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The Project Gutenberg EBook of The IntellectualDevelopment of the Canadian People, by JohnGeorge BourinotCopyright laws are changing all over the world. Besure to check the copyright laws for your countrybefore downloading or redistributing this or anyother Project Gutenberg eBook.This header should be the first thing seen whenviewing this Project Gutenberg file. Please do notremove it. Do not change or edit the headerwithout written permission.Please read the "legal small print," and otherinformation about the eBook and ProjectGutenberg at the bottom of this file. Included isimportant information about your specific rights andrestrictions in how the file may be used. You canalso find out about how to make a donation toProject Gutenberg, and how to get involved.**Welcome To The World of Free Plain VanillaElectronic Texts****eBooks Readable By Both Humans and ByComputers, Since 1971*******These eBooks Were Prepared By Thousandsof Volunteers!*****Title: The Intellectual Development of the Canadian
PeopleAuthor: John George BourinotRelease Date: September, 2004 [EBook #6466][Yes, we are more than one year ahead ofschedule] [This file was first posted on December17, 2002]Edition: 10Language: English*** START OF THE PROJECT GUTENBERGEBOOK THE INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT ***Produced by D. Garcia, Tom Allen, JulietSutherland, Charles Franks and the OnlineDistributed Proofreading Team.This file was produced from images generouslymade available by theCanadian Institute for HistoricalMicroreproductions.
PREFATORY NOTE.This series of papers has been prepared inaccordance with a plan marked out by the writer,some years ago of taking up, from time to time,certain features of the social, political and industrialprogress of the Dominion. Essays on the MaritimeIndustry and the National Development of Canadahave been read before the Royal Colonial Institutein England, and have been so favourably receivedby the Press of both countries, that the writer hasfelt encouraged to continue in the same course ofstudy, and supplement his previous efforts by anhistorical review of the intellectual progress of theCanadian people.HOUSE OF COMMONS, OTTAWA, February17th, 1881.
CONTENTS.CHAPTER I.EFFECT OF SOCIAL AND POLITICAL CHANGESON MENTAL DEVELOPMENT.Introductory Remarks—Conditions of Settlement inCanada—Her History divided into three Periods—First Period, under the French Regime; Second,from the Conquest to the Union of 1840; Third,from 1840 to 1867—New Period sinceConfederation—Intellectual Lethargy in NewFrance—Influence of U. K. Loyalists on Politicaland Social Life of the Canadian Provinces—Formation of two Governments in the East andWest—Effect of Parliamentary Institutions on thePublic Intelligence —Remarkable impulse given toCanadian Communities by the Union of 1840—Difficulties of the Old Settlers—Results of theimprovement of Internal Intercourse, the growth ofEducation and Political Progress—Population in1760, 1840 and 1870—Rapid increase of theProfessional and Educated Classes—Wider Fieldof Thought and Activity opened to Canadians byConfederation—Effect of Climatic Influences onNational Development—Distinctive traits of FrenchCanadians—Influence of Union of Races—Usefulness of Religious Teachers in early times—Labours of the Journalist—Influence of Political
Discussion— Development of Public Intelligencethrough the extension of Political Rights.CHAPTER II.EDUCATION.State of Education under the French Regime—Itsslow progress after theConquest—Schools in Upper Canada—Dr.Strachan's famous Academy—Stimulus given to Public Schools by the Union of1840—Schools in theMaritime Provinces—Higher Education in Canada—The QuebecSeminary—King's College—Roman Catholic,Methodist and PresbyterianInstitutions—First Colleges in Nova Scotia and NewBrunswick—LavalUniversity—Kingston Military College and otherEducationalExperiments—Female Colleges—Statistics ofEducational Progress—Status of Teachers—Defects of the Public SchoolSystem—Review of theUniversity System—Advantages of SpecialProfessional Courses as inGermany—A National University.CHAPTER III.
JOURNALISM.Influence of the Newspaper Press on the Intellectof the Country—First Newspapers in Canada—Review of Political Journalism up to 1840—QuebecGazette, Montreal Gazette, Quebec Mercury, LeCanadien, etc.—Journalists of mark in old times—Gary, Bedard, Neilson, Mackenzie, Horne,Fothergill, Gurnett, Dalton, Parent—Mrs. Jamesonon the Upper Canada Press—Advent of JosephHowe—Journalism since 1840—Sir Francis Hincks—The Globe and Hon. George Brown—Le Journalde Quebec and Hon. Joseph Cauchon—The NewEra and Hon. D'Arcy McGee—The HamiltonSpectator, Toronto Leader and other Journals ofnote established—Oldest Newspapers in Canada—Number of Papers, and their probable totalCirculation—Influential Journals since 1867—Leading Journalists—The Religious Press—Illustrated Papers—Influence of the Press inCanada—Its Improvement in tone and its greatEnterprise—The Old and New Times, as illustratedin two Toronto Papers.CHAPTER IV.NATIVE LITERATURE.Society in New France—Intellectual lethargy—FirstBooks publishedafter the Conquest—Bouchette's Works—New Erain French Canadian
Letters—Periodicals, Histories, Poems—Garneau,Ferland, Cremazie,Frechette—Antiquarian Research—CanadianBallads—Literary Progress ofEnglish-speaking People—Society previous to theUnion of 1840—EarlyLibraries and Magazines—Authors of Repute—'Sam Slick'—ProfessorDawson—Charles Heavysege—Poetry—Romance—History—MiscellaneousWorks of Merit—Mr. Alpheus Todd's ConstitutionalResearches—Contributions to Colonial Literature by Public Men—Talent in theLegislature—Results of a Century of Progresssummed up—Mental Activityamong the Intelligent and Educated Classes—Increasing Issue of Works andPamphlets from Canadian Press—Signs ofGeneral Culture—PublicLibraries—Literary and Scientific Societies—Mechanics' Institutes—SchoolLibraries—A Grand Opportunity for the Rich Menof Canada—Literary,Artistic and Scientific Topics engaging greaterAttention—Writers ofIntellectual Power on the Increase—EncouragingSigns of IntellectualDevelopment—Brighter Auguries for the Future.
CHAPTER I.EFFECT OF SOCIAL AND POLITICAL CHANGESON MENTAL DEVELOPMENT.Should the title of this review come by any chanceunder the notice of some of those learnedgentlemen who are delving among Greek roots orworking out abstruse mathematical problems in thegreat academic seats on the banks of the Cam orIsis, they would probably wonder what can be saidon the subject of the intellectual development of apeople engaged in the absorbing practical work ofa Colonial dependency. To such eminent scholarsCanada is probably only remarkable as a countrywhere even yet there is, apparently, so little soundscholarship that vacancies in classical andmathematical chairs have to be frequently filled bygentlemen who have distinguished themselves inthe Universities of the parent state. Indeed, if weare to judge from articles and books that appearfrom time to time in England with reference to thiscountry, Englishmen in general know very little ofthe progress that has been made in culture sinceCanada has become the most importantdependency of Great Britain, by virtue of hermaterial progress within half a century. Even theAmericans who live alongside of us, and would benaturally supposed to be pretty well informed as tothe progress of the Dominion to their north, appearfor the most part ignorant of the facts of its
development in this particular. It was but the otherday that a writer of some ability, in an organ ofreligious opinion, referred to the French Canadiansas a people speaking only inferior French, andentirely wanting in intellectual vigour. Nor is thisfact surprising when we consider that there areeven some Canadians who do not appear to havethat knowledge which they ought to have on such asubject, and take many opportunities of concealingtheir ignorance by depreciating the intellectualefforts of their countrymen. If so much ignoranceor indifference prevails with respect to the progressof Canada in this respect, it must be admitted—however little flattering the admission may be toour national pride—that it is, after all, only thenatural sequel of colonial obscurity. It is still acurrent belief abroad—at least in Europe—that weare all so much occupied with the care of ourmaterial interests, that we are so deeply absorbedby the grosser conditions of existence in a newcountry, that we have little opportunity or leisure tocultivate those things which give refinement andtone to social life. Many persons lose sight of thefact that Canada, young though she is comparedwith the countries of the Old World, has passedbeyond the state of mere colonial pupilage. Onevery important section of her population has ahistory contemporaneous with the history of theNew England States, whose literature is readwherever the English tongue is spoken. The Britishpopulation have a history which goes back over acentury, and it is the record of an industrious,enterprising people who have made great politicaland social progress. Indeed it may be said that the
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