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Government budget appropriations or outlays on R&D, GBAORD

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Science and technology
Research policy and organisation
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Science and technology Author: Håkan WILÉN
S t a t i s t i c s i n f o c u s 29/2008
Government budget appropriations or outlays on R&D — GBAORD
GBAORD per inhabitant in the US is double that of the EU
In 2005, total GBAORD in the EU-27 exceededEU-27; in Japan, however, it fell just short of the 20 EUR 80 billion at current prices. Almost 80% of thisbillion mark. total was distributed among five major contributors: The differences in relative terms (i.e. as a percentage of Germany, France, the United Kingdom, Italy and GDP) were less significant than in absolute terms, at Spain. However, as a percentage of GDP, Finland led least between Japan and the other main economies. and was the only Member State exceeding 1%. However, Japan's GBAORD amounted to 0.71% of Between 2000 and 2005, GBAORD increased for all GDP, which was slightly lower than the EU-27 figure of Member States. 0.74%, but still very close. The United States has consistently exceeded 1% of GDP since 2003. United States and northern Europe in During the period 1995 to 1999 both the United States the lead and the EU-15 showed a similar decline in GBAORD as a percentage of GDP. Japan's GBAORD, by contrast, Of the three major economies, the United States has increased during the same period. Between 1999 and allocated most Government Budget Appropriations or 2005, trends differed considerably. GBAORD as a Outlays for Research and Development (GBAORD), percentage of GDP was relatively stable in the EU and both in absolute and in relative terms (Figure 1). in Japan, whereas it increased significantly in the United In 2005, total GBAORD amounted to 90 billion in 1995 States. constant PPS in the United States and to 64 billion in the Figure 1: Total GBAORD as a percentage of GDP and in million constant 1995 PPS, EU, Japan and the United States — 1995 to 2005 M io 1 9 9 5 c o n s t a n t P P S % o f G DP 1 2 0 0 0 0 1 .2
9 0 0 0 0
6 0 0 0 0
3 0 0 0 0
0
1 9 9 5
1 9 9 6 1 9 9 7 1 9 9 8 EU- 2 7 Mio 1 9 9 5 c o n s ta n t PPS EU- 2 7 % o f G DP
'
1 9 9 6 1 9 9 7 1 9 9 8 1 9 9 9 EU- 1 5 Mio 1 9 9 5 c o n s ta n t PPS EU- 1 5 % o f G DP
2 0 0 0 2 0 0 1 2 0 0 2 JP Mio 1 9 9 5 c o n s ta n t PPS JP % o f G DP
EU- 2 7 a n d EU- 1 5 : Eu r o s ta t e s tima tio n s JP 2 0 0 5 : Pr o v is io n a l US 2 0 0 0 : B r e a k in s e r ie s ; US 2 0 0 4 : Na tio n a l e s tima tio n JP a n d US : Fe d e r a l o r c e n tr a l g o v e r n me n t o n ly ; US : Ex c lu d e s d a ta f o r th e R& D c o n te n t o f g e n e r a l p a y me n t to th e Hig h e r Ed u c a tio n s e c to r f o r c o mb in e d e d u c a tio n a n d r e s e a r c h ( p u b lic G UF) .
2 0 0 3
2 0 0 4 2 0 0 5 US Mio 1 9 9 5 c o n s ta n t PPS US % o f G DP
0 .9
0 .6
0 .3
0 .0
S o u r c e : Eu r o s ta t - G B A O RD s ta tis tic s , O ECD - MS TI
EUROPEAN COMMISSION
Un pour Un
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