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The Project Gutenberg EBook of Line and Form (1900), by Walter Crane
This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.org
Title: Line and Form (1900)
Author: Walter Crane
Release Date: May 2, 2008 [EBook #25290]
Language: English
*** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK LINE AND FORM (1900) ***
Produced by Suzanne Lybarger, David Cortesi, Jonathan Ingram and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team at http://www.pgdp.net
Line & Form by Walter Crane L I N E
 
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B Y W
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LONDON: G. BELL & SONS, LTD.
First published, medium 8vo,
1 900.
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Reprinted, crown 8vo, 1902, 1904, 1908, 1912, 1914.
CHISWICK PRESS: CHARLES WHITTINGHAMAND CO.
TOOKS COURT, CHANCERYLANE, LONDON
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T R A N S C R I B E R ' S N
In the original of this work, most pages are headed by a topic phrase, so that a topic can be located quickly by riffling the pages of the book. In this etext, the same topic phrases appear in right-aligned boxes near the text that begins that topic. Thus a topic can be found by scrolling the text and scanning the right margin.
The many images of the original are inline here as grayscale graphics in PNG format, scaled to 480 or 512 pixels width. When an image has a pale-gray border, the reader can click on the image to open a higher-resolution version.
In the original, the requirements of book design often caused the editors to place images some distance from the text that discussed them. In this etext some images are placed closer to the point where they are mentioned and thus not at their original page number. Each image has a number, for examplef016. In theList of Illustrations and the Index, references to images by page number have been replaced by these figure numbers, which are linked to the images. Within the body text, references to a figure by its page number are linked to the image, not the specified page.
Two minor typos were corrected: thing to think on page 10 and intregal to integral on page 197.
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P R E F A C E
As in the case of "The Bases of Design," to which this is intended to form a companion volume, the substance of the following chapters on Line and Form originally formed a series of lectures delivered to the students of the Manchester Municipal School of Art.
There is no pretension to an exhaustive treatment of a subject it would be difficult enough to exhaust, and it is dealt with in a way intended to bear rather upon the practical work of an art school, and to be suggestive and helpful to those face to face with the current problems of drawing and design.
These have been approached from a personal point of view, as the results of conclusions arrived at in the course of a busy working life which has left but few intervals for the elaboration of theories apart from practice, and such as they are, these papers are now offered to the wider circle of students and workers in the arts of design as from one of themselves.
They were illustrated largely by means of rough sketching in line before my student audience, as well as by photographs and drawings. The rough diagrams have been re-drawn, and the other illustrations reproduced, so that both line and tone blocks are used, uniformity being sacrificed to fidelity.
Kensington, July, 1900.
WALTER CRANE.
CONTENTS
CHAPTER I Origin and Function of Outline—Silhouette—Definition of Boundaries by—Power of Characterization by—Formation of Letters—Methods of Drawing in Line—The Progressive Method—The Calligraphic Method—The Tentative Method—The Japanese Direct Brush Method—The Oval Method—The Rectangular Method—Quality of Line—Linear Expression of Movement—Textures—Emotion—Scale of Linear Expression CHAPTER II The Language of Line—Dialects—Comparison of the Style of Various Artists in Line—Scale of Degrees in Line—Picture Writing— Relation of Line to Form—Two Paths—The Graphic Purpose—Aspect—The Ornamental Purpose—Typical Treatment or Convention— Rhythm—Linear Plans in Pattern Designing—Wall-paper Design—Controlling Forms—Memory—Evolution in Design—Variety in Unity— Counterbalance—Linear Logic—Recurring Line and Form—Principle of Radiation—Range and Use of Line CHAPTER III Of the Choice and Use of Line—Degree and Emphasis—Influence of the Photograph—The Value of Emphasis—The Technical Influence —The Artistic Purpose—Influence of Material and Tools—Brushwork—Charcoal— Pencil—Pen CHAPTER IV Of the Choice of Form—Elementary Forms—Space-filling—Grouping— Analogies of Form—Typical Forms of Ornament—Ornamental Units— Equivalents in Form—Quantities in Design—Contrast—Value of Variations of Similar or Allied Forms—Use of the Human Figure and Animal Forms in Ornamental Design CHAPTER V Of the Influence of Controlling Lines, Boundaries Spaces, and Plans in Designing—Origin of Geometric Decorative Spaces and Panels in Architecture—Value of Recurring Line—Tradition—Extension— Adaptability—Geometric Structural Plans—Frieze and Field—Ceiling Decoration—Co-operative Relation CHAPTER VI Of the Fundamental Essentials of Design: Line, Form, Space—Principles of Structural and Ornamental Line in Organic Forms—Form and Mass in Foliage—Roofs—The Mediæval City—Organic and Accidental Beauty— Composition: Formal and Informal—Power of Linear Expression—Relation of Masses and Lines—Principles of Harmonious Composition CHAPTER VII Of the Relief of Form—Three Methods—Contrast—Light and Shade, and Modelling—The Use of Contrast and Planes in Pattern Designing— Decorative Relief—Simple Linear Contrast—Relief by Linear Shading— Different Emphasis in relieving Form by Shading Lines—Relief by means of Light and Shade alone without Outline—Photographic Projection—Relief by different Planes and Contrasts of Concave and Convex Surfaces in Architectural Mouldings—Modelled Relief— Decorative Use of Light and Shade, and different Planes in Modelling and Carving—Egyptian System of Relief Sculpture—Greek and Gothic Architectural Sculpture, influenced by Structural and Ornamental Feeling—Sculptural Tombs, Medals, Coins, Gems—Florentine Fifteenth-century Reliefs—Desiderio di Settignano CHAPTER VIII Of the Expression of Relief in Line-drawing—Graphic Aim and Ornamental Aim—Superficial Appearance and Constructive Reality— Accidents and Essentials—Representation and Suggestion of Natural Form in Design—The Outward Vision and the Inner Vision CHAPTER IX Of the Adaptation of Line and Form in Design, in various materials and methods—Mural Decoration—Fresco-work of the Italian Painters —Modern Mural Work—Mural Spacing and Pattern Plans— Scale—The Skirting—The Dado—Field of the Wall—The Frieze— Panelling— Tapestry—Textile Design—Persian Carpets—Effect of Texture on Colour—Prints—Wall-paper—Stained Glass CHAPTER X Of the Expression and Relief of Line and Form byColour—Effect of same Colour upon different Grounds—Radiation of Colour—White Outline to clear Colours—Quality of Tints relieved upon other Tints—Complementaries—Harmony—The Colour Sense—Colour Proportions—Importance of Pure Tints—Tones and Planes—The Tone of Time—Pattern and Picture—APattern not necessarily a Picture, but a Picture in principle a Pattern—Chiaroscuro—Examples of Pattern-work and Picture-work—Picture-patterns and Pattern-pictures INDEX
1
23
51
73
108
138
165
204
224
256 283
L I S T O F I L L U S T R A T I The Origin of Outlinef002 Silhouettesf003 Coast and Mountain Lines—Gulf of Naupliaf004 Proportions of Roman Capital Letters and of lower-case German text. From Dürer's "Geometricaf005a The Progressive Method of Drawing in Linef006a The Calligraphic Methodf007a The Tentative Methodf007b The Oval and Rectangular Methodsf008 Lines of Characterization in the Form and Feature of Flowers: Lily and Poppyf009 Silhouette of Beech Leaves and Line Rendering of the samef010a Lines of Movementf010b Effect of Wind upon Treesf011 Line Arrangement in ribbed Sea-sandf012 Lines of different Textures, Structures, and Servicesf013 Lines of Exaltation and Rejoicing in Unison. The Morning Stars, after William Blakef014 Lines of Grief and Dejection: Designs from Flaxman's Homerf015 Landscapef016 Scale of various Degrees of Linear Weight and Emphasisf017 Curvilinear Scale of Directionf018 Rectangular Scale of Directionf018 Picture Writingf019 Olive Branch, from Naturef020 Olive Branch, simplified in Decorative Treatmentf021 Study of Horned Poppyf022 Adaptation of Horned Poppy in Design: Vertical Panel for Needleworkf023 Question and Answer in Linef024,f025 Diagram showing the Use of a Geometric Basis in Designing a Repeating Patternf026 Use of Controlling Boundaries in Designing Spraysf027 Method of Testing a Repeating Patternf028 Sketch to show how a Pattern of Diverse Elements may be harmonized by Unity of Inclosing and Intermediary Linesf029 The Principle of Counterbalance in different Systems of Designf030 Border Units and Border Motivef031 Recurring Line and Form in Border Motivesf032 Radiating Principle of Line in Natural Formf033 Radiating Lines of the Pectoral Muscles and Ribsf034 Vaulting of Chapter House, Westminsterf035 Lines of Characterization of Feathers and Shellsf036 Pen Drawing of Fruitf037 Effect of different Emphasis in Treatment of the same Designsf038,f039 Effect of different Emphasis in the Drawing of Landscapef040 Example of Page Treatment to show Ornamental Relation between Text and Picturesf041a Suggestion for a Carpet Pattern and Abstract Treatmen detail of Brussels Carpet t of the same on Point Paper asf041b Brush Formsf042 Direct Brush Expression of Animal Formf043 Japanese Drawing of a Bird. From "The Hundred Birds of Bari"f044 Elementary Geometrical Formsf045a Use of the same Forms in Architecturef045b Poppy-headsf046 Apple cut to show Position of Seedsf047 Cube and Sphere in Architectural Ornamentf048a Filling of Square Spacef049a Filling of Circular Spacef049b Inlay Design: Pattern Units and Motivesf050 Grouping of Allied Forms: Composition of Curvesf051a Grouping of Allied Forms: Composition of Anglesf051b Still-life Group illustrative of Wood-engravingf052
Japanese Diagonal Patternf053 Treatment of Fruit and Leaf Forms: Corresponding Curvaturef054 Correspondence in General Contour between Leaf and Treef055a Some Analogies in Formf055b Tree of Typical Pattern Forms, Units and Systemsf056 Sketches to show Use of Counterbalance, Quantity, and Equivalents in Designingf057 Quantities and Counterchange of Border and Field in Carpet Motivesf058 Sketches to illustrate Value of different Quantities in Persian Rugsf058-f061 Recurrence and Contrast in Border Motivesf062 Use of inclosing Boundaries in Designing Animal Forms in Decorative Patternf063a Decorative Spacing of Figures within Geometric Boundariesf063b Simple Linear Motives and Pattern Basesf064 Use of Intervals in Repeating the same Ornamental Unitsf065 Designs of Floral, Human, and Animal Forms, governed by Shape of inclosing Boundaryf066 The Parthenon: Sketch to show Spaces used for Decorative Sculpture in Greek Architecturef067 The Tower of the Winds, Athensf068 Sketch of part of the Arch of Constanti man069 Architecturene to show spaces for Decorative Sculpture in Rof Byzantine (Mosaic) Treatment of Architectural Structural Features: Apse, S. Vitale, Ravennaf070 Detail of Canopy of Tomb of Gervaise-Alard, Winchelseaf071 Walberswick Church: West Doorf072 Miserere in St. David's Cathedralf073 Recessed Panel from the Tomb of Bishop John Morgan, St. David's Cathedralf074 Corbel from Bishop Vaughan's Chapel, St. David's Cathedralf075 Gothic Tile Pattern, St. David's Cathedralf076 Surface Pattern Motives derived from Lines of Structuref077a Repeating Patterns built upon Square and Circular Basesf077b Plan of a Drop Repeatf078 Sketch Designs to show Relation between Frieze and Field in Wall-paperf079 Principles of Structural and Ornamental Line in Natural Formsf080 Radiating, Recurring and Counterbalancing Lines in the Structure of the Skeleton and the Musclesf081a General Principles of Line and Form in the Branching and Foliage Masses of Treesf081b Principles of Structure in Foliage Massesf082 Albert Dürer: Detail from "The Prodigal Son"f083 Albert Dürer: St. Anthonyf084 Roof-lines: Rothenburgf085 St. Margaret Street, Canterburyf086 Figure Designs controlled by Geometric Boundariesf087,f088 Expression of Storm and Calm in Landscapef089 Expression of Repose and Actionf090 Controlling Lines of Movement: Movement in a Processionf091a Lines left by a Watercourse—Lines governing fallen Débris from a Quarryf091b Relief of Form, (1) by Outline, (2) by Contrast, (3) by Light and Shadef092 Relief of Form and Line in Pattern Design by means of Contrast and the Use of Planesf093 Treatment of Mantling (14th-16th centuries)f094a,f094b Brass of Martin de Visch, Bruges, 1452f095 Relief in Pattern Design by means of Simple Linear Contrastsf096a Relief by adding Shading Lines to Outlinef097a Relief by Diagonal Shadingf097b Different Method and different Emphasis in Relieving Form by Shading Linesf098 Albert Dürer's Principle in the Treatment of Drapery: From the Woodcut in the "Life of the Virgin" Seriesf099 Albert Dürer: Pen-drawingf100 Filippino Lippi: Study of Draperyf101 Raphael: Studies of Draperyf102 Relief by means of Light and Shade alone, in Pen-drawing without Outlinef103a Relief by means of White Line on a Dark Ground andvice versâf103b Relief in Architectural Mouldingsf104 Roman Treatment of Corinthian Order, Forum of Nerva, Romef105 Egyptian Relief Sculpture: Thebesf106 Greek Relief: Eleusisf107
Feetr's PeteSt. 1f24
The Origin of Outline.
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