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Across Unknown South America

491 pages
The Project Gutenberg EBook of Across Unknown South America, by Arnold Henry Savage LandorThis eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and withalmost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away orre-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License includedwith this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.netTitle: Across Unknown South AmericaAuthor: Arnold Henry Savage LandorRelease Date: August 31, 2007 [EBook #22483]Language: English*** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK ACROSS UNKNOWN SOUTH AMERICA ***Produced by Michael Ciesielski and the Online DistributedProofreading Team at http://www.pgdp.netCover ACROSS UNKNOWNSOUTH AMERICABYA. HENRY SAVAGE-LANDORWITH 2 MAPS, 8 COLOURED PLATES, AND 260 ILLUSTRATIONSFROM PHOTOGRAPHS BY THE AUTHORIN TWO VOLUMESHODDER AND STOUGHTONLONDON NEW YORK TORONTO The Author.The Author. Printed in 1913Copyright in the United States of Americaby A. Henry Savage-LandorTHIS WORK IS DEDICATEDtoTHE PEOPLEof theGREAT BRAZILIAN REPUBLICCONTENTSVOL. IChapter Paragraph Description Pp.  PREFACE v-xiii  CONTENTS xv-xviii  LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS xix-xxivThe Heart of Brazil—Brazil, its Size and its Immense Wealth—I Rio de Janeiro—Brazilian Men of Genius—São Paulo—The 1-25Bandeirantes—The Paulista RailwayII Coffee—The Dumont Railway 26-37III On the Mogyana Railway 38-51The Terminus of the Railway—An Unpleasant Incident—TheIV 52-68Purchase of Animals—On the March with the ...
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The Project Gutenberg EBook of Across Unknown South America, by Arnold Henry Savage Landor
This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at
Title: Across Unknown South America
Author: Arnold Henry Savage Landor
Release Date: August 31, 2007 [EBook #22483]
Language: English
Produced by Michael Ciesielski and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team at
The Author.
The Author.
Printed in 1913 Copyright in the United States of America by A. Henry Savage-Landor
of the
Chapter Paragraph Description Pp. v-xi PREFACE ii xv-CONTENTS xvii i xix-LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS xxi v IThe Heart of Brazil—Brazil, its Size and its Immense Wealth—Rio de Janeiro— Brazilian Men of Genius—São Paulo—T1-2 heBandeirantes—The Paulista Railway5 II 26-Coffee—The Dumont Railway 37 III 38-On the Mogyana Railway 51 IVThe Terminus of the Railway—An Unple asant Incident—The Purchase of Anima52-ls—On the March with the Caravan68 VTravelling across Country—A Musical G enius—Valuable Woods—Thermal Sprin69-gs85 VI 86-Inquisitiveness—Snakes—A Wonderful 10 Cure—Butterflies—A Striking Scene 1 VII 10 In the City of Goyaz2-1 17 VIII 11 Fourteen Long and Weary Days—Disap 8-1 pointment—Criminals as Followers 31 IX 13 The Departure—Devoured by Insects2-1 48 X 14 Fishing—Termites—The Great Araguay 9-1 a River 59 XI 16 TheTucano—Fish of the Araguaya Rive 0-1 r—A Bad Shot—A Strange Sight 78 XII 17 Geological Speculation—Beautiful Pastu 9-1 re-land 95 XIII 19 The River Barreiros—A Country of Tabl 6-2 elands 06
The Author
Page Photogra vure Fron tispiece
20 24 28 32 32
Rio de Janeiro, showing the beautiful Aveni da Central Rio de Janeiro as it was in 1903 Dr. Pedro de Toledo, Minister of Agricultur e, Brazil Senador Alcindo Guanabara, a great Litera ry Genius and Patriot of Brazil The Municipal Theatre, Rio de Janeiro Baron de Rio Branco Dr. Passos A Beautiful Waterfall at Theresopolis Antonio Prado's Coffee Estate The Station and Shed of the Goyaz Railwa y, Araguary. Mr. Luiz Schnoor and his two Engineers Typical Trees of the Brazilian Forest, Goya
XXIA Beautiful Lagoon—Strange Lunar Dis play—Waves of Lava—Curious Grottoe32 s—Rock Carvings—A Beautiful Waterfal8-3 l43 XXIIIn Search of the Highest Point of the Br azilian Plateau—Mutiny—Great Domes34 —Travelling by Compass—A Gigantic Fi4-3 ssure in the Earth's Crust58 XXIIIThe Jangada River—Demented Descen dants of Slaves—Appalling Degeneratio n—Giant Monoliths—The River Roncad35 or—Gigantic Natural Gateways—The Di9-3 scovery of Fossils76 XXIVA Swampy Valley—Impressive Scenery —"Church Rock"—Escaping before a F orest Fire—The Rio Manso—Difficulties37 of marching across Virgin Country—Be7-3 autiful Rapids98 XXVThe Blue Mountains—The Cuyabá Rive r—Inaccurate Maps—A Rebellion in Ca mp—Infamy of Author's Followers—The Lagõa dos Veados and the Seven Lake s—Falling Back on Diamantino—Anothe39 r Mutiny—Slavery—Descending from th9-4 e Tableland32
XIV The Bororo Indians XV Bororo Superstitions—The Bororo Lang uage—Bororo Music XVI Bororo Legends—The Religion of the B ororos—Funeral Rites XVII The River Das Garças—Majestic Scene ry XVIII The Salesian Fathers—A Volcanic Zone XIX The Paredão Grande—A Cañon—A We ird Phenomenon—Troublesome Insects XX Wild Animals—An Immense Chasm—In teresting Cloud Effects
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z. The Stem devoid of Branches and Foliag e up to a great Height Author departing from Morro da Meza, sho wing style of Costume worn during the Exp edition Alcides and Filippe the Negro Goyaz Railway in Construction: the Cut lea ding to the Paranahyba River Author's Caravan crossing a Stream Characteristic Types of Brazilians of the Int erior. (Notice the Degenerate Faces and D evelopment of Goitre) A Typical Village of the Province of Goyaz Picturesque Ox-carts of Goyaz A Home in Central Brazil A Clever Automatic Pounding Machine Brazilian Pack-saddles A Typical Village. (The Higher Building is th e Church) Author's Caravan about to cross the River Corumba Burity Palms The President of Goyaz and his Family. (Gi ant Cactus in the background) The Main Square of Goyaz City, showing P rison and Public Library Some of the Baggage and Scientific Instru ments used by Author on his Expedition Author's Six Followers View of Goyaz City from Sta. Barbara Author's Men packing Animals Some of Author's Pack Animals Author's Caravan across the Immense Prai ries of Matto Grosso The Araguaya River (looking North) The Araguaya (looking South) Caraja Indian of the Upper Araguaya River Typical Flat-topped Plateau of Central Braz il One Night's Fishing on the Araguaya The Paredãozinho Typical Scenery of Matto Grosso Volcanic Scenery of Matto Grosso (Chapa da in foreground) Peculiar Formation of Central Plateau Curious Domes of Lava with Upper Stratu m of Earth, Sand and Ashes Great Undulating Campos of Matto Grosso Typical Brazilian Plateau, showing Work of Erosion On the Plateau of Matto Grosso (Alcides in foreground) A Fine Bororo Type on a Visit To Author's Camp Bororo Men, showing Lip Ornament Bororo Men Bororo Indians Bororo Men (the Aprons are not actually w orn) Bororo Warriors Bororo Warriors The Horrors of Photography: Bororo Childr en Bororo Chief rattling Gourds filled with Peb bles, in order to call Members of his Tribe ( Coloured Plate) Bororo Child showing strong Malay Charact eristics
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112 120 120 128
152 152 160
168 176 176
216 216 224
232 232
Bororo Girls Bororo Girls (side view) Bororo Women, showing Method of carryin g Children Bororos showing Formation of Hands Bororo Women Bororo Women Bororos Thrashing Indian Corn A Bororo Blind Woman Bororo Children Bororo Women Isolated Conical Hills with Tower-like Rocky Formations on Summit The Endless Campos of Matto Grosso Geometrical Pattern on the Surface of a Fl ow of Lava (caused by Sudden Contraction in Cooling) The Observatory at the Salesian Colony. ( Padre Colbacchini in the Foreground) Bororo Women and Children Strange Formation of Volcanic Rock Volcanic Cavities (Matto Grosso) A Vertical Mass of Solid Rock of a Brilliant Red Colour The Paredão Grande (Matto Grosso) (Colo ured Plate) The Paredão Grande, showing Vertical Roc ks with Great Arches Mushroom-shaped Rocks of Volcanic Form ation A Great Earthquake Fissure in the Terrestri al Crust (Matto Grosso) Strange Geometrical Pattern of Lava over Giant Volcanic Dome Author's Troop of Animals wading across a Shallow Stream
Central Cluster of Trees and Palms in a Cu vette (Matto Grosso) A Giant Wave of Lava Strange Rock-Carvings of Matto Grosso Weird Lunar Effect witnessed by Author (C oloured Plate) A Giant Quadrangular Block of Rock Rock-Carvings in Matto Grosso A Picturesque Waterfall on the S. Lourenço River A Cañon of Matto Grosso How Author's Animals rolled down Trailless Ravines Hideous Types characteristic of Central Br azil. Two Women (Left) and Two Men (Rig ht) Author's Caravan marching across Trailles s Country The Roncador River Fossil Skull of a Giant Animal discovered b y Author (Side View) Fossil Skull of Giant Animal (seen from Un derneath) A Grand Rock ("Church Rock") Church Rock (Side View) Quadrangular Rocky Mountain connected by Natural Wall of Rock with the Vertical-si ded Range in Background Quadrangular Rocky Mountain showing Ro cky Wall connecting it with the Neighbourin g Range Author's Caravan in the Heart of Matto Gro sso
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280 288 288
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344 344
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A Giant Dome of Lava Campos and Chapada of Matto Grosso Marvellous Scenery of the Central Brazilian Plateau. "Church Rock" standing in the Ce ntre (Coloured Plate) A Street of Diamantino The Dogs of the Expedition Matto-Grosso Girl, a Mixture of Portugues e, Indian and Negro Blood Brazilian Child, a Mixture of Portuguese an d Negro Map showing Author's Route Map showing the Arinos and Arinos-Juruen a Rivers
The Mouth of the Putamayo River.
The Mouth of the Putamayo River.
396 396
404 404
Chapter Paragraph Description Pp. iii-v CONTENTS iii ix-x LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS vi IThe River Arinos—A Rickety Canoe—M apping the River—TheSiphonia Elastica —Rubber and its Collection—An Enorm ously Rich Country—A German in Slave1-1 ry5 IIHoisting the British Flag—An Escaped S lave—A Dilemma—Benedicto—TheLutr a Brasiliensis—The Seringueiros—A Ma16-rvellous River—Rapids32 IIIDangerous Navigation—Eddies—Whirlp ools—An Extraordinary Creature—The Man X—Pedro de Toledo Island—An In33-teresting Rodent50 IVOleo PardoTrees—Beautiful Palms—T he River Bottom—Swarms of Butterflies —Millions of Bees—A Continuous Tortu51-re61 VGreat Islands—The Trinchão Fish—A Fi sherman's Paradise—Alastor Island—Pl entiful Rubber—The Civilized Man's Ide a of the Tropical Forest—The War-Crie s of the Indians—Swarms of Bees and62-Butterflies75 VITheTapirus Americanus—Striking Scen ery—TheMateTree—Photography in C amp—Brazilian Way of Reasoning—A N ew Christopher Columbus—The Selecti on of our Camps—Beautiful Fruit—A La76-rge Tributary91 VIIIdeal Islands—ImmenseFigueiraTrees —The "Spider Monkey"—Great Variety of Fish in the Arinos—The Rocky Gatew ay into Diabolical Waters—Shooting Da ngerous Rapids—Cutting a Way throug92-h the Forest—A Nasty Rapid—Plentiful11 Fish1 VIIIMagnificent Basins—Innumerable Rapid s—Narrow Escapes—The Destructive S auba Ants—Disobedient Followers—A Range of Mountains—Inquisitive Monke11
ys—Luck in Fishing—Rocky Barriers—V2-1 enus28 IXDogs—Macaws—Crocodiles—A Seriou s Accident: Men flung into a Whirlpool— The Loss of Provisions and Valuable Ba ggage—More Dangerous Rapids—Won derful Scenery—Dangerous Work—On the Edge of a Waterfall—A Risky Experi ence—Bravery of Author's Brazilian Foll12 owers—A High Wind from the North-Ea9-1 st—A Big Lake50 XThe Point of Junction of the Arinos and Juruena Rivers—Elfrida Landor Island —Terrible Days of Navigation—Immens e Islands—An Old Indian Camp—A Fig ht between a Dog and anAriranha—Ge15 orge Rex Island—A HugeSucuriúSnak1-1 e64 XIA Family ofAriranhas—Attacked by the m—Three Nasty Rapids—Beautiful San d Beaches—Exciting Experiences—Goi ng down a Thundering Cataract—Alcide s' Narrow Escape—A Night's Work in th e Midst of a Foaming Rapid in order to r escue the half-submerged Canoe—Filip16 pe's Courage—Visited by a Snake 20 ft.5-1 long81 XIIA Tiny Globular Cloudlet warning us—T ossed in a Merciless Manner—Saved b y Providence—Vicious Waters—A Diab olical Spot—A Highly Dangerous Crossi ng—A Terrible Channel—More Bad Rap ids—On the Verge of a Fatal Drop dow n a Waterfall—Saved in Time—A Magni ficent Sight—The August Falls—A Mutin18 y—The Canoe, weighing 2,000 lb., take2-2 n across the Forest over a Hill-range06 XIIIA Double Whirlpool—Incessant Rapids20 of Great Magnitude—A Dangerous Cha7-2 nnel—Nothing to Eat—Another Disaster19 XIVIn the Hands of Providence—A Mutiny —Another Mutiny—Foodless—Hard an d Dangerous Work—A Near Approach t o Hades—Making an Artificial Channel among Thousands of Boulders—An Aw22 e-inspiring Scene—The Fall of S. Simão0-2 —A Revolt34 XVMutiny and Threats—Wasted Efforts— Awful Waters—The Canoe escapes in a Violent Rapid—Another Mutiny—The C anoe recovered—An Appalling Vortex—23 The Fall of S. Simão—Cutting an Artifici5-2 al Channel in the Rocks48 XVIAt Death's Door—Mundurucu Indians— All Author's Followers poisoned by Wild Fruit—Anxious Moments—Seringueiros —A Dying Jewish Trader—The Mori Bro thers—A New Hat—Where the Tres Bar24 ras meets the Arinos-Juruena—The Ca9-2 noe abandoned65 XVIIA Fiscal Agency—Former Atrocities—T he Apiacar Indians—Plentiful Rubber— Unexploited Regions—Precious Fossils thrown away by Author's Followers—A26 Terrific Storm—Author's Canoe dashed6-2 to pieces—The Mount St. Benedicto77 XVIIIStarting across the Virgin Forest—Cutti ng the Way incessantly—A Rugged, Ro cky Plateau—Author's Men throw away the Supplies of Food—Attacked by Fev er—Marching by Compass—Poisoned —Author's Men break down—Author pr oceeds across Forest endeavouring to r27 each the Madeira River—A Dramatic Sc8-2 ene98
XIXBenedicto and Filippe show Courage— Confronted with a Mountainous Country —Steep Ravines—No Food—Painful M arches—Starving—Ammunition rendere d useless by Moisture—The "Pros" and "Cons" of Smoking—A Faint Hope—A F orged Tin which should have contained Anchovies—Curious Effects of Starvatio n upon the Brain—Where Money is of n o avail—Why there was Nothing to eat i n the Forest—The Sauba Ants—Sniffed29 by a Jaguar—Filippe tries to commit Sui9-3 cide20 XXBenedicto and the Honey—Constantly c ollapsing from Exhaustion—A Strange A ccident—Finding a River—People's Mist aken Ideas—Sixteen Days of Starvation —An Abandoned Hut—Repairing a Brok32 en-down Canoe—Canoe founders—A R1-3 aft constructed of Glass38 XXIThe Launching of the Glass Raft—Accid ents—The Raft sinking—Saved—Our Fi rst Solid Meal—Its Consequences—The Canuma and Secundury Rivers—March ing back across the Forest to the Relief33 of the Men left behind—A Strange Mish9-3 ap—A Curious Case of Telepathy64 XXIIBaggage Saved—The Journey down th e Tapajoz River—Colonel Brazil—Wrec36 ked—From Itaituba to the Amazon—Be5-3 nedicto and the Man X are discharged85 XXIIISantarem to Belem (Pará)—The Amazo38 n—From Belem to Manaos—The Madei6-4 ra-Mamore Railway04 XXIVAttacked by Beri-beri—A Journey up th e Madeira River to the Relief of Filippe t he Negro and Recovery of Valuable Ba40 ggage left with him—Filippe paid off—A5-4 Journey up the River Solimões—Iquitos18 XXVFrom Iquitos to the Foot of the Andes u41 p the Rivers Ucayalli, Pachitea and Pich9-4 is—The Cashibos or "Vampire Indians"38 XXVI 43 Across the Andes—The End of the Tran 9-4 s-continental Journey 57 XXVIIThe Peruvian Corporation Railway—The Land of the Incas—Lake Titicaca—Boliv45 ia—Chile—The Argentine—A Last Narr8-4 ow Escape—Back in England76 APPENSome of the Principal Plants of Brazil—47 DIXMammals—Birds—Fish—Reptiles—Voc7-4 abularies96 49 INDEX 7-5 04
P a g e F r o n ti The Mouth of the Putamayo River (Coloured Plate) s pi e c e
Rubber Tree showing Incisions and the Collar and Tin Cup for the Collection of the Latex Coagulating Rubber into a Ball Balls of Rubber outside a Seringueiro's Hut Method of pressing Rubber into Cakes, the Alum P rocess of Coagulation being used
The Upper Arinos River
The Arinos River above the Rapids
The First Rocks in the Arinos River
Enormous Globular Rocks typical of the Arinos Riv er
A Rocky Barrier in the River
A Picturesque Double Waterfall on the Arinos River
An Island of the Arinos River
Vegetation on an Island in the River Arinos
Preparing the Canoe to descend a Rapid
A Cataract on the Arinos River
A Rapid on the Arinos River
Taking the Canoe through a Narrow Channel
A Formidable Vortex
Going down a Violent Rapid in a Narrow Channel
The Result of Half an Hour's Fishing on the Arinos-Juruena
Leading the Canoe down a Rapid by Rope
Characteristic Rocky Barrier across the Arinos Rive r (Author's Sextant in Foreground)
Whirlpool at End of Rapid
In Shallow Water
Fishing on the Arinos: a Jahu
Fish of the Arinos River
A Fine Cataract on the Arinos-Juruena River
Preparing the Canoe prior to descending a Rapid
A Nasty Rapid
A Giant Central Wave emerging from a Narrow Ch annel
A Dangerous Rapid
Taking the Canoe and Part of the Baggage down a NarrowPassageamongRocks
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1 2 1 2 2 0 2 0 2 4 2 4 2 8 2 8 3 6 3 6 4 4 4 4 6 4 6 4 8 4 9 2 9 2 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 4 1 0 4 1 0 8 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 6 1 2 0 1 2
The Canoe being led down a Rapid
Crocodile about to attack one of the Dogs of the E xpedition. Photographed by Author at a Distance of Three Metres (Rio Arinos-Juruena)
Terrifying Rapid shot by Author and his Men in thei r Canoe
Author's Men shooting a Crocodile
A Cataract in the River Arinos
Author's Canoe among Great Volcanic Rocks
Preparing to descend a Rapid
A Cataract in the Arinos River
Lake formed where the Arinos and Juruena Rivers meet
Going through a Rapid
Author's Canoe going down a Cataract
The Immense Waves encountered by Author in em erging from the Channel, in the Rapid of the Infern o. (The Canoe with its Occupants shot up Vertically in the Air)
A Giant Sucurí Snake with Entire Deer contained in its Digestive Organs
An Easy Rapid
Going through a Narrow Channel
A Dangerous Vortex
Preparing the Canoe to go down a Rapid
A Narrow Passage in the Arinos River
Treble Vortex. (The Water revolved in Three Differ ent Directions in Succession)
At the August Falls
Author and His Men in Water up to their Necks for an Entire Night endeavouring to save their Canoe, which in shooting a Rapid had become stuck betwe en Rocks(Coloured Plate)
The Salto Augusto from Above
The Upper Terrace of the August Waterfall
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