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The Project Gutenberg EBook of The Flourishing of Romance and the Rise of Allegory, by George Saintsbury This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at Title: The Flourishing of Romance and the Rise of Allegory  (Periods of European Literature, vol. II) Author: George Saintsbury Release Date: May 24, 2007 [EBook #21600] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE FLOURISHING OF ROMANCE *** *** Produced by Jonathan Ingram, Linda Cantoni, and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team at
Transcriber's Notes: To improve readability, dashes between entries in the Table of Contents and in chapter subheadings have been converted to periods. This e-book contains some Anglo-Saxon characters and phrases in ancient Greek, which may not display properly in all browsers, depending on the user's available fonts. For short phrases, hover the mouse over the phrase (which may display as boxes or question marks) to see a pop-up transliteration. For longer passages, a transliteration is provided below the passage. Periods of European Literature EDITED BY PROFESSOR SAINTSBURY II. THE TWELFTH AND THIRTEENTH CENTURIES Contents PERIODS OF EUROPEAN LITERATURE. EDITED BYPROFESSORSAINTSBURY. "The criticism which alone can much help us for the future is a criticism which regards Europe as being, for intellectual and spiritual purposes, one great confederation, bound to a joint action and working to a common result." —MATTHEWARNOLD. In 12 Crown 8vo Volumes. Price 5s. net each. The DARK AGES Professor W.P. KER. The FLOURISHING OF ROMANCE AND THE RISE OF ALLEGORY THEEDITOR. The FOURTEENTH CENTURY F.J. SNELL. The TRANSITION PERIOD The EARLIER RENAISSANCE The LATER RENAISSANCE DAVIDHANNAY. The FIRST HALFOF17THCENTURY The AUGUSTAN AGES OLIVERELTON. The MID-EIGHTEENTH CENTURY The ROMANTIC REVOLT EDMUNDGOSSE. The ROMANTIC TRIUMPH WALTERH. POLLOCK. The LATER NINETEENTH CENTURY THEEDITOR. WILLIAM BLACKWOOD & SONS, EDINBURGH ANDLONDON.
PREFACE. ASthis volume, although not the first in chronological order, is likely to be the first to appear in the Series of which it forms part, and of which the author has the honour to be editor, it may be well to say a few words here as to the scheme of this Series generally. When that scheme was first sketched, it was necessarily objected that it would be difficult, if not impossible, to obtain contributors who could boast intimate and equal knowledge of all the branches of European literature at any given time. To meet this by a simple denial was, of course, not to be thought of. Even universal linguists, though not unknown, are not very common; and universal linguists have not usually been good critics of any, much less of all, literature. But it could be answered that if the main principle of the scheme was sound—that is to say, if it was really desirable not to supplant but to supplement the histories of separate literatures, such as now exist in great numbers, by something like a new "Hallam," which should take account of all the simultaneous and contemporary developments and their interaction—some sacrifice in point of specialist knowledge of individual literatures not only must be made, but might be made with little damage. And it could be further urged that this sacrifice might be reduced to a minimum by selecting in each case writers thoroughly acquainted with the literature which happened to be of greatest prominence in the special period, provided always that their general literary knowledge and critical habits were such as to render them capable of giving a fit account of the rest. In the carrying out of such a scheme occasional deficiencies of specialist dealing, or even of specialist knowledge, must be held to be compensated by range of handling and width of view. And though it is in all such cases hopeless to appease what has been called "the rage of the " specialist himself—though a Mezzofanti doubled with a Sainte-Beuve could never, in any general history of European literature, hope to satisfy the special devotees of Roumansch or of Platt-Deutsch, not to mention those of the greater languages—yet there may, I hope, be a sufficient public who, recognising the advantage of the end, will make a fair allowance for
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necessary shortcomings in the means. As, however, it is quite certain that there will be some critics, if not some readers, who will not make this allowance, it seemed only just that the Editor should bear the brunt in this new Passage Perilous. I shall state very frankly the qualifications which I think I may advance in regard to this volume. I believe I have read most of the French and English literature proper of the period that is in print, and much, if not most, of the German. I know somewhat less of Icelandic and Provençal; less still of Spanish and Italian as regards this period, but something also of them: Welsh and Irish I know only in translations. Now it so happens that—for the period —French is, more than at any other time, the capital literature of Europe. Very much of the rest is directly translated from it; still more is imitated in form. All the great subjects, the great matièresthe exception of the national work of Spain,, are French in their early treatment, with Iceland, and in part Germany. All the forms, except those of the prose saga and its kinsman the German verse folk-epic, are found first in French. Whosoever knows the French literature of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, knows not merely the best literature in form, and all but the best in matter, of the time, but that which all the time was imitating, or shortly about to imitate, both in form and matter. Again, England presents during this time, though no great English work written "in the English tongue for English men," yet the spectacle, unique in history, of a language and a literature undergoing a sea-change from which it was to emerge with incomparably greater beauty and strength than it had before, and in condition to vie with—some would say to outstrip—all actual or possible rivals. German, if not quite supreme in any way, gives an interesting and fairly representative example of a chapter of national literary history, less brilliant and original in performance than the French, less momentous and unique in promise than the English, but more normal than either, and furnishing in the epics, of which theNilubeenngedli andKudrun are the chief examples, and in the best work of the Minnesingers, things not only of historical but of intrinsic value in all but the highest degree. Provençal and Icelandic literature at this time are both of them of far greater intrinsic interest than English, if not than German, and they are infinitely more original. But it so happens that the prominent qualities of form in the first, of matter and spirit in the second, though intense and delightful, are not very complicated, various, or wide-ranging. If monotony were not by association a question-begging word, it might be applied with much justice to both: and it is consequently not necessary to have read every Icelandic saga in the original, every Provençal lyric with a strictly philological competence, in order to appreciate the literary value of the contributions which these two charming isolations made to European history. Yet again, the production of Spain during this time is of the smallest, containing, perhaps, nothing save thePoem of the Cid, which is at once certain in point of time and distinguished in point of merit; while that of Italy is not merely dependent to a great extent on Provençal, but can be better handled in connection with Dante, who falls to the province of the writer of the next volume. The Celtic tongues were either past or not come to their chief performance; and it so happens that, by the confession of the most ardent Celticists who speak as scholars, no Welsh or Irishtextsaffecting the capital question of the Arthurian legends can be certainly attributed to the twelfth or early thirteenth centuries. It seemed to me, therefore, that I might, without presumption, undertake the volume. Of the execution as apart from the undertaking others must judge. I will only mention (to show that the book is not a mere compilation) that thechapter on the Arthurian Romancesfirst time in print, the result of twenty years' the  summarises, for independent study of the subject, and that the views on prosody given inchapter v. not are borrowed from any one. I have dwelt on this less as a matter of personal explanation, which is generally superfluous to friends and never disarms foes, than in order to explain and illustrate the principle of the Series. All its volumes have been or will be allotted on the same principle—that of occasionally postponing or antedating detailed attention to the literary production of countries which were not at the moment of the first consequence, while giving greater prominence to those that were: but at the same time never losing sight of theeralgenliterary drift of the whole of Europe during the whole period in each case. It is to guard against such loss of sight that the plan of committing each period to a single writer, instead of strapping together bundles of independent essays by specialists, has been adopted. For a survey of each time is what is aimed at, and a survey is not to be satisfactorily made but by one pair of eyes. As the individual study of different literatures deepens and widens, these surveys may be more and more difficult: they may have to be made more and more "by allowance." But they are also more and more useful, not to say more and more necessary, lest a deeper and wider ignorance should accompany the deeper and wider knowledge. The dangers of this ignorance will hardly be denied, and it would be invidious to produce examples of them from writings of the present day. But there can be nothing ungenerous in referring—honoris, notinvidiæ causa—to one of the very best literary histories of this or any century, Mr Ticknor'sSpanish LiteratureThere was perhaps no man of his time who was more. widely read, or who used his reading with a steadier industry and a better judgment, than Mr Ticknor. Yet the remarks on assonance, and on long mono-rhymed or single-assonanced tirades, in his note on Berceo (History of Spanish Literature, vol. i. p. 27), show almost entire ignorance of the whole prosody of thechansons de geste, which give such an indispensable light in reference to the subject, and which, even at the time of his first edition (1849), if not quite so well known as they are to-day, existed in print in fair numbers, and had been repeatedly handled by scholars. It is against such mishaps as this that we are here doing our best to supply a guard.[1] CONTENTS. CHAPTER I. THE FUNCTION OF LATIN.  PAGE Reasons for not noticing the bulk of mediæval Latin literature. Excepted divisions. Comic Latin literature. Examples of its verbal influence. The value of burlesque. Hymns. TheDies IræThe rhythm of Bernard. Literary perfection of the Hymns. Scholastic. Philosophy. Its influence on phrase and method. The great Scholastics1 CHAPTER II. CHANSONS DE GESTE. European literature in 1100. Late discovery of thechansons. Their age and history. Their distinguishing character. Mistakes about them. Their isolation and origin. Their metrical form. Their scheme of matter. The character of Charlemagne. Other characters and characteristics. Realist quality. Volume and age of thechansons. Twelfth century. Thirteenth century. Fourteenth, and later.Chansonsin print. Language:oc andoïl. Italian. Diffusion of thechansons. Their authorship and publication. Their performance. Hearing, not reading, the object. Effect on prosody. Thesleurojgn.Jseseresongl, &c. Singularity of thechansons. Their charm. Peculiarity of thegeste the system. Instances. Summary of geste of Orange. And first of the of WilliamCouronnement Loys. Comments on the Couronnement. William of Orange. The earlier poems of the cycle. TheCharroi de Nîmes. ThePrise d'Orange. The story of Vivien.acsilAns.The end of the story. Renouart. Some otherchansons. Final remarks on them22 CHAPTER III. THE MATTER OF BRITAIN. Attractions of the Arthurian Legend. Discussions on their sources. The personality of Arthur. The four witnesses. Their testimony. The version of Geoffrey. Itslacunæ. How the Legend grew. Wace. Layamon. The Romances proper. Walter Map. Robert de Borron. Chrestien de Troyes. Prose or verse first? A Latin Graal-book. The Mabinogion. The Legend itself. The story of Joseph of Arimathea. Merlin. Lancelot. The Legend becomes dramatic. Stories of Gawain and other knights. Sir Tristram. His story almost certainly Celtic. Sir Lancelot. The minor knights. Arthur. Guinevere. The Graal. How it perfects the story. Nature of this perfection. No sequel possible. Latin episodes. The Legend as a whole. The theories of its origin. Celtic. French. English. Literary. The Celtic theory. The French claims. The theory of general literary growth. The English or Anglo-Norman pretensions. Attempted hypothesis86 CHAPTER IV. ANTIQUITY IN ROMANCE. Oddity of the Classical Romance. Its importance. The Troy story. The Alexandreid. Callisthenes. Latin versions. Their story. Its developments. Alberic of Besançon. The decasyllabic poem. The greatRoman d'Alixandre. Form, &c. Continuati ons.King Alexander. Characteristics. The Tale of Troy. Dictys and Dares. The Dares story. Its absurdity. Its capabilities. Troilus and Briseida. TheRoman de Troie. The phases of Cressid. TheHistoria Trojana. Meaning of the classical romance148 CHAPTER V. THE MAKING OF ENGLISH AND THE SETTLEMENT OF EUROPEAN PROSODY. Special interest of Early Middle English. Decay of Anglo-Saxon. Early Middle English Literature. Scantiness of its constituents. Layamon. The form of theBrut. Its substance. TheOrmulum: Its metre, its spelling. TheAncren Riwle. TheOwl and the Nightingale. Proverbs. Robert of Gloucester. Romances.Havelok the Dane. King Horn.The prosody of the modern languages. Historical retrospect. Anglo-Saxon prosody. Romance prosody. English prosody. The later alliteration. The new verse. Rhyme and syllabic equivalence. Accent and quantity. The gain of form. The "accent" theory. Initial fallacies, and final perversities thereof187 CHAPTER VI. MIDDLE HIGH GERMAN POETRY. Position of Germany. Merit of its poetry. Folk-epics: ThedienlgeunbileN. TheVagnuslo saga. The German version. Metres. Rhyme and language.Kudrun. national Shorter
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[Pg xv]
na dS"acdnla".T he later poem. "slaFeS-enime ".gntCostraf  oepthc paI stv latilaThe ue. -garroseaD" .nedR"".regn" n.soea" meha"Sose. Wilof the Rroir snailmao LfMee g.unJed  danp ts.traehT rif self him Fox.The .hTcrel sic .iHnaRef  oalribue  ecnamoR ehT .tr. inllWim ia Tof.snoliV aheluodrFiction.Aucassinry.eJ iovnliel . oonisar. emthf lliueF apmoC .eiaws e. Lsermand FyeraElrrpsocn h al llaHadA.ed m Df.maraut RœuebeJ uedl no .hT e et Marie. Robino mrahc dna ,hto bofe luVa. tsara dnnaec erFeid  Marrst.e fif theht ni nC .sagas aessslahout and dhc ynaet.rracat an Facctiod fisni ralu ytim fonean Or.scf erenffciluitsew ti hit.The Saga. Itse im tisthf  oreiD .esorp ylniam. Icastsontrs. Carutiletid clena PNDVERONDLA AIClbmeecnaLAÇNseR.lette265 et NicoIVIII.ECHCPAET mmple Exa .aMrosm,no ynems hi tof Fc.rily.ciryl y nigirO  Provençal mainlehs gasa .tSly.etpeasaass ge tof dna rehsnosrG .id s fsAgno raithe pt. Tof iits reM .scitirc stI. lattre Ebrgyjg.adxlæ.ayEjala. Lasagas. Naerg retf eh evihe t Tm.hirsofp re.samtsei f rhc botnce,elle Excca dna larutan hanrmGeof, edirqurOginilav rees .ts adaptity of iP ehenoioitaT .nicnrvoh s:erei Hiævafmedtinll Latarutireectp.exEsividiedmiCos.onlnitaL crutaretie.Examples of itvsreabilfnulneecpi.e. csteLiryraeop .yrtstI uof il Wl.retuTi. chabnehcsE nov mar der vonther.WalvilaaPzrml .elahf  oe thnasotyli.edireP goV ewlegenerallsingers ehM nienopte.sT S fo deigrubsartekldVen frttGoe.rEceeu .W nad rertma. Haon Ann vyL .scirhT .ob"eræde are Indinwe eeHniirhc .oWfloklets." Der ArmaF eailbellehT .orr inig. uxeiTh eoRamcnryci .hTePastoure and thejbus dna noitinthf  octfeEfs.ctcn.eilecie r .hTDefiit. ir w TheSERO A,' TND MHERONINOC BIRTOITUy225CHAPTER VII.HT EF'XO',T EH' e.ncra Fis rhe TllA fo eL .yrogeF FRNS O.TheANCEodimp er efoancnmplicati. Its cocn hofmr .hTFeerorf inigla P oceet f.stxdrO o renartf Rere osatihT eyr .elog flA oseRie Th. itirps fo ytinU .snooisno  faflbai-uarrative. Conditaugn .eg dnAn nofae iabl ouxlan ra deRnyoF.xht eles  Faber. propo ecnara.ynori fg.initwrpeaphe T.EH MYSNUBLRSEUQVALUE OFCE. THE MHTYBFO HT "HR ES IEÆ.IRTH. "DE TARUTIRENIL L TAOMICS. CSIONDIVINEULFNI LABREV SITF  OESPLAMEXE. PHRASE AND METHTI SNILFEUCN ENOASOLCSTIHI.TseS  .DOGEHTTAERHCS FECT PEROF TION DR .REANARYRILETILPHICST. HYOPOSSNMYH EHALOHCS . lareritrnveulacem fvæidrutao seurope; aal and Eah tupprdnf rot edndteins  iesrii dna yevrus ot e dee thtratllust eh tfompneevol ehtitaLrw nnitihigw, ch ainte sdali yedrcaeisgn butuntil the ei ti esosecennuso  trysaur osybusew esvlomerti hn a  tha of parta ew ti fo trap  athwit Bun.iosspxeryre etar fille oehiche vas tres  devtrop,noileabro pnscoeridanwlya sneutyrae last cnd of thths ieurerivune  nitaL stnec rof not Fory wa onl ehtlcnilo.e ehwomycllpe teddeo ra een essecliray concerned as wera  senecssraliivedrecemen suchitnoudacrie t ehiued mhe ts,geua hcihw hguorht med men on educatne talgn fidffreofs mmcol saanmeeb neewtcinuoitaci h ehwon tid dctlydireop t stohtlla foaretil ef  oretudgleowkn,ko  feriligno ,and the vehicle ht ,oc e-trugnalgeuaso, o  teasporev.sP p eoçnlarhym of hemee-scoartxetuliranidrt noy tr Bt.eagrgu hon tidertcyly pedagogic. Thort eabuoruodC .sn  oglEnh.isom SER IHAPT333CnçalorevfoP icmsiritULNSNIPEE THF  OERUTARETIL EHT.Xhapter. f this ctaoisno SAL.mitiffdiulic. ces Itr kenamoetaLerG s  aestiecbjsua CannA .t ,anenmoHysm&c. s aniniamsni dyHsts .eI letyIt. sts y.orstI nah nildI .gts "decadence."Ltanese sfoI atilnecaraS" ehT .na"fe Th. ryeoth" oeyr "htosgnlo-klcam d'Aullo. Citbed ot H .oyvaet YermfoanFr. ceir tobhta dns ipl. Love- originapS fsinaC .hlataesriPo. tisi oontnE rupoaecnuotnlyric in differehT ?sdal ameoP etias GançalDit.icff sndripiehcsa em.ets nI on de gesh chansA S apined liC.dnelif  otyrilaguerrI .yroeht ertd-meallay. Bosod srp ftiseo luity of Egypt. Bercoe .lAofsn oleS Ot. r heempo As.llopuinodnasraM 27THDEX4OURIE FL GFOHSNINAECR MO5C37ioab XERPTHASULCNOC.NI214NOICNITNOO .IHT EUFREASONS F LATIN. ESIA FO DNAREHTAPCHR TEEGLLY.ORTIREITLN LALÆIAVTED XCEPE. EATURGNICITON TON ROFED MOFK UL BHE Tre yon wna dhtneuniversities. Evfo shcs sloodna  tnd ghet-ifokboht evr esla emadmetid sodesemes er llitsna eviecho tash h icwhseoem, suc prize pa l raeget rhtnachmuet bthnyg in reva ebac ,en neive recd totusehci w ihiaes erpthf  ochmus veersed yllaer ti hg Wan oarJof phse fo texE ,reuohtinstance, as thew le-lnkwo nrTjoormp ial Se.nctaob a hcu rof ,koell en w ourintooi dp repatifoc  sa tnocamrosecn wbettriueino dt rewers sep orepous perfuch seriroN .nitaL ni netret lesllben  ioctneh yelt w ihrittbe wdto inueiyrareticnatropmnos seca lllma snis na don tmo ed ine anst, terees roitcfo neht it latereourouf ci hahevi  nla l Middle Ages, whel sgetaandv athiw ,revewoh ,yamatinhe Lof tons ivis eidhterce tn tie ththr Lae b ehetteht st tae be.We iteraturtst ehl owsr eumh bahougtin.d Lao  nB tuhwloht es  iite l tafaa s fo walgnihthcuin a book like tehD  euNigCsruaiumliwh, h ic gis dooetilutart ert eh cnibuiln poreadlar nacu verw ,dnah sih ot yat Line itwrl il frierrpa m nao literaryessible vah  gnilat ,tnelacuorr  vnonaerhtieo  fosydp or,themateestiover ot elbissopmi toslm antteexn  aufnrsiehra;yi  t vocabuled theirus tilpprutai ;e lederitfir shni coutheyIt mld.  nfotaoii  fi ,tidvo aofitimg inon did y kniht tt influenced, tohtie rrgmaam;ri lay e rgteex, ntfido,dei ot revaarerit ltos geuatnemhsilpmocca y thering tobsteralgnal ranucv reif, he ttitaitngdna eht ow y;dluould not. They cpldei imh va eehtub;denr saw ti ctrediinwes  aly eoc ohtehsnpmerof tion nleahe ulew sa lnoc oicslyusa , hoscmaollla  sidertcyl ,unconsciously asdneta derif  ,tss,onhe ts ouasrereanucaltn ohtve Latin iway fromtub erew dna ,not en wmetis  arsvenetn ,omemra yiterer lless of he tat L oinsuf orhclcin ,sehtiweatises as were hcs icneitif crttiLae theothf no nettirw htiw ropt, exceobvifor  .lAolygse e lhttaneous.ess spon nfiw  euB,te evit, ou wd haomrosu ttil p dliforoursusy to btle piolhtd  siwleev worn tiLac tima fo nitaL ehthti domedslf roa lltheir first consuoicil sarete yrorff otsthf moe lebierd  eikretaand nd, ondiit ct denoitihw esoh mrewech lore orrera yaL ynil tiordinglytin. Accaw eubas ;srrehtrtpoitunanndopt ht ei  nuses rimculaernant vinfaof ytinutroppo o ose uchsuy anr ch,things not unntarulayls ohkcicff aes dndumocstne fo  ehtruhC verind,rlypy eaei sradoeho fot ndfie  wshd an, pxe dluof ot tceom c picllweor fesu  ti uineot supreme gort of shtni ghsf roa ynleibsspos  iitreofeb ,stcejbus sriouf sety oarieegv l ranoa na dsaw til  eltn ro wustiri.Tngreheerocngsides reoi degradation of tsixe ehdna ecnetue usc  tons rnfot ee docimih sses.urpohind Mucfo naht ytirailisuine ateribel di sn snatIi tl . sam thee oftancirot"sub ed atoPor migess  ichmuo  fnau inifactnning famnquestiolas outibus erwy euqselr dna,walh inwhics scduceobsyohlou dna dneneboft he tum hm na dnicihwah hs made very learen dna docsnicneallyificspecany t  oelsscu h,em he tenWh. ontientni,suomehpsalb haps to  not pereiytb,tuni gotp pry anof twnano es yod tj ebltsuuB tna .a t ushc nodldry begoubtht ,elpmassiM" es, anghixa eor fteewneR feroemsr quarrel arose betnioitn lanabirnd aPa "stpi" s,reoilap m ya.dtI be  notluteabso retal e noitrop our oofcipe swnri eumhct ohguth todiscover, whyo yloivb ,su tub dits oet noqurecialespeng, ritio tfsr,e nevyli  bnd aicom che tw nitaL euqselrution. Buh a posiocpmra e tfiw  e Merdlid eheliarsdlocus gA eh seanc micoesrlbud  esehtdn eht erahievy act. Aementtel ailreral ti; nsd ane theagrev n;esreht myH gs, especially iuq eaLit nrwtinio eltit lareneg he tbys oe gchhignw iritlaw hpciloso phiy oftbodi emht nseimit tts ial pwah ats a dnhwcioloshp,ystic Phif Scholacni nedin ,ti toulndnggiuc minh lpyao  nowdr sro subtle adjustmehp fo tndna esarceenad cree th,  esievsrc sat ehth te wirmerhefogeuaus mA . nglahcaes deah tr eviderableome cons fedevolp tihco vehat us mt,enpm a rof desu neeb of ngtht legreayl ,oisus reiteme Carmina Buranaushct ihgnas shtdiarpoc s emtratro , sa  ehtiloGed wnectWaltith det bituc no orofay rlea, uxiablw ,paMre eht htiihelt eh ehttaw  perceivwe shallnett sa yltnirw xc eleelat lr,te rht dofpene,ed s artimesometheydna rettam no ylefhi cdymecor ei[7][5][6]]4]2[[]3[
[Pg xvii]
[Pg 2]
[Pg 1]
[Pg 4]
[Pg 3]
[Pg 6]
[Pg 5]
[Pg xvi]
eht fo sp ,ruoh s its utrimeamstvilagnr tade,sf ugh  thowerethey ot tsuo,ti tuo f  ourcofot thr  eitemb  yti suadacious compoundmpxayearerit lul gnivah dna ,selivedreceady alreneecl cieftcp reodmmioatf  ocoacucanrralot nrev nd the phythms aroanemtneoitac lltero Waes m Maptartme sdet bitumesemu a wof, ntno eb yaeremfo eew books fuller.ihhct ehera erf ehT rga baeeelT.ehemtnepirdnxece arienexpe of ohw eno yna fo niossremp istir fedilhgftdenilg yhat exce reads t'yteoP s nedicoSheetam C vulumolnisdohf miw hth y nodonl"har it  remyhr nitaL ehwin soripaom cinm cu hrfiegnh woand is teer of hht do ta dnanuorhoitseutMaf  wp, of name"Arcthe te",-hoPnElgi  nstluhcicGen  ieror ynamr eht dnu one can read th eaLit nopme shwnsrarrfe tedtho ev ecanrraluoN .ifntle pthwid deivorp ,sloohcs en thcy infanom i trfuahg,rt liailyalam fllcouioqaugn ,egt woalehrceive he; we petiretarureoisul itidart s yllanophn emolnd aserahceracatfos is sis gn thlessracetsught o erei sie  Welfeha wa t t ehv reanucal.rt to stumble" inpahrti sna tep dprt tiacresgesatirtspoahitnoreA ad citiznesno b siht emit emas ioatadgrdec micos ee yeb sam,na lies ear itsn inemthbu, bet uscaht ea yet errieh most familiar ltiretaru.etAt ehuaadgrer ptos teht ydoraissalc enot cs, ll bat aeshtceuata eyeh atin, wain the Lqciuer dihgn,sa o  t tbe loreratoosn renec siatrrhymre,  metage,naugo lfitseapic tsehe tll ains sentrepxe dnA .ei  ntsly,et  o aenious exercisesytirtiw ht hac eorthghouam fiailebilm silaeverer inen otingnovaetarobalgni dna urat ndsoe tlyalRsoea fnsnoornot icitt gnubeho kl
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