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Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 8, Slice 6 - "Dodwell" to "Drama"

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The Project Gutenberg EBook of Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 8, Slice 6, by Various This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net Title: Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 8, Slice 6 "Dodwell" to "Drama" Author: Various Release Date: June 9, 2010 [EBook #32758] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK ENCYC. BRITANNICA, VOL 8 SL 6 *** Produced by Marius Masi, Don Kretz and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team at http://www.pgdp.net Transcriber's note: A few typographical errors have been corrected. They appear in the text like this, and the explanation will appear when the mouse pointer is moved over the marked passage. Sections in Greek will yield a transliteration when the pointer is moved over them, and words using diacritic characters in the Latin Extended Additional block, which may not display in some fonts or browsers, will display an unaccented version. Links to other EB articles: Links to articles residing in other EB volumes will be made available when the respective volumes are introduced online. THE ENCYCLOPÆDIA BRITANNICA A DICTIONARY OF ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE AND GENERAL INFORMATION ELEVENTH EDITION VOLUME VIII SLICE VI Dodwell to Drama Articles in This Slice DODWELL, EDWARD DODWELL, HENRY DOG DOGE DOG-FISH DOGGER BANK DOGGETT THOMAS DOGMA DOGMATIC THEOLOGY DOGRA DOGS, ISLE OF DOG-TOOTH DOGWOOD DOL DOLABELLA, PUBLIUS CORNELIUS DOLBEN, JOHN DOLCE, LUDOVICO DOLCI, CARLO DOLDRUMS DÔLE DOLE DOLERITE DOLET, ÉTIENNE DOLGELLEY DOLGORUKI, VASILY LUKICH DOLHAIN DOLICHOCEPHALIC DOLL DOLLAR (town of Scotland) DOLLAR (money) DOLLING, ROBERT WILLIAM RADCLYFFE DÖLLINGER, JOHANN JOSEPH IGNAZ VON DOLLOND, JOHN DOLMAN DOLNJA TUZLA DOLOMIEU, TANCRÈDE GRATET DE DOLOMITE DOLOMITES, THE DOLPHIN DOMAT JEAN DOMBES DOMBROWSKI, JAN HENRYK DOME DOMENICHINO ZAMPIERI DOMESDAY BOOK DOMESTIC RELATIONS DOMETT, ALFRED DOMFRONT DOMICILE DOMINIC, SAINT DOMINICA DOMINICANS DOMINIS, MARCO ANTONIO DE DOMINOES DOMINUS DOMITIAN DOMRÉMY-LA-PUCELLE DON (river of Russia) DON (river of Scotland) DORLÉANS, LOUIS DORMER DORMITORY DORMOUSE DORNBIRN DORNBURG DORNER, ISAAC AUGUST DORNOCH DOROHOI DOROTHEUS D’ORSAY, ALFRED GUILLAUME GABRIEL DORSET, EARLS, MARQUESSES AND DUKES OF DORSETSHIRE DORSIVENTRAL DORT, SYNOD OF DORTMUND DORY DOSITHEUS MAGISTER DOSSAL DOSSERET DOST MAHOMMED KHAN DOSTOIEVSKY, FEODOR MIKHAILOVICH DOUAI DOUARNENEZ DOUBLE DOUBLE BASS DOUBLEDAY, ABNER DOUBLEDAY, THOMAS DOUBLET DOUBS (river of France) DOUBS (department of France) DOUCE, FRANCIS DOUGLAS DOUGLAS, SIR CHARLES DOUGLAS, GAVIN DOUGLAS, SIR HOWARD DOUGLAS, JOHN DOUGLAS, STEPHEN ARNOLD DOUGLAS (capital of the Isle of Man) DOUGLAS (village of Scotland) DOUGLASS, FREDERICK DOUKHOBORS DOULLENS DOULTON, SIR HENRY DOUMER, PAUL DOUMIC, RENÉ DOUNE DOURO DOUROUCOULI DOUSA, JANUS DOUVILLE, JEAN BAPTISTE DOUW GERHARD DOVE (river of England) DOVE (bird) DOVER, GEORGE JAMES WELBORE AGAR-ELLIS DOVER, HENRY JERMYN DOVER, ROBERT DOVER (capital of Delaware, U.S.A.) DOVER (borough of Kent, England) DONAGHADEE DONALDSON, SIR JAMES DONALDSON, JOHN WILLIAM DONATELLO DONATI, GIOVANNI BATTISTA DONATIO MORTIS CAUSA DONATION OF CONSTANTINE DONATISTS DONATUS, AELIUS DONAUWÖRTH DON BENÍTO DONCASTER DON COSSACKS, TERRITORY OF THE DONEGAL (county of Ireland) DONEGAL (town of Ireland) DONELSON, FORT DONGA DONGOLA (province of Sudan) DONGOLA (town of Sudan) DONIZETTI, GAETANO DONJON DON JUAN DONKIN, SIR RUFANE SHAW DONNAY, CHARLES MAURICE DONNE, JOHN DONNYBROOK DONOSO CORTÉS, JUAN DONOVAN, EDWARD DOOM DOON DE MAYENCE DOOR DOORWAY DOPPLERITE DORAN, JOHN DORAT, CLAUDE JOSEPH DORCHESTER, DUDLEY CARLETON DORCHESTER, GUY CARLETON DORCHESTER (town of England) DORCHESTER (village of England) DORCHESTER (district of Boston, U.S.A.) DORDOGNE (river of France) DORDOGNE (department of France) DORDRECHT DORÉ, LOUIS AUGUSTE GUSTAVE DORIA, ANDREA DORIANS DORIA-PAMPHILII-LANDI DORION, SIR ANTOINE AIMÉ DORIS DORISLAUS, ISAAC DORKING DOVER (city of New Hampshire, U.S.A.) DOVER (town of New Jersey, U.S.A.) DOVERCOURT DOW, LORENZO DOW, NEAL DOWAGER DOWDEN, EDWARD DOWDESWELL, WILLIAM DOWER DOWIE, JOHN ALEXANDER DOWLAS DOWN (county of Ireland) DOWN (smooth rounded hill) DOWNES ANDREW DOWNING, SIR GEORGE DOWNMAN, JOHN DOWNPATRICK DOWNS DOWNSHIRE, WILLS HILL DOWRY DOWSER and DOWSING DOXOLOGY DOYEN, GABRIEL FRANÇOIS DOYLE, SIR ARTHUR CONAN DOYLE, SIR FRANCIS HASTINGS CHARLES DOYLE, JOHN ANDREW DOYLE, RICHARD DOZSA, GYÖRGY DOZY, REINHART PIETER ANNE DRACAENA DRACHMANN, HOLGER HENRIK HERBOLDT DRACO (Athenian statesman) DRACO (constellation) DRACONTIUS, BLOSSIUS AEMILIUS DRAFTED MASONRY DRAG DRAGASHANI DRAGOMAN DRAGOMIROV, MICHAEL IVANOVICH DRAGON DRAGONETTI, DOMENICO DRAGON-FLY DRAGON’S BLOOD DRAGOON DRAGUIGNAN DRAINAGE OF LAND DRAKE, SIR FRANCIS DRAKE, NATHAN DRAKENBORCH, ARNOLD DRAKENSBERG DRAMA (part) DODWELL, EDWARD (1767-1832), English traveller and writer on archaeology. He belonged to the same family as Henry Dodwell the theologian, and was educated at Trinity College, Cambridge. He travelled from 1801 to 1806 in Greece, and spent the rest of his life for the most part in Italy, at Naples and Rome. He died at Rome on the 13th of May 1832, from the effects of an illness contracted in 1830 during a visit of exploration to the Sabine Mountains. His widow, a daughter of Count Giraud, thirty years his junior, subsequently became famous as the “beautiful” countess of Spaur, and played a considerable rôle in the political life of the papal city. He published A Classical and Topographical Tour through Greece (1819), of which a German translation appeared in 1821; Views in Greece, thirty coloured plates (1821); and Views and Descriptions of Cyclopian or Pelasgic Remains in Italy and Greece (London and Paris, with French text, 1834). 374 DODWELL, HENRY (1641-1711), scholar, theologian and controversial writer, was born at Dublin in October, 1641. His father, having lost his property in Connaught during the rebellion, settled at York in 1648. Here Henry received his preliminary education at the free school. In 1654 he was sent by his uncle to Trinity College, Dublin, of which he subsequently became scholar and fellow. Having conscientious objections to taking orders he relinquished his fellowship in 1666, but in 1688 he was elected Camden professor of history at Oxford. In 1691 he was deprived of his professorship for refusing to take the oath of allegiance to William and Mary. Retiring to Shottesbrooke in Berkshire, and living on the produce of a small estate in Ireland, he devoted himself to the study of chronology and ecclesiastical polity. Gibbon speaks of his learning as “immense,” and says that his “skill in employing facts is equal to his learning,” although he severely criticizes his method and style. Dodwell’s works on ecclesiastical polity are more numerous and of much less value than those on chronology, his judgment being far inferior to his power of research. In his earlier writings he was regarded as one of the greatest champions of the non-jurors; but the doctrine which he afterwards promulgated, that the soul is naturally mortal, and that immortality could be enjoyed only by those who had received baptism from the hands of one set of regularly ordained clergy, and was therefore a privilege from which dissenters were hopelessly excluded, did not strengthen his reputation. Dodwell died at Shottesbrooke on the 7th of June 1711. His chief works on classical chronology are: A Discourse concerning Sanchoniathon’s Phoenician History (1681); Annales Thucydidei et Xenophontei (1702); Chronologia Graeco-Romana pro hypothesibus Dion. Halicarnassei (1692); Annales Velleiani, Quintilianei, Statiani (1698); and a larger treatise entitled De veteribus Graecorum Romanorumque Cyclis (1701). His eldest son Henry (d. 1784) is known as the author of a pamphlet entitled Christianity not founded on Argument , to which a reply was published by his brother William (1709-1785), who was besides engaged in a controversy with Dr Conyers Middleton on the subject of miracles. See The Works of H. D. ... abridg’d with an account of his life , by F. Brokesby (2nd ed., 1723) and Thomas Hearne’s Diaries. DOG, the English generic term for the quadruped of the domesticated variety of Canis (Fr. chien). The etymology of the word is unknown; “hound” represents the common Teutonic term (Ger. Hund), and it is suggested that the “English dog”—for this was a regular phrase in continental European countries—represented a special breed. Most canine experts believe that the dog is descended from the wolf, although zoologists are less certain (see C ARNIVORA ); the osteology of one does not differ materially from that of the other: the dog and the wolf breed with each other, and the progeny thus obtained will again breed with the dog. There is one circumstance, however, which seems to mark a difference between the two animals: the eye of the dog of every country and species has a circular pupil, but the position or form of the pupil is oblique in the wolf. W. Youatt says there is also a marked difference in the temper and habits of the two. The dog is generally easily managed, and although H. C. Brooke of Welling, Kent, succeeded in making a wolf fairly tractable, the experience of others has been the reverse of encouraging. G. Cuvier gives an interesting account of a young wolf which, having been trained to follow his master, showed affection and submission scarcely inferior to the domesticated dog. During the absence from home of his owner the wolf was sent to a menagerie, but pined for his master and would scarcely take any food for a considerable time. At length, however, he became attached to his keepers and appeared to have forgotten his former associate. At the end of eighteen months his master returned, and, the moment his voice was heard, the wolf recognized him and lavished on him the most affectionate caresses. A still longer separation followed, but the wolf again remembered his old associate and showed great affection upon his return. Such an association proves that there is very little difference between the dog and the wolf in recognition of man as an object of affection and veneration. H. C. Brooke succeeded in training his wolf so well that it was no uncommon sight to see the latter following his master like a dog. The wolf did not like strangers, however, and was very shy in their presence. In the Old and New Testaments the dog is spoken of almost with abhorrence; it ranked amongst the unclean beasts: traffic in it was considered as an abomination, and it was forbidden to be offered in the sanctuary in the discharge of any vow. Part of the Jewish ritual was the preservation of the Israelites from the idolatry which at that time prevailed among every other people. Dogs were held in considerable veneration by the Egyptians, from whose tyranny the Israelites had just escaped; figures of them appeared on the friezes of most of the temples, and they were regarded as emblems of the divine being. Herodotus, speaking of the sanctity in which some animals were held by the Egyptians, says that the people of every family in which a dog died shaved themselves—their expression of mourning—adding that this was a custom of his own time. The cause of this attachment to and veneration for the dog is, however, explained in a far more probable and pleasing way than by many of the fables of ancient mythology. The prosperity of Lower Egypt, and almost the very subsistence of its inhabitants, depended upon the annual overflowing of the Nile; and they looked for it with the utmost anxiety. Its approach was announced by the appearance of a certain star, Sirius, and as soon as that star was seen above the horizon the people hastened to remove their flocks to the higher ground and abandoned the lower pastures to the fertilizing influence of the stream. They hailed it as their guard and protector; and, associating with its apparent watchfulness the well-known fidelity of the dog, they called it the “dog-star” and worshipped it. It was in far later periods and in other countries that the appearance of the dog-star was regarded as the signal of insufferable heat or prevalent disease. In Ethiopia, not only was great veneration paid to the dog, but the inhabitants used to elect a dog as their king. It was kept in great state, and surrounded by a numerous train of officers and guards: when it fawned upon them it was supposed to be pleased with their proceedings; when it growled, it disapproved of the manner in which their government was conducted. Such indications of will were implicitly obeyed, or were translated by the worshippers as their own caprice or interest indicated. Even 1000 years after this period, the dog was highly esteemed in Egypt for its sagacity and other excellent qualities; for when Pythagoras, after his return from Egypt, founded a new sect in Greece, and at Croton in southern Italy, he taught, with the Egyptian philosophers, that at the death of the body the soul entered into that of various animals. After the death of any of his favourite disciples he would hold a dog to the mouth of the man in order to receive the departing spirit, saying that there was no animal which could perpetuate his virtues better than that quadruped. It was in order to preserve the Israelites from errors and follies of this kind, and to prevent the possibility of such idolatry being established, that the dog was afterwards regarded with utter abhorrence amongst the Jews, and this feeling prevailed during the continuance of the Israelites in Palestine. PLATE I. GREAT DANE. SAINT BERNARD. DALMATIAN. MASTIFF. OLD ENGLISH SHEEP DOG. COLLIE. CHOW. NEWFOUNDLAND. POODLE. BULL DOG. FRENCH BULL DOG. From “Country Life in America.” BOSTON TERRIER. (From Photos by Bowden Bros.) TYPICAL NON-SPORTING DOGS. PLATE II. ENGLISH SETTER. POINTER. IRISH SETTER. LABRADOR RETRIEVER. FLAT-COATED RETRIEVER. IRISH WOLF-HOUND. IRISH TERRIER. DACHSHUND. ROUGH-COATED FOX TERRIER. FIELD SPANIEL. (From Photos by Bowden Bros.) TYPICAL SPORTING DOGS. The Hindus also regard the dog as unclean, and submit to various 375 The Hindus also regard the dog as unclean, and submit to various purifications if they accidentally come in contact with it, believing that every dog is animated by a wicked and malignant spirit condemned to do penance in that form for crimes committed in a previous state of existence. In every Mahommedan and Hindu country the most scurrilous epithet bestowed on a European or a Christian is “a dog,” and that accounts for the fact that in the whole of the Jewish history there is not a single allusion to hunting with dogs. Mention is made of nets and snares, but the dog does not seem to have been used in the pursuit of game. In the early periods of the history of other countries this seems to have been the case even where the dog was esteemed and valued, and had become the companion, the friend and the defender of man and his home; and in the 2nd century of the Christian era Arrian wrote that “there is as much difference between a fair trial of speed in a good run, and ensnaring a poor animal without an effort, as between the secret piratical assaults of robbers at sea and the victorious naval engagements of the Athenians at Artemisium and at Salamis.” The first hint of the employment of the dog in the pursuit of other animals is given by Oppian in his Cynegetica, who attributes it to Pollux about 200 years after the promulgation of the Levitical law. The precise species of dog that was cultivated in Greece at that early period cannot be affirmed, although a beautiful piece of sculpture in the possession of Lord Feversham at Duncombe Hall, representing the favourite dog of Alcibiades, differs but little from the Newfoundland dog of the present day. In the British Museum is another piece of early sculpture from the ruins of the villa of Antoninus, near Rome. The greyhound puppies which it represents are identical with a brace of saplings of the present day. In the early periods of their history the Greeks depended too much on their nets to capture game, and it was not until later times that they pursued their prey with dogs, and then not with greyhounds, which run by sight, but with beagles, the dwarf hound which is still very popular. Later, mention is made of large and ferocious dogs which were employed to guard sheep and cattle, or to watch at the door of the house, or even to act as a companion, and G. Cuvier expresses the opinion that the dog exhibits the most complete and the most useful conquest that man has made. Each individual is entirely devoted to his master, adopts his manners, distinguishes and defends his property, and remains attached to him even unto death; and all this springs not from mere necessity nor from constraint, but simply from gratitude and true friendship. The swiftness, the strength and the highly developed power of scent in the dog, have made it a powerful ally of man against the other animals; and perhaps these qualities in the dog were necessary to the establishment of society. Instances of dogs having saved the lives of their owners by that strange intuition of approaching danger which they appear to possess, or by their protection, are innumerable: their attachment to man has inspired the poet and formed the subject of many notable books, while in Daniel’s Rural Sports is related a story of a dog dying in the fulness of joy caused by the return of his master after a two years’ absence from home. It is not improbable that all dogs sprang from one common source, but climate, food and cross-breeding caused variations of form which suggested particular uses, and these being either designedly or accidentally perpetuated, the various breeds of dogs arose, and became numerous in proportion to the progress of civilization. Among the ruder or savage tribes they possess but one form; but the ingenuity of man has devised many inventions to increase his comforts; he has varied and multiplied the characters and kinds of domestic animals for the same purpose, and hence the various breeds of horses, cattle and dogs. The parent stock it is now impossible to trace; but the wild dog, wherever found on the continent of Asia, or northern Europe, has nearly the same character, and bears no inconsiderable resemblance to the British dog of the ordinary type; while many of those from the southern hemisphere can scarcely be distinguished from the cross-bred poaching dog, the lurcher. Dogs were first classified into three groups:—(1) Those having the head more or less elongated, and the parietal bones of the skull widest at the base and gradually approaching towards each other as they ascend, the condyles of the lower jaw being on the same line with the upper molar teeth. The greyhound and all its varieties belong to this class. (2) The head moderately elongated and the parietals diverging from each other for a certain space as they rise upon the side of the head, enlarging the cerebral cavity and the frontal sinus. To this class belong most of the useful dogs, such as the spaniel, the setter, the pointer and the sheepdog. (3) The muzzle more or less shortened, the frontal sinus enlarged, and the cranium elevated and diminished in capacity. To this class belong some of the terriers and most of the toy dogs. Later, however, “Stonehenge” (J.H. Walsh), in British Rural Sports, classified dogs as follows:—(a) Dogs that find game for man, leaving him to kill it himself—the pointer, setters, spaniels and water spaniels. (b) Dogs which kill game when found for them—the English greyhound. (c) Dogs which find and also kill their game—the bloodhound, the foxhound, the harrier, the beagle, the otterhound, the fox terrier and the truffle dog. (d) Dogs which retrieve game that has been wounded by man—the retriever, the deerhound. (e) Useful companions of man—the mastiff, the Newfoundland, the St Bernard dog, the bulldog, the bull terrier, terriers, sheepdogs, Pomeranian or Spitz, and Dalmatian dogs. (f) Ladies’ toy dogs —King Charles spaniel, the Blenheim spaniel, the Italian greyhound, the pug dog, the Maltese dog, toy terriers, toy poodles, the lion dog, Chinese and Japanese spaniels. In 1894 Modern Dogs (Rawdon B. Lee) was issued, the simple classification of sporting and non-sporting dog—terriers and toy dogs, being adopted; but although there had been an understanding since 1874, when the first volume of the Kennel Club Stud Book (Frank C. S. Pearce) was issued, as to the identity of the two great divisions of dogs, an incident at Altrincham Show in September 1900—an exhibitor entering a Russian wolfhound in both the sporting and nonsporting competitions—made it necessary for authoritative information to be given as to how the breeds should be separated. Following petitions to the Kennel Club from exhibitors at the club’s own show at the Crystal Palace, and also at the show of the Scottish Kennel Club in Edinburgh during the autumn of 1900, the divisions were decided upon as follows:— Sporting.—Bloodhound, otterhound, foxhound, harrier, beagle, basset hound (smooth and rough), dachshund, greyhound, deerhound, Borzoi, Irish wolfhound, whippet, pointer, setter (English, Irish and black and tan), retriever (flat-coated, curly-coated and Labrador), spaniel (Irish water, water other than Irish, Clumber, Sussex, field, English springer, other than Clumber, Sussex and field: Welsh springer, red and white and Cocker); fox terriers (smooth- and wire-coated); Irish terrier, Scotch terrier, Welsh terrier, Dandie Dinmont terrier, Skye terrier (prick-eared and drop-eared), Airedale terrier and Bedlington terrier. Non-Sporting.—Bulldog, bulldog (miniature), mastiff, Great Dane, Newfoundland (black, white and black, or other than black), St Bernard (rough and smooth), Old English sheepdog, collie (rough and smooth), Dalmatian, poodle, bull terrier, white English terrier, black and tan terrier, toy spaniel (King Charles or black and tan, Blenheim, ruby or red and tricolour), Japanese, Pekingese, Yorkshire terrier, Maltese, Italian greyhound, chow-chow, black and tan terrier (miniature), Pomeranian, pug (fawn and black), Schipperke, Griffon Bruxellois, foreign dogs (bouledogues français, elk-hounds, Eskimos, Lhasa terriers, Samoyedes and any other varieties not mentioned under this heading). On the 4th of May 1898 a sub-committee of the Kennel Club decided that the following breeds should be classified as “toy dogs”:—Black and tan terriers (under 7 ℔), bull terriers (under 8 ℔), griffons, Italian greyhounds, Japanese, Maltese, Pekingese, poodles (under 15 in.), pugs, toy spaniels, Yorkshire terriers and Pomeranians. All these varieties were represented at the annual show of the Kennel Club in the autumn of 1905, and at the representative exhibition of America held under the management of the Westminster Kennel Club in the following spring the classification was substantially the same, additional breeds, however, being Boston terriers—practically unknown in England, —Chesapeake Bay dogs, Chihuahuas, Papillons and Roseneath terriers. 376 The latter were only recently introduced into the United States, though well known in Great Britain as the West Highland or Poltalloch terrier; an application which was made (1900) by some of their admirers for separate classification was refused by the Kennel Club, but afterwards it was granted, the breed being classified as the West Highland white terrier. The establishment of shows at Newcastle-on-Tyne in June 1859 secured for dogs attention which had been denied them up to that time, although sportsmen had appreciated their value for centuries and there had been public coursing meetings since the reign of Charles I. Lord Orford, however, established the first club at Marham Smeeth near Swaffham, where coursing is still carried on, in 1776. The members were in number confined to that of the letters in the alphabet; and when any vacancy happened it was filled up by ballot. On the decease of the founder of the club, the members agreed to purchase a silver cup to be run for annually, and it was intended to pass from one to the other, like the whip at Newmarket, but before starting for it, in the year 1792, it was decided that the winner of the cup should keep it and that one should be annually purchased to be run for in November. At the formation of the club each member assumed a colour, and also a letter, which he used as the initial of his dog’s name. The Newcastle dog show of 1859 was promoted by Mr Pape—a local sporting gunmaker—and Mr Shorthose, and although only pointers and setters were entered for in two classes immense interest was taken in the show. But neither the promoters nor the sportsmen who supported it could have had the faintest idea as to how popular dog shows would become. The judges at that historic gathering were: Messrs J. Jobling (Morpeth), T. Robson (Newcastle-on-Tyne) and J. H. Walsh (London) for pointers, and E. Foulger (Alnwick), R. Brailsford (Knowsley) and J. H. Walsh for the setters. Sixty dogs were shown, and it was said that such a collection had not been seen together before; while so even was the quality that the judges had great difficulty in making their awards. The prizes were sporting guns made by Mr Pape and presented by him to the promoters of the show. So great a success was scored that other shows were held in the same year at Birmingham and Edinburgh; while the Cleveland Agricultural Society also established a show of foxhounds at Redcar, the latter being the forerunner of that very fine show of hounds which is now held at Peterborough every summer and is looked upon as the out-of-season society gathering of hunting men and women. Mr Brailsford was the secretary of the show at Birmingham, and he had classes for pointers, English and Irish setters, retrievers and Clumber spaniels. Another big success was scored, and the National Dog Show Society was established for the purpose of holding a show of sporting dogs in Birmingham every winter. Three years later proposals were made in The Field to promote public trials of pointers and setters over game, but it was not until the 18th of April 1865 that a further step was taken in the recognition of the value of the dog by the promotion of working trials. They were held at Southill, near Bedford, on the estate of S. Whitbread, M.P., and they attracted great interest. The order of procedure at the early field trials was similar to what it is to-day, only the awards were given in accordance with a scale of points as follows: nose, 40; pace and range, 30; temperament, 10; staunchness before, 10; behind, 10. Style of working was also taken into consideration. In 1865 a show was held in Paris, and after the National Dog Club—not the Birmingham society—had failed, as the result of a disastrous show at the Crystal Palace, a further exhibition was arranged to be held in June 1870 under the management of G. Nutt and a very strong committee, among whom were many of the most noted owners of sporting dogs of that time. The details of the show were arranged by S. E. Shirley and J. H. Murchison, but the exhibition, although a most interesting one, was a failure, and the guarantors had to face a heavy loss. A second venture proved to be a little more encouraging, although again there was a loss; but in April 1873, the Kennel Club, which is now the governing body of the canine world, was founded by S. E. Shirley, who, after acting as its chairman for many years, was elected the president, and occupied that position until his death in March 1904. His successor was the duke of Connaught and Strathearn; the vice-presidents including the duke of
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