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The Life of the Truly Eminent and Learned Hugo Grotius - Containing a Copious and Circumstantial History of the Several Important and Honourable Negotiations in Which He Was Employed; together with a Critical Account of His Works

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The Project Gutenberg eBook, The Life of the Truly Eminent and Learned Hugo Grotius, by Jean Lévesque de Burigny This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at Title: The Life of the Truly Eminent and Learned Hugo Grotius Containing a Copious and Circumstantial History of the Several Important and Honourable Negotiations in Which He Was Employed; together with a Critical Account of His Works Author: Jean Lévesque de Burigny Release Date: April 12, 2005 [eBook #15606] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 ***START OF THE PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE LIFE OF THE TRULY EMINENT AND LEARNED HUGO GROTIUS*** E-text prepared by Frank van Drogen, Lisa Reigel, and the Project Gutenberg Online Distributed Proofreading Team THE LIFE Of the truly EMINENT and LEARNED HUGO GROTIUS, CONTAINING A Copious and Circumstantial History of the several Important and Honourable Negotiations In which he was employed; TOGETHER WITH A Critical Account of his WORKS. Written originally in French , By M. DE BURIGNY. LONDON Printed for A. MILLAR, in the Strand; J. WHISTON and B. WHITE, at Mr. Boyle's Head; and L. DAVIS, at Lord Bacon's Head, both in Fleet-street. M DCC LIV. THE AUTHOR'S PREFACE. It were to be wished that such a celebrated Genius as Grotius had found an Historian equal to his fame: for in this high rank we can by no means place those who have contented themselves with giving a superficial account of his Life, and a catalogue of his Works. M. Lehman, to whom we owe Grotius's Ghost revenged, is much fuller than any that went before him; yet he is far from having taken in all that deserves to be known of that illustrious writer, the two most interesting Distinctions of whose Life have been entirely neglected by all who have spoken of him; I mean his Negotiations, and his sentiments in matters of Religion. Gaspar Brandt and Adrian Cattenburg have indeed published a long Life of Grotius; but the Dutch language, in which they wrote, is so little known, that their book cannot be of general use; with a view to which we have made choice of a more universal language, to communicate farther light concerning this excellent man, whom every one speaks of, tho' few with any certainty. His being one of the most learned Authors that ever wrote, was not our sole motive for compiling his Life: for if we consider him only in that light, and with regard to the excellent treatises with which he has enriched the Republic of Letters, perhaps others may be found to compare with him. But his Life was so diversified, and filled with so many revolutions, that what regards literature is not the most curious part of it; greatly differing, in this respect, from the generality of men of letters, whole Lives are only the histories of their works. Besides, Grotius's prudence on all occasions, his modesty in prosperity, his patience in adversity, his steadiness in his duty, his love of virtue, his eagerness in the search of truth, and the ardent desire which he constantly maintained for uniting Christians in one Faith, distinguish him so advantageously from most other Scholars, that his Life may be proposed as a model to all who make profession of literature. It is divided into six Books. The first presents us with the brightest genius ever recorded, of a Youth, in the history of the republic of letters. The second contains all that is worth being known of the disputes between the Gomarists and Arminians; the part Grotius took in them; his disgrace, and the manner of his escape out of prison. The third relates his transactions at Paris, and his retreat to Hamburg, where he continued till the great Chancellor Oxensteirn sent for him, to employ him in the important and honourable post of Ambassador from Sweden to the Court of France. The fourth and fifth Books give a detail of his Negotiations; which have never yet been published. We have been accustomed to consider Grotius only as a Scholar; his embassy is known but by report: we shall see, however, that he was employed in affairs of the greatest importance; that he succeeded in several; that he gave excellent counsels to the ministry; and that he always conducted himself with zeal, firmness, and integrity. The sixth and last Book gives an account of such of his Works as we had not occasion to mention before; and examines particularly his theological sentiments, and his project for a coalition of Christians, and bringing them to unite in one creed. Advertisement by the Editor. The Abbé RAYNAL[1], a judicious French writer, gives the following character of this work. "M. de BURIGNY hath executed his Plan with abundance of erudition, and an astonishing depth of enquiry. He has introduced nothing but facts well supported, or theological discussions delivered with the greatest conciseness and accuracy. Such readers as aim at amusement only, will think the author too minute in some places; those who are desirous of information will think otherwise. The most valuable part of this work is, in our opinion, the just and concise idea which it gives of Grotius's several Writings." FOOTNOTES: [1] Mercure François, an. 1752. APPROBATION. By Order of my Lord CHANCELLOR, I have read the Life of GROTIUS. This History, which gives us a pleasing Idea of the Extent of the Human Mind, farther informs us, that GROTIUS died without reaping any Advantage to himself from his great Talents. For the rest, I think it deserves to be made public on account of its relation to Literature, and to the general History of Europe. DE MARSILLY THE TABLE OF CONTENTS. BOOK I. I. Grotius's Origin: The Marriage of Cornelius Cornets with Ermengarda de Groot II. He has a Son named Hugo de Groot, III. Life of Cornelius de Groot, IV. Life of John de Groot, V. Birth of Grotius, VI. Great hopes conceived of him when a boy, VII. State of affairs in the United Provinces, VIII. Embassy from the States to Henry IV. of France; Grotius accompanies the Ambassadors; is very graciously received by the king, IX. His mortification at not having seen M. de Thou; he writes to him; and keeps up an intimate correspondence with him till his death, X. Grotius gives an edition of Martianus Capella, XI. Publishes the Limneu[Greek: retichê], Page 1 2 ibid 3 4 5 7 9 11 13 16 XII. Publishes the Phoenomena of Aratus, XIII. Cultivates the study of poetry, XIV. The States nominate him their historiographer, XV. Henry IV. of France intends to make him his librarian XVI. Commences Advocate; dislikes this employment XVII. Is nominated Advocate General, XVIII. Marries, XIX. His treatise of the Freedom of the ocean is published, XX. Prints his book De antiquitate Reipublicæ Batavicæ, XXI. Is made pensionary of Rotterdam, XXII. Voyage to England: dispute concerning the Fishery, XXIII. Grotius's intimacy with Casaubon, XXIV. A grand question decided by the States of Holland according to Grotius's opinion, XXV. Sends Du Maurier a method of study, BOOK II. I. Dispute between Arminius and Gomarus, II. Remonstrance of the Arminians, III. The troubles increase, IV. The edict of the States, V. The States grant the Magistrates of the Towns permission to levy soldiers; which highly displeases the prince of Orange, VI. Grotius is deputed by the States to Amsterdam; falls ill through chagrin, VII. The project of reunion proves fruitless, VIII. Prince Maurice disbands the new levies, IX. Barnevelt, Grotius, and Hoogerbetz taken into custody, X. The synod of Dort, XI. Barnevelt's trial, XII. The fruitless solicitations of the French court in favour of the Prisoners: Barnevelt's execution, XIII. Trial and condemnation of Grotius, XIV. Grotius is carried to the fortress of Louvestein, his occupations, XV. Grotius escapes out of prison, XVI. His writings on occasion of the disputes in Holland, BOOK III. I. Grotius arrives at Paris, where he is well received, II. State of the French ministry: Du Vair's letter to Grotius: the court grants him a pension, III. Grotius's occupations at Paris, IV. Grotius publishes his Apology: it is condemned in Holland: the French king takes him again into his protection, V. He still maintains great connections in Holland; corresponds with ibid 18 21 22 23 24 ibid ibid 27 28 29 31 33 35 39 41 45 47 49 50 54 56 57 60 61 63 66 74 78 82 88 91 96 97 Prince Henry Frederic of Nassau, VI. He publishes his Stobeus, and the Extracts from the Greek Tragedies and Comedies, VII. Goes to Balagni; is seized with the dysentery; publishes the Phoenissæ of Euripides, VIII. The death of Prince Maurice; Frederic is made Stadtholder; Grotius writes to him, IX. Publishes his treatise, De jure Belli & Pacis, X. Has thoughts of leaving France, XI. Returns to Holland, XII. Is obliged to leave Holland, XIII. Goes to Hamburg, BOOK IV. I. The High Chancellor Oxensteirn invites Grotius to him: the high esteem in which the latter held the King of Sweden, II. Grotius is appointed Ambassador from Sweden to the court of France, III. Situation of the Swedes affairs, IV. Grotius sets out for France, makes his entry into Paris, and has an audience of the King, V. Discussions between France and Sweden, VI. Arrival of the High Chancellor in France: a new treaty, VII. Disputes between Grotius and the ministers of Charenton, VIII. Grotius's several journeys to court, and his negotiations with the French ministry: abstains from visiting cardinal Richelieu, IX. Uneasiness given Grotius, X. Dispute for precedency with the Venetian Ambassador, XI. Is of opinion that the Swedes ought not to send plenipotentiaries to Cologn, XII. Disputes with the Venetian Ambassador, XIII. Quarrel between the English and Swedes for precedency, BOOK V. I. Different audiences which Grotius has of the French King, II. Conversation between the prince of Condé and Grotius, III. Grotius's negotiations in relation to the truce which was proposed: misconduct of Schmalz, IV. Grotius is in great danger of his life, V. Divers audiences of the king and queen, VI. The death of the duke of Weimar VII. The elector Palatine is arrested in France; Grotius obtains his liberty, VIII. Grotius obtains the exchange of marshal Horn for John de Vert, IX. Renewal of the alliance between France and Sweden, X. Deaths of cardinal Richelieu and the French king; the regency of 102 103 105 106 108 113 118 120 125 131 136 137 141 145 151 154 158 179 180 183 184 ib. 189 200 ibid 207 209 214 215 225 228 Anne of Austria, XI. Cerisante is sent to France; Grotius demands to be recalled, XII. He sets out for Stockholm, and applies to the queen to obtain his dismission, XIII. Grotius's death, BOOK VI. I. Grotius's embassy does not interrupt his literary labours, II. He again applies to the cultivation of poetry, III. His notes on Tacitus, IV. —— notes on Statius, V. —— notes on Lucan, VI. —— Anthologia VII. Antiquities of the Goths, VIII. Annals and history of the Low Countries IX. Treatise of the truth of the christian religion, X. Florum sparsio ad jus Justinianeum, XI. Commentaries on the Bible, XII. Treatises on Antichrist, and other theological pieces, XIII. Of the origin of the people of America, XIV. Other printed pieces or Manuscripts of Grotius, XV. Grotius's letters, XVI. Grotius's sentiments in religion very distant at first from those of the Roman Catholics, XVII. His attachment to antiquity. XVIII. Leans towards the Roman Catholics, XIX. Is a partisan of the Hierarchy, XX. His sentiments concerning the Eucharist, XXI. His sentiments concerning the seven Sacraments, XXII. Grotius's sentiments concerning several other points controverted between the Roman Catholics and the Protestants, XXIII. His project for reuniting all Christians, XXIV. Is accused of Socinianism, XXV. Opinions concerning Grotius XXVI. An account of his family, A Catalogue of Grotius's Works Index 230 231 235 238 244 245 246 ibid ibid 247 252 256 259 263 264 269 275 277 279 282 283 284 288 291 293 294 302 318 326 338 END of the TABLE of CONTENTS. BOOKS printed for A. MILLAR in the Strand; Messieurs WHISTON and WHITE, at Mr. Boyle's Head, and L. DAVIS, at Lord Bacon's Head, both in Fleet-street. QUARTO, Just Published, Printed on a fine Paper, illustrated with Maps and Copper-plates, Price One Pound ten Shillings bound, The Second Edition, Revised and Corrected, of 1. An Historical Account of the British Trade over the Caspian Sea: With the Author's Journal of Travels from England through Russia into Persia; and back through Russia, Germany, and Holland. To which are added, The Revolutions of Persia during the present Century; with the particular History of the great Usurper Nadir Kouli. By JONAS HANWAY, Merchant. 2. Tables of ancient Coins, Weights and Measures, explained, and exemplified in several Dissertations. By JOHN ARBUTHNOT, M.D. Fellow of the Royal Society, and of the College of Physicians. The second Edition. To which is added, An Appendix, containing Observations on Dr. Arbuthnot's Dissertations on Coins, Weights, and Measures, by BENJAMIN LANGWITH, D.D. Price 18 s. bound. OCTAVO. 3. The Life of the Most Reverend Dr. John Tillotson, Lord Archbishop of Canterbury, compiled chiefly from his Original Papers and Letters. By THOMAS BIRCH, D.D. The second Edition, enlarged. Price 5 s. 4. Memoirs of the Life and Writings of Mr. WILLIAM WHISTON, M.A. containing also Memoirs of several of his Friends. Written by HIMSELF. The three Parts compleat, in Two Volumes. Price 9 s. 5. The Life of the Honourable Robert Boyle, Esq; with an Account of his great Improvements in Natural Philosophy. By THOMAS BIRCH, D.D. Price 5 s. 6. The Life of Francis Bacon, Lord Chancellor of England. By Mr. MALLET. Price 3 s. 6 d. 7. Remarks on Ecclesiastical History, 3 Vol. Price 15 s. 6 d. By JOHN JORTIN, M.A. Rector of St. Dunstan's in the East. N.B. The second and third Volumes may be had separate. 8. Discourses concerning the Truth of the Christian Religion. By JOHN JORTIN, M.A. The Third Edition, Price 3 s. 6 d. 9. Mr. Whiston's Sacred History of the World, from the Creation to the compleat Establishment of Christianity under the Emperor Constantine the Great, Anno Dom. 317. Together with the Prophane History connected. Wherein also the Completion of the Prophecies in the Old Testament are shewn, and many difficult Passages of Scripture cleared up. Being an Improvement of Dean Prideaux, Dr. Shuckford, and Mr. Eachard's Histories. In Six large volumes Octavo. Price One Guinea bound. BOOK I. I. The learned and illustrious Writer whose Life we undertake to give, derived the name of Grotius from his great-grandmother, married to Cornelius Cornets. This was a Gentleman of Franche-Compté, who travelled into the LowCountries about the beginning of the sixteenth century, and coming to Delft, got acquainted with a Burgomaster who had an only daughter: He took a liking to her, asked, and obtained her in marriage. The name of this magistrate was Diederic de Groot, or Diederic the Great; his family was of the first distinction in the country; and had produced several persons of great merit[2]. It is said the name of Great was given to one of Diederic's ancestors, above four hundred years ago, for a signal service done his country; and it has been observed[3] that all who bore the name of De Groot distinguished themselves by their zeal for the public. Diederic de Groot had several important employments, in which he acquitted himself with great honour. The name of his only daughter was Ermengarda de Groot: Her father, on giving his consent to her marriage, insisted that the children should bear the name of De Groot; and Cornelius Cornets agreed to it in the marriage contract. There were several branches of the Cornets: one settled in Provence, as we are informed by[4] Grotius. FOOTNOTES: [2] [3] [4] Acad. Leid. ed. 1614. Vita Grotii ap. Batesium, p. 420. Ep. 264. ad Peyresc. p. 91. II. Cornelius Cornets had by his marriage with Ermengarda de Groot a son named Hugo de Groot, distinguished by his knowledge of the Greek and Latin, and his skill in the Hebrew. He died in 1567, fifth time Burgomaster of Delft. He married Elselinga Heemskerke, of one of the ancientest noble families in Holland, and by her had two sons, Cornelius, and John de Groot. III. Cornelius de Groot, eldest son of Hugh, was born at Delft on the 25th of July, 1544. He studied with much success at the University of Louvain, at that time very famous. The Greek and Hebrew he knew perfectly, and was well acquainted with the Mathematics. The Platonic Philosophy pleased him extremely, and he retained a liking to it all his life: he had read all the books of the sect, had commented their works, and knew them almost by heart. The Law wholly took him up afterwards: he went to study it at the faculty of law at Orleans, the most celebrated for that science, and took the degree of Licentiate. Returning home he followed the Bar; some time after, he was nominated Counsellor and Echevin: William prince of Orange made him Master of Requests. The University of Leyden being founded in 1575, Cornelius de Groot resigned his post in the magistracy, to follow his ruling inclination of being useful to youth; and did not think it beneath him to accept of a Professor's place in the new University: he first taught Philosophy, and was afterwards made Law- professor; an employment that pleased him so much, he preferred it to a seat in the Grand Council at the Hague, which was several times offered him, but which he constantly refused. His reputation was so great, the Grand Council often consulted with him on affairs of importance. Six times he was honoured with the dignity of Rector, a place of great honour and authority: the members of the University, and all who are enrolled in the Rector's book, depend on his jurisdiction; before him their causes, civil and criminal, are brought, and from his sentence there is no appeal: a revisal of it is all that can be demanded. Cornelius de Groot died without issue in the year 1610, on the same day of the month of July on which he was born. He left several Law Tracts which have never been printed. IV. John de Groot, brother to Cornelius and second son of Hugh, studied under the famous Justus Lipsius, who esteemed him much: in some letters of that learned man to John de Groot he speaks of him with great commendation. There is one, written in 1582, in which Lipsius tells him, "You have loved the Muses, they have loved you, they will love you, and I too with them will love you." We have still preserved by his son[5] a translation in verse, made by him in his youth of some Greek verses of Palladas. He also wrote a Paraphrase on the Epistle of St. John; which Hugo Grotius mentions in one of his Letters[6]. Four times he was Burgomaster of Delft, and Curator of the University of Leyden: this last was a place of great consequence at that time. There are only three Curators in the University of Leyden; one is taken from the body of the nobility, and nominated by them; the two others are chosen by the States of the Province from among the cities of Holland, or the Courts of Justice. The Curators with the Burgomasters of Leyden have the direction of whatever regards the welfare and advantage of the University; they chuse the Professors, and have the care of the finances and revenues for payment of their salaries. John de Groot filled the place of Curator with great dignity and honour. Daniel Heinsius wrote some verses in his praise, in which he styles him the Apollo and Protector of the Muses. This dignity did not hinder him from taking the degree of Doctor of Laws. In the remaining part of his life he attached himself to the Count of Hohenloo, who made him his Counsellor. In 1582 he married Alida Averschie, of one of the first families in the Country; by whom he had three sons and a daughter. He died in the month of May 1640. In the same year his wife lost her eyesight; she lived till the beginning of the year 1643[7]. FOOTNOTES: [5] [6] [7] Stobæus, Tit. 98. p. 413. Ep. xxii. p. 751. Ep. 499. p. 898. Grotii Ep. 638. p. 948. V. Of the marriage of John de Groot with Alida Averschie was born the
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