustres ad reate thusads f e js, t east  rura ad remte areas.
Tda’s eer dess  shae Eure’s su sstem fr at east the ext 50 ears, there determ the future eve f reehuse as emsss, fss fue deede ad the mettveess f Eurea emes. i ve f the fudameta trasfrmat eeded t esure a sustaae Eure  the mdde f the 21stetur, a fudameta strutura hae s eeded. As vestmets  the eer setr are f a -term ature, the dess e take tda  have a mat  the eer sstem f tmrr.  Fr a these reass, Eure must reare the rud fr a 100% reeae eer future, start tda.RE-thinking 2050 a atha tards a utes 100% reeae eer su sstem  2050 ad ear shs that t s t a matter f teh, ut rather a matter f mak the rht hes tda t shae tmrr. The haee ahead f us s hue, ut e have  he f e at t at ress tards future eerats. “w e d t hert the Earth frm ur aestrs: e rr t frm ur hdre”.1
Prof. Arthouros Zervos presdet Eurea Reeae Eer cu (EREc)
1 natve Amera rver, ke ed  20thetur evrmetast Davd brer
The EREc rertRE-thinking 2050 sets ut a amtus vs fr a 100% reeae eer sstem fr the Eurea U. The rert rvdes a mrehesve estmate f the em, evrmeta, ad sa eefits assated th suh a mve. it as artuar fuses  the  remmedats sdered eessar t take the -teha arrers t ahev suh a vs, tak a three f the mrtat setrs eetrt, heat ad  ad trasrt. whe the vs ma ra e mre amtus tha the eve ke t e aheved  rate, e ver muh eme ths mrtat rk that thruh exres the ssues assated th a majr exas  the trut frm reeae eer.
i the iEA’s ve, the use f reeae eer must e reased  rder t mrve eer seurt ad redue mate hae. The iEA’s Eer Teh persetve uded a bue Sear, hh evsaes redu a co2 emsss  50% mared th 2005 eves  2050. whe med th dee uts  ther reehuse as emsss, ths sear s sstet th a temerature rse mted t 2-3°c. i ths sear reeae eer  e a ke trutr t co2aatemet, trut 21% f the requred reduts. Eetrt  e the mst mrtat setr, th the rrt frm reeaes rs frm the urret 18 t 46%. Se tta eetrt rdut dues dur ths erd, ths mes a fur-fd rease  reeae er rdut. curret a mre amtus reeaes sear s uder devemet,  hh 75% f a eetrt rdut mes frm reeae sures.
Reas these amtus as  e dffiut. Teha haees  eed t e verme. The tehes as eed t eme rressve mre st mettve. T esure are sae vestmet ad demet  the eetrt, heat ad  ad trasrt setrs, the requred  framerk eeds t e deveed ad memeted, ud arrate fiaa etves ad measures t take the ther  em arrers. Furthermre, the hsa frastruture  eed t e adated.
RE-thinking 2050makes a vauae trut t the reflets  the features f the  framerk hh  e eeded t meet a amtus reeae eer taret  the future.
Didier Houssin Dretr f Eer Markets ad Seurt Dretrate iterata Eer Ae (iEA)
Introduction
Eure’s demad fr eer s reas  a Eure shud ead the a th a ear mmtmet t evrmet f hh ad ustae eer res. a 100% reeae eer future  2050. Aases  greehuse as emsss are rs ad the eer the Eurea reeae eer dustr ad  ma setr s e f the ma emtters f reehuse ases. reed setfi sttuts sh that ths s t  natura reserves f fss fues suh as  ad as are teha fease, ut as the  tru sustaae etrated  just a fe suer utres arud ateratve th  em terms, ad  sa ad the rd. cmate hae a th a reas evrmeta terms.1 deede  eer mrts are  a fe f the rsks the Eurea em s fa tda. The eer The haees f trasfrm Eure’s eer sstem setr s the fue f Eure s em ee, hee rema uret ad daut: the EU urret mrts ´ hav the rht arah s mrtat. arx. 55% f ts eer2– ad mht reah 70%  the ext 20 t 30 ears.3 2030 the EU  e mrt i i rder t uterat these tedees ad esure 84% f ts as, 59% f ts a ad 94% f ts . i these a sustaae eer ad em future fr the rumstaes, t s vus that the haee t satsf Eurea U (EU), e eed t at   rder t ur eer eeds s . dever sustaae, seure ad mettve eer. The terreated haees f mate hae, seurt f Eure has t reak the e f reas eer eer su ad mettveess are mutfaeted sumt, reas mrts, ad reas utfl ad requre a rfud hae  the a Eure f eath reated  the EU t a eer rduers. At rdues, devers ad sumes eer. Haress 2008 eer res, ever EU tze s a arud the EU´s eer effie teta ad fu de €700 er ear fr the extera tr f ther eer ts sustaae, deus reeae eer resures su.4b reas the share f reeae eer ad are therefre vta ad the  a t  frard. there dereas the eer mrt s, sfiat savs a e made, hh a the e used fr ud Smutaeus mtat mate hae ad seur the reeae eer ased frastruture that Eure eer su  reeae eer sures sttutes eeds, t  st the EU’s deus eer a mrtat fatr fr md- t -term em su, ut as strethe the mettveess f rth. Fu ras ad ea the rth ur em as e as reat sustaae js ad rtutes f tmrr requres fster mre - sustaae em rth. hesve at frm EU es, dustr ad set. Reeae eer s a stmuus fr em rth.RE-thinking 2050 a atha tards a resets Mrever, a str emhass  “sustaae deve - 100% reeae eer sstem fr the EU, exam met” must e at the heart f a em, evr - the effets  Eure’s eer su sstem ad meta ad sa atvt.  co2 emsss, he at the same tme rtra the em, evrmeta ad sa eefits f wth the areemet  2009  the Eer ad cmate suh a sstem. Mrever, the rert rvdes  pakae hh tas the Eurea Dretve  the remmedats fr hat s eeded t fu ext the rmt f the use f eer frm reeae sures EU’s vast reeae eer teta. th ts d taret f at east 20% reeae eer  fia eer sumt  2020, the EU has made Revet the EU´s eer sstem  a sustaae a str ad amtus mmtmet tards reeae eer mde s e f the rta haees f the 21st eer. The dret Eure has started t take s the etur. Reeae eer a eme the ake rht e hever e eed t tue ad seed- f Eure’s eer ad em sstem th ths u the eeded trasfrmat f ur eer sstem etur. The haee ahead f us s a ermus thruh tuus ad stae mmtmets ad  e, ut tak t  e u a far reah sea f framerks, esea  ema hae tmes. rtutes.
1 chrsther Jes: “A zer ar eer  fr Eure: the  vae sut”, : EU Eer la, Vume iii, bk Three: The European Renewable Energy Yearbook. 2010. pae 51f. ad 81f.;Hume, M., neufedt, H., cer, H.:Adaptation and Mitigation Strategies: Supporting European climate policy. The final report from the ADAM project.2009; EcF:Roadmap 2050: a practical guide to a prosperous, low-carbon Europe. Ar 2010; SRU:Setting the Course for a Sustainable Electricity System. Fu rert frthm oter 2010. 2 Eurea cmmss (Eurstat):Sustainable development in the European Union. 2009 monitoring report of the EU sustainable development strategy.2009. pae 83. 3 Eurea cmmss:A European Strategy for Sustainable, Competitive and Secure Energy. 2006. 4 Eurea cmmss(coM(2008) 781 fia):Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions. Second Strategic Ener gy Review. An EU Energy Security and Solidarity Action Plan. 2008.
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