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Sustainable coastal tourism. An integrated planning and management approach.

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87 pages
Ce manuel est un outil pratique à l'usage des décideurs en matière de tourisme et de gestion intégrée des zones côtières. Il permet, d'une part, d'intégrer la planification stratégique du tourisme dans le processus plus large de la gestion intégrée des zones côtières et, d'autre part, l'application de l'approche gestion intégrée des zones côtières au développement du tourisme. La partie principale du manuel aborde d'une part, toutes les questions relatives au tourisme côtier, ses impacts positifs et négatifs sur l'environnement et la société, et, d'autre part, les systèmes de planification et de gestion du tourisme. En annexe, sont présentées les différentes étapes de la planification stratégique du tourisme côtier.
Paris. http://temis.documentation.developpement-durable.gouv.fr/document.xsp?id=Temis-0069699
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This handbook was conceived as
a practical tool to be used by deci-
sion-makers and practitioners in
both tourism sector and ICZM (Inte-
grated Coastal Zone Management).
www.unep.orgIt provides a kind of “two-way”
scheme allowing for the integra- United Nations Environment Programme
P.O.Box 30552 Nairobi, Kenyation of tourism strategic planning Tel: ++ 254-(0)20-762 1234
Fax: ++ 254-(0)20-762 3927into the wider process of ICZM on
E-mail: uneppub@unep.org
one hand and, on the other, for the
application of the ICZM approach in
For more information, contact: SuStainable CoaStal tourism development.
UNEP DTIE touriSmSustainable Consumption and The handbook has two main parts.
Production Branch
Its main body tackles all important
15 rue de Milan
issues related to coastal tourism 75441 Paris Cedex 09, France
and its positive and negative im- Tel: + 33 1 44371450 An integrated planning and
Fax: + 33 1 44371474pacts on natural environment and management approach
E-mail: unep.tie@unep.org
society, as well as various planning
www.unep.fr/scp
and management schemes for tour-
ism, with particular reference to Priority Actions Programme
Regional Activity Centre (PAP/RAC)ICZM.
Kraj Sv. Ivana 11
HR-21000 Split, Croatia
Individual steps of the proposed Tel: +385 21 34 04 70
process of strategic planning for Fax: +385 21 34 04 90
Email: pap@gradst.hrcoastal tourism, based on the con-
www. pap-thecoastcentre.org
cept of Carrying Capacity Assess-
ment (CCA), are presented in an
Annex with all the details indicating
when, how and by whom to under-
take these steps.
U N E P M a n u a l s o n s u s t a i n a b l e t o u r i s M
ISBN: 978-92-807-2966-5
DTI/1091/PA
U n i t e d n a t i o n s e n v i r o n m e n t P r o g r a m m eSuStainable CoaStal
touriSm
An integrated planning and
management approach
Copyright © United Nations Environment Programme, 2009
This publication may be reproduced in whole or in part and in any form for
educational or non-proft purposes without special permission from the copyright Sustainable Consumption and
holder, provided acknowledgement of the source is made. UNEP would appreciate Production Branch
receiving a copy of any publication that uses this publication as a source. 15 rue de Milan
75441 Paris Cedex 09, France
No use of this publication may be made for resale or for any other commercial
Tel: ++ 33 1 44371450
purpose whatsoever without prior permission in writing from the United Nations
Fax: ++ 33 1 44371474Environment Programme.
E-mail: unep.tie@unep.org
www.unep.fr/scpDisclaimer
www.unep.org/scpThe designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do
not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the United Nations
Environment Programme concerning the legal status of any country,
territory, Priority Actions Programme
city or area or of its authorities, or concerning delimitation Regional Activity Centre (PAP/RAC)
of its frontiers or boundaries. Moreover, the views Kraj Sv. Ivana 11
expressed do not necessarily represent the UNEP HR-21000 Split, Croatia
decision
Tel: ++ 385 21 34 04 70promotes environ-or the stated policy of the United Nations
Fax: ++ 385 21 34 04 90Environment Programme, nor does citing mentally sound practices
E-mail: pap@gradst.hrof trade names or commercial processes globally and in its own activities.
constitute endorsement. www. pap-thecoastcentre.org
This publication is printed on 100%
ISBN: 978-92-807-2966-5 recycled paper, using vegetable-based
inks and other eco-friendly practices.
Our distribution policy aims to reduce
UNEP’s carbon footprint.Sustainable Coastal Tourism / An integrated planning and management approach
Table of Contents
List of Abbreviations vi
List of Tables viii
List of Figures viii
List of Boxes viii
Foreword xi
Acknowledgements xii
1. Introduction 2
1.1. Main conceptual issues 3
1.2. The purpose and scope of this handbook 4
1.3. The structure of this handbook 5
2. Tourism in coastal areas 10
2.1. An overview of tourism in coastal areas 10
2.2. The magnitude and economic importance of coastal tourism 11
2.3. Sustainable tourism: tourism growth vs. tourism development 11
2.4. The main impacts and challenges 13
2.5. The need for planning 15
2.6. Coastal tourism in emerging destinations 16
2.7. The special case of Small Island Developing States (SIDS) 16
2.8. Global issues and coastal tourism 17
2.9. Summary 24
3. Tourism planning frameworks 28
3.1. Rationale for tourism planning 29
3.2. Integrated tourism planning 31
3.3. Approaches to integrated tourism planning 34
3.4. Ecological Footprint 38
3.5. The concept of tourism carrying capacity 38
3.6. Tourism management through Environmental Assessment 40
3.7. Summary 44
4. The ICZM approach to sustainable tourism development 48
4.1. The need for Integrated Coastal Zone Management 48
4.2. What is Integrated Coastal Zone Management? 49
4.3. The principles of ICZM 51
4.4. The ICZM process 54
4.5. The benefts of ICZM 56
4.6. ICZM and tourism 58
4.7. ICZM in practice 59
4.8. Current challenges for the ICZM approach 62
4.9. Summary 65
5. Strategic Planning for Sustainable Tourism Development
in coastal areas 70
5.1. Principles of Strategic Planning for Sustainable Tourism
Development in coastal areas 70
5.2. The overall objectives of Strategic Planning for Sustainable Tourism
Development 74
iiiSustainable Coastal Tourism / An integrated planning and management approach Sustainable Coastal Tourism / An integrated planning and management approach
5.3. A scheme for Strategic Planning for Sustainable Tourism
Development 74
5.4. The phases of the Strategic Planning Process 76
5.5. Tools for strategic planning 91
5.6. Summary 92
6. Expectations, rights and responsibilities 96
6.1. Governments 96
6.2. Business in the travel and tourism industry 98
6.3. Civil society 102
6.4. Research and academic institutions 104
6.5. Intergovernmental organisations 105
6.6. Confict management 110
6.7. Regional and international cooperation 112
6.8. Summary 113
7. The way forward 118
7.1. Main conclusions 118
7.2. Using the Implementation Guide 121
Bibliography 124
Annex: The Implementation Guide 133
iv vSustainable Coastal Tourism / An integrated planning and management approach Sustainable Coastal Tourism / An integrated planning and management approach
NOAA National Oceanic and Atmospheric AdministrationList of Abbreviations
OAS Organization of American States
OECD Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development
ADB Asian Development Bank PAP/RAC Priority Actions Programme Regional Activity Centre
ASEAN Association of Southeast Asian Nations PIRT Partners in Responsible Tourism
CAMP Coastal Area Management Programme RAC/CP Regional Activity Centre for Cleaner Production
CATA Central American Tourist Agency RP Redefning Progress
CBA Cost-Beneft Analysis SA Social Assessment
CBD Convention of Biological Diversity SEA Strategic Environmental Assessment
CCA Carrying Capacity Assessment SIDS Small Island Developing States
CI Conservation International SMAP Short-and Medium-term Priority Environmental Action Programme
CO Carbon Dioxide SPSTD Strategic Planning for Sustainable Tourism Development
2
SS Sustainable ScenarioCTO Caribbean Tourism Organization
CZM Coastal Zone Management ST Sustainable Tourism
DEAT Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism Republic of South T&T Travel and T
Africa TCC Tourism Carrying Capacity
DG Directorate-General TCCA Tourism Carrying Capacity Assessment
DITURIS Ecuadorian National Tourism Board TDP Tourism Development Plan
EA Environmental Assessment TNC The Nature Conservancy
EC European Commission UN United Nations
EEA European Environment Agency UNCED United Nations Conference on Environment and Development
EF Ecological Footprint UNCTAD ence on Trade and Development
EIA Environmental Impact Assessment UNDP United Nations Development Programme
EMAS Eco-Management and Audit Scheme UNECE United Nations Economic Commission for Europe
EU European Union UNEP United Nations Environment Programme
EUROPARC Pan European organization whose prime purpose is to support and UNEP/GPA ogramme / The Global Programme
encourage the complete spectrum of major protected areas in Europe of Action for the Protection of the Marine Environment from Land-
FAO Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations Based Activities
FFPNR French Federation of Regional Nature Parks UNEP-WCMC United Nations Environmental Programme - World Conservation
GAP Mediterranean Marine Gap Analysis Monitoring Centre
GDP Gross Domestic Product UNESCAP United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the
GEF Global Environment Facility Pacifc
GESAMP Group of Experts on the Scientifc Aspects of Marine Environmental UNWTO United Nations World Tourism Organisation
Protection USA Unated States of America
GHG Greenhouse gas WB World Bank
GIS Geographic Information Systems WEA Wales Environment Agency
ICAM Integrated Coastal Area Management WMO World Meteorological Organization
ICM Integrated Coastal Management WTTC World Travel and Tourism Council
ICZM Integrated Coastal Zone Management WWF World Wide Fund for Nature
INFO/RAC Regional Activity Centre for Information and Communication WWF-SPP We - South Pacifc Programme
IOC/UNESCO Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission/United Nations
Educational, Scientifc and Cultural Organization
IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
ISO International Organization for Standardisation
IT Institute for Tourism
IUCN International Union for the Conservation of Nature
IQM Integrated Quality Management
LIFE The EU’s fnancial instrument supporting environmental and nature
conservation projects
MAP Mediterranean Action Plan
MNV Maximum Number of Visitors
MPA Marine Protected Areas
NGO Non-Governmental Organization
vi viiSustainable Coastal Tourism / An integrated planning and management approach Sustainable Coastal Tourism / An integrated planning and management approach
Box 6.4. Expectations, rights and responsibilities of the civil society List of Tables
elements (NGOs) related to the tourism sector 103
Box 6.5. Expectations, rights and responsibilities of research and
Table 3.1. The Contents of the Welsh Coastal Tourism Strategy SEA 43 academic institutions r 104
Table 4.1. ICZM benefts 57 Box 6.6. Expectations, rights and responsibilities of international
Table 4.2. Coastal Countries with ICM Efforts: 1993 and 2000 organisations r 106
Comparison 60 Box 6.7. The DESTINATIONS project: Synergy among governments,
Table 6.1. Possible interactions between economic activities and effects intergovernmental organisations, the business sector, scientists,
on coastal resources 111 NGOs and civil society in tourism planning (excerpt from the project
document) 107
Box 7.1. Test application of the handbook: Sustainable Tourism
Development in Croatian Coastal Area - Pilot Project Baska Voda, List of Figures
Croatia 122
Figure 2.1. Mode-specifc emission factors for tourism transport 20
Figure 3.1. The relationship between long-range and strategic planning 35
Figure 3.2. Steps in Strategic Integrated Sustainable Tourism Planning 36
Figure 4.1. The stages of the ICM cycle to which science contributes 54
Figure 4.2. PAP/RAC Flowchart for ICZM process 55
Figure 4.3. How the ICM process unfolds 56
Figure 5.1. Principles for strategic planning 71
Figure 5.2. The iterative process of Strategic Planning for Sustainable
Tourism Development in coastal areas 75
Figure 5.3. A Vision for Sustainable Tourism Development of the Tourism
Destination 77
Figure 5.4. Representation of Destination’s carrying capacities indicator
thresholds 82
Figure 5.5. Representation of the Baseline Scenario 84
List of Boxes
Box 2.1. German tourists expect environmental quality 12
Box 2.2. Defnition of sustainable development tourism 13
Box 2.3. Projections of tourism contribution to climate change 21
Box 2.4. International treaties on biodiversity and tourism 24
Box 3.1. Ten key principles for tourism development 28
Box 3.2. Benefts of national and regional tourism planning 30
Box 3.3. Tourism growth on the Galapagos Islands 33
Box 3.4. A Strategic Environmental Assessment of Fiji’s Tourism
Development Plan 42
Box 4.1. The urgent need for Integrated Coastal Zone Management
(ICZM) 49
Box 4.2. The Mediterranean Protocol on ICZM: Objectives of ICZM 50
Box 4.3. The Mediterranean Protocol on ICZM: General principles of
integrated coastal zone management 52
Box 5.1. Tourism Carryng Capacity Assessment (TCCA) in Rimini (Italy) 85
Box 6.1. Governmental expectations, rights and responsibilities related
to the tourism sector 98
Box 6.2. Code of conduct for responsible travellers
Box 6.3. Business expectations, rights and responsibilities related to the 101
tourism sector 102
viii ixSustainable Coastal Tourism / An integrated planning and management approach
Foreword
Nations that promote their coastal areas for tourism are increasingly becoming
aware of the need to protect these areas in order to maintain their natural
beauty and help ensure their long-term vitality as tourism destinations. Today’s
tourists have a greater understanding of the impacts of their travel and are
demanding more sustainable tourism products. In essence, the majority
of tourists today are looking to satisfy their need for leisure, recreation and
discovery in a way that is friendly to the natural, cultural and social well-being
of the destinations they visit.
In response to the growing need for coastal zone protection, the tourism sector
has been working to develop approaches and strategies that allow for the
better planning and management of tourism activities in coastal zones. This
has not always been an easy task as these extremely fragile environments are
targets for many other human-induced development activities.
Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) has been largely recognised
by many tourism operators and decision-makers as a sound path towards
the sustainable development of coastal tourism. Sustainable and responsible
tourism planning tools and techniques are essential for the successful
implementation of ICZM.
The purpose of this handbook is to explain how the tourism sector can
coordinate effectively in the overall development of coastal zones and
contribute to the long-term sustainability of these areas. This document was
designed to be practical and easy-to-use and provides an introduction to the
key tools to be used in different stages of the planning process. It furthermore
identifes the stakeholders that are critical in the successful delivery of the
various stages of the process.
This handbook is targeted at national and local decision-makers, as well as
operators from the tourism sector and practitioners in the feld of ICZM. It is
also envisioned to support those who are affected by tourism development.
Sylvie Lemmet Ivica Trumbic
Director Director
United Nations Environment United Nations Environment
Programme Programme
Division of Technology, Mediterranean Action Plan
Industry and Economics Priority Actions Programme
Regional Activity Centre

xiSustainable Coastal Tourism / An integrated planning and management approach Sustainable Coastal Tourism / An integrated planning and management approach
Acknowledgements
This document forms part of the United Nations Environment Programme,
Division of Technology, Industry and Economics (UNEP-DTIE) “Practical
Manuals on Sustainable Tourism” publication series. This initiative was
coordinated by UNEP-DTIE in close partnership with the Priority Actions
Programme Regional Activity Centre (PAP/RAC).
Supervision and Concept
Dr. Stefanos Fotiou - UNEP-DTIE
Mr. Ivica Trumbic - PAP/RAC
Project Technical Support
Helena Rey de Assis and Erica Allis - UNEP-DTIE
Authors
The main drafters of the report were Ms. Marina Markovic, Mr. Alessio Satta,
Ms. Zeljka Skaricic and Mr. Ivica Trumbic.
The authors would like to take this opportunity to thank all those who by their
efforts and dedication contributed to fnalization of this publication. Special
thanks go to Ms. Daphne Kasriel for the language editing, Mr. Viktor Popovic
for the design and layout and Ms. Dina Silovic for her research and support in
developing this publication.
This publication has been published with the support of the French Ministry of
Ecology, Energy, Sustainable Development and Physical Planning.
xii xiiiIntroduction 1Sustainable Coastal Tourism / An integrated planning and management approach Sustainable Coastal Tourism / An integrated planning and management approach
However, individual studies show that the coastal tourism sector in various 1. Introduction
regions of the world is increasingly growing in importance with regard to its
magnitude and contribution to national economies as well as to the wellbeing
Tourism is one of the world’s largest industries. It is not so easy to provide of local communities.
a clear and all-encompassing defnition of tourism, particularly when one
considers that it is so closely interrelated with all other sectors of life: 1.1. Main conceptual issues
economic, social, cultural, environmental, and political (The Economist, 1 11991). Many feel that a universal defnition of tourism is almost impossible to
reach, and that it would be realistic to accept the existence of many different The main conceptual issue of coastal tourism which needs to be solved is the
defnitions, each aimed at serving a specifc purpose. However, we fnd confict between the benefts tourism provides for the economy as a whole and
Fennell’s defnition (1999) closest to the purpose of this document. He defnes for the social environment it is operating in, and its heavy impact on the coastal
it as “... the interrelated system that includes tourists and the associated physical environment in terms of urban sprawl, linear urbanisation, pressure on
services that are provided and utilised (facilities, attractions, transportation and sensitive areas, the production of waste and the fragmentation of habitats, and
accommodation) to aid in their movement ...”. Fennell also adds that the tourist the social environment, in terms of the loss of social and cultural identity and
(the principal subject of this activity), according to UNWTO, is “... a person values.
travelling for pleasure for a period of at least one night, but not more than one
year for international tourists and six months for persons travelling in their Usually the development of tourism activities in coastal areas is based on a
own countries, with the main purpose of the visit being other than to engage process where any planning or/and management decision is taken mainly
in activities for remuneration in the place(s) visited.” Tourist volumes, physical on the basis of fnancial criteria, while the environment is taken into account
and fnancial, throughout the world are, on average, constantly increasing. only in a sense that can be described as “trying to minimise effects given
This growth is taking place at a time characterised by frequent turbulence in the available budget”. This process leads to the unsustainable development
political and economic spheres, and occasional unfortunate events caused by of coastal areas which not only impacts negatively on the environment and
the forces of nature in some of the most attractive tourism destinations of the society but, in the long term, is also eroding the economic benefts of tourism
world. since it destroys the basis of the tourism activity in coastal areas, namely the
variety of the landscape, the biodiversity and the ecosystem services - in the
From the perspective of spatial distribution, tourism is a highly fragmented sea and on land. The major challenge in this confict remains how to develop
activity. It is located in specifc environments and destinations, where there is coastal tourism patterns that will not minimise benefts to tourists and local
a variety of environmental, cultural, social and physical attractions. The fact populations, and the quality of the natural resource base for tourism.
that in a relatively small area there is a high concentration of pressures may
result in negative, albeit localised, consequences. However, the cumulative In order to minimise tourism-induced problems and secure both the
effects of these impacts can still be great. In many cases tourism, which has sustainability of the tourism industry and coastal resources used by other
been the activity that kickstarted the economic development of an area and sectors, increased attention must be paid to the integration of coastal tourism
consequently other activities, which developed because of tourism, has started into strategic development planning. In planning tourism development, it is of
to create negative impacts on sustainability, which in many cases are bigger the utmost importance to focus on the appropriate planning of tourism growth
than the benefts that tourism brings. with regard to the capacity of local systems.
One of the most common types of tourism is coastal tourism. It is based Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) has been recognised lately by
on a unique resource combination at the interface of land and sea offering many tourism operators and decision-makers as a path to follow towards the
amenities such as water, beaches, scenic beauty, rich terrestrial and marine sustainable development of coastal tourism. The ICZM is an adaptive, multi-
biodiversity, diversifed cultural and historic heritage, healthy food and, usually, sectoral governance approach, which strives to a balanced development,
good infrastructure. It includes a diversity of activities that take place in both use and protection of coastal environments. It is based on principles such
coastal zones and coastal waters, which involve the development of tourism as holistic and ecosystem-based approach, good governance, inter and
capacities (hotels, resorts, second homes, restaurants, etc.) and support intra-generational solidarity, safeguarding the distinctiveness of coasts,
infrastructure (ports, marinas, fshing and diving shops, and other facilities). precautionary and preventive principle, which give a context for achieving the
Besides physical conditions, the development of tourism in coastal areas is aims of sustainable tourism.
related to socio-economic features of the receiving environment such as local
community interests, health and security conditions, political factors including The ICZM approach creates a constructive dialogue between the interests
unpredictable crises, and traditional models of tourism. of authorities and multiple user-groups. It also prepares government
representatives and other relevant actors for developing effective
The growth of tourism in coastal areas has reached its peak in recent decades. environmental legislation within their jurisdictions. Given the scale of tourism
The economic importance of coastal tourism is unquestionable, although there in world’s coastal zones, one of the greatest challenges faced by coastal
is no analysis forecasting what would be the direct share of coastal tourism managers is giving tourism development a proper place within integrated
in the tourism sector, or its likely contribution to the economy as a whole. coastal management in order to increase its long-term sustainability.
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