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Right Answers, Wrong Questions: Environmental Justice as Urban ...

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  • cours - matière potentielle : for study
Right Answers, Wrong Questions: Environmental Justice as Urban Research Accepted: June 2, 2006 *Lisa Schweitzer, Assistant Professor Urban Affairs and Planning School of Public and International Affairs Virginia Tech 201 Architecture Annex Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 , 540-231-1128 Max Stephenson, Jr., Director, Center for Public Administration and Policy and Institute for Governance and Social Accountabilities School of Public and International Affairs Virginia Tech 201 Architecture Annex Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 mstephen@vt.
  • ethnic coalitions
  • environmental issues that concerned communities of color
  • land markets
  • communities
  • urban environments
  • environmental justice
  • spatial distribution of the location of toxic waste handlers
  • literature
  • research
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4-9 Indirect Measurement
HISTORY Thales is known as the
Solve problems
first Greek scientist, engineer, and involving similar
triangles. mathematician. Legend says that
he was the first to determine the
New Vocabulary height of the pyramids in Egypt by
examining the shadows made by indirect measurement
the Sun. He considered three points:
Math Online the top of the objects, the lengths of
the shadows, and the
• Extra Examples
1. What appears to be true about
• Personal Tutor
the corresponding angles in the • Self-Check Quiz
two triangles?
2. If the corresponding sides are proportional, what could you
conclude about the triangles?
Indirect measurement allows you to use properties of similar polygons
to find distances or lengths that are difficult to measure directly. The
type of indirect measurement Thales used is called shadow reckoning.
He measured his height and the length of his shadow then compared it
with the length of the shadow cast by the pyramid.
Thales’ heightThales’ shadow__ __ =
pyramid’s shadow pyramid height
Use Shadow Reckoning
1 CITY PROPERTY A fire hydrant 2.5 feet high casts
a 5-foot shadow. How tall is a street light that
casts a 26-foot shadow at the same time? Let
h ft
h represent the height of the street light.
Shadow Height 26 ft
2.5 ft
hydrant hydrant 5 2.5_ _ =
street light street light 5 ft26 h
5h = 2.5 · 26 Find the cross products.h = 65 Multiply.
5h 65_ _ = Divide each side by 5.
5 5
h = 13
The street light is 13 feet tall.
232 Chapter 4 Proportions and Similarity
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Gr8 MS Math SE ©09 - 874050"WF
6 mi
a. STREETS At the same time a 2-meter street sign casts a 3-meter
shadow, a telephone pole casts a 12.3-meter shadow. How tall is
the telephone pole?
You can also use similar triangles that do not involve shadows to find
missing measurements.
Use Indirect Measurement
2 LAKES In the figure at the right, triangle DBA
is similar to triangle ECA. Ramon wants to
know the distance across the lake. d m
−− −− 40 m
AB corresponds to AC and
BD corr CE .
AB BD_ _= Write a proportion.
320 40_ _= ReplaceAB with 320, AC with 482, and BD with 40.
482 d
40 · 482 = 320d Find the cross products.
19,280 320d_ _= Multiply. Then divide each side by 320.
320 320
x = 60.25
The distance across the lake is 60.25 meters.

b. STREETS Find the length of
Kentucky Lane.
4 mi 4 mi
Examples 1 and 2 In Exercises 1 and 2, the triangles are similar.
(pp. 232–233)
1. TREES How tall is the tree? 2. WALKING Find the distance from
the park to the house.
d mh m

0.45 m
0.3 m 2.2 m
Lesson 4-9 Indirect Measurement 233
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Gr8 MS Math SE ©09 - 874050
320 m 162 mIn Exercises 3–8, the triangles are similar. Write a proportion and solve the HOMEWORK
For See
Exercises Examples 3. BUILDING How tall is the building? 4. FLAGS How tall is the taller flagpole?
3–4 1
5–6 2
h fth ft
7 ft
50 ft
50 ft 12.5 ft 6 ft 2 ft
5. PARKS How far is it from the log 6. CREEKS About how long is the log
ride to the pirate ship? that goes across the creeks?
9 m
12 m 8 m 8 m
x m 12 m
25 m
7. CONSTRUCTION Find the height 8. LAKES How deep is the water
of the brace. 62 meters from the shore?

62 m
VW3 m Y
5 m
9 ft X
d m
7 ft
15 ft
For Exercises 9 and 10, draw a diagram.
9. FERRIS WHEELS The Giant Wheel at Cedar Point in Ohio is one of the tallest
Ferris wheels in the country at 136 feet tall. If the Giant Wheel casts a
34-foot shadow, write and solve a proportion to find the height of a nearby
1_man who casts a 1 -foot shadow .
10. BASKETBALL At 7 feet 2 inches, Margo Dydek is one of the tallest women to
play professional basketball. Her coach, Carolyn Peck, is 6 feet 4 inches tall.
EXTRA If Ms. Peck casts a shadow that is 4 feet long, about how long would
See pages 679, 703.
Ms. Dydek’s shadow be? Round to the nearest tenth.
234 Chapter 4 Proportions and Similarity
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Gr8 MS Math SE ©09 - 874050
HELP 11. OPEN ENDED Describe a situation that requires indirect measurement. H.O.T. Problems
Explain how to solve the problem.
1_ 12. CHALLENGE You cut a square hole -inch wide in a piece of cardboard. With
the cardboard 30 inches from your face, the moon fits exactly into the
square hole. The moon is about 240,000 miles from Earth. Estimate the
moon’s diameter. Draw a diagram of the situation. Then write a proportion
and solve the problem.
13. MATH What measures must be known in order to calculate
the height of tall objects using shadow reckoning?
1_ 14. A child 4 feet tall casts a 6-foot 15. A telephone pole casts a 24-foot
shadow. Belinda, who is 5 feet 8 inches shadow. A nearby statue casts a
tall, casts a 7-foot shadow.12-foot shadow.
x ft n
14 ft
5 ft 8 in.
6 ft 12 ft
7 ft 24 ft
What is the height of the statue? Which is closest to the height of the
1 1_ _ telephone pole? A 8 ft C 13 ft
4 2
F 50 ft H 20 ft B 9 ft D 24 ft
G 40 ft J 10 ft
1616. WATER SAFETY A Coast Guard boat was patrolling a region of y
ocean shown on the grid. If their search region was reduced to
60% of its original size, what are the coordinates of region’s
8boundary? (Lesson 4-8)
17. PARTIES For your birthday party, you make a map to your house x
4 8 12 16Oon a 3-inch wide by 5-inch long index card. How long will your
map be if you use a copier to enlarge it so it is 8 inches wide?
(Lesson 4-7)
Estimate each square root to the nearest whole number. (Lessons 3-2)
√ √ √ 18. 11 19. 48 20. - 1 18
PREREQUISITE SKILL Solve each proportion. (Lesson 4-5)
1 in. x in. 8 cm 1 cm 1 cm x cm 1 in. 2 in._ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
21. = 22. = 23. = 24. =
12 ft 50 ft x km 100 km 3 m 62 m 50 mi x mi
Lesson 4-9 Indirect Measurement 235
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Gr8 MS Math SE ©09 - 874050

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