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Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 6, Slice 1 - "Châtelet" to "Chicago"

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Ajouté le : 08 décembre 2010
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The Project Gutenberg EBook of Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 6, Slice 1, by Various This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net Title: Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 6, Slice 1 "Châtelet" to "Chicago" Author: Various Release Date: February 2, 2010 [EBook #31156] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA, VOL 6 SL 1 *** Produced by Marius Masi, Don Kretz, Juliet Sutherland and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team at http://www.pgdp.net Transcriber's note: A few typographical errors have been corrected. They appear in the text like this, and the explanation will appear when the mouse pointer is moved over the marked passage. Sections in Greek will yield a transliteration when the pointer is moved over them, and words using diacritic characters in the Latin Extended Additional block, which may not display in some fonts or browsers, will display an unaccented version. Links to other EB articles: Links to articles residing in other EB volumes will be made available when the respective volumes are introduced online. THE ENCYCLOPÆDIA BRITANNICA A DICTIONARY OF ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE AND GENERAL INFORMATION ELEVENTH EDITION VOLUME VI slice I Châtelet to Chicago Table of Contents CHÂTELET CHÂTELLERAULT CHATHAM, WILLIAM PITT CHATHAM (port in New Brunswick, Canada) CHATHAM (city in Kent county Canada) CHATHAM (port in Kent, England) CHATHAM ISLANDS CHÂTILLON CHÂTILLON-SUR-SEINE CHATSWORTH CHATTANOOGA CHATTEL CHATTERIS CHATTERJI, BANKIM CHANDRA CHATTERTON, THOMAS CHATTI CHAUCER, GEOFFREY CHAUDESAIGUES CHAUFFEUR CHAULIEU, GUILLAUME AMFRYE DE CHAUMETTE, PIERRE GASPARD CHAUMONT-EN-BASSIGNY CHAUNCEY, ISAAC CHAUNCY, CHARLES CHAUNY CHAUTAUQUA CHAUVELIN, BERNARD FRANÇOIS CHAUVIGNY CHAUVIN, ÉTIENNE CHAUVINISM CHAUX DE FONDS, LA CHAVES CHAZELLES, JEAN MATHIEU DE CHEADLE (town in Cheshire, England) CHEADLE (town in Staffordshire, England) CHEATING CHEBICHEV, PAFNUTIY LVOVICH CHEBOYGAN CHECHENZES CHECKERS CHEDDAR CHEQUE CHER CHERAT CHERBOURG CHERBULIEZ, CHARLES VICTOR CHERCHEL CHERCHEN CHEREMISSES CHERIBON CHERKASY CHERNIGOV (government of Little Russia) CHERNIGOV (town of Russia) CHEROKEE CHEROOT CHERRAPUNJI CHERRY CHERRYVALE CHERRY VALLEY CHERSIPHRON CHERSO CHERSONESE CHERTSEY CHERUBIM CHERUBINI, MARIA LUIGI CARLO ZENOBIO SALVATORE CHÉRUEL, PIERRE ADOLPHE CHERUSCI CHESELDEN, WILLIAM CHESHAM CHESHIRE CHESHUNT CHESIL BANK CHESNELONG, PIERRE CHARLES CHESNEY, CHARLES CORNWALLIS CHESNEY, FRANCIS RAWDON CHESNEY, SIR GEORGE TOMKYNS CHESS CHEST CHESTER, EARLS OF CHESTER (city of England) CHESTER (city of U.S.A.) CHESTERFIELD, PHILIP DORMER STANHOPE CHEDUBA CHEERING CHEESE CHEESE CLOTH CHEETA CHEFFONIER CHEH-KIANG CHEKE, SIR JOHN CHELLIAN CHELMSFORD, FREDERIC THESIGER CHELMSFORD CHELSEA (borough of London, England) CHELSEA (city in Massachusetts, U.S.A) CHELTENHAM CHELYABINSK CHELYS CHEMICAL ACTION CHEMISTRY CHEMNITZ (German Lutheran theologian) CHEMNITZ (town of Germany) CHEMOTAXIS CHENAB CHÊNEDOLLÉ, CHARLES JULIEN LIOULT DE CHENERY, THOMAS CHENG CHÊN-HAI CHÉNIER, ANDRÉ DE CHÉNIER, MARIE-JOSEPH BLAISE DE CHENILLE CHENONCEAUX CHENOPODIUM CHEOPS CHEPSTOW CHESTERFIELD CHESTER-LE-STREET CHESTERTON, GILBERT KEITH CHESTERTON (district of England) CHESTNUT CHETTLE, HENRY CHEVALIER, ALBERT CHEVALIER, MICHEL CHEVALIER, ULYSSE CHEVAUX-DE-FRISE CHEVERUS, JEAN LOUIS ANNE MAGDELEINE LEFEBVRE DE CHEVET CHEVIOT HILLS CHEVREUL, MICHEL EUGÈNE CHEVRON CHEVROTAIN CHEYENNE (Indian Tribe) CHEYENNE (city of U.S.A.) CHEYNE, THOMAS KELLY CHÉZY, ANTOINE LÉONARD DE CHHATARPUR CHHATTISGARH CHHINDWARA CHIABRERA, GABRIELLO CHIANA CHIAPAS CHIAROSCURO CHIAVARI CHIAVENNA CHIBOUQUE CHIC CHICACOLE CHICAGO CHÂTELET (from Med. Lat. castella), the word, sometimes also written castillet, used in France for a building designed for the defence of an outwork or gate, sometimes of great strength or size, but distinguished from the château, or castle proper, in being purely defensive and not residential. In Paris, before the Revolution, this word was applied both to a particular building and to the jurisdiction of which it was the seat. This building, the original Châtelet, had been first a castle defending the approach to the Cité. Tradition traced its existence back to Roman times, and in the 18th century one of the rooms in the great tower was still called the chambre de César. The jurisdiction was that of the provostship (prévôté) and viscountship of Paris, which was certainly of feudal origin, probably going back to the counts of Paris. It was not till the time of Saint Louis that, with the appointment of Étienne Boileau, the provostship of Paris became a prévôté en garde, i.e. a public office no longer put up to sale. When the baillis (see BAILIFF AND BAILIE) were created, the provost of Paris naturally discharged the duties and functions of a bailli, in which capacity he heard appeals from the seigniorial and inferior judges of the city and its neighbourhood, keeping, however, his title of provost. When under Henry II. certain bailliages became presidial jurisdictions (présidiaux), i.e. received to a certain extent the right of judging without appeal, the Châtelet, the court of the provost of Paris, was made a presidial court, but without losing its former name. Finally, various tribunals peculiar to the city of Paris, i.e. courts exercising jurisdictions outside the common law or corresponding to certain cours d’exception which existed in the provinces, were united with the Châtelet, of which they became divisions (chambres). Thus the lieutenant-general of police made it the seat of his jurisdiction, and the provost of the Île de France, who had the same criminal jurisdiction as the provosts of the marshals of France in other provinces, sat there also. As to the personnel of the Châtelet, it was originally the same as in the bailliages, except that after the 14th century it had some special officials, the auditors and the examiners of inquests. Like the baillis, the provost had lieutenants who were deputies for him, and in addition gradually acquired a considerable body of ex officio councillors. This last staff, however, was not yet in existence at the end of the 14th century, for it is not mentioned in the Registre criminel du Châtelet (1389-1392), published by the Société des Bibliophiles Français. In 1674 the whole personnel was doubled, at the time when the new Châtelet was established side by side with the old, the two being soon after amalgamated. On the eve of the Revolution it comprised, beside the provost whose office had become practically honorary, the lieutenant civil, who presided over the chambre de prévôté au parc civil or court of first instance; the lieutenant criminel, who presided over the criminal court; two lieutenants particuliers, who presided in turn over the chambre du présidial or court of appeal from the inferior jurisdictions; a juge auditeur; sixty-four councillors (conseillers); the procureur du roi , four avocats du roi, and eight substituts, i.e. deputies of the procureur (see PROCURATOR), beside a host of minor officials. The history of the Châtelet under the Revolution may be briefly told: the Constituent Assembly empowered it to try cases of lèsenation, and it was also
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