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Natural History of the Mammalia of India and Ceylon

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The Project Gutenberg EBook of Natural History of the Mammalia of India and Ceylon, by Robert A. Sterndale This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.org Title: Natural History of the Mammalia of India and Ceylon Author: Robert A. Sterndale Release Date: October 16, 2006 [EBook #19550] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK MAMMALIA OF INDIA *** Produced by Ron Swanson FELIS TIGRIS. NATURAL HISTORY OF THE MAMMALIA OF INDIA AND CEYLON. BY ROBERT A. STERNDALE, F.R.G.S., F.Z.S., &c., AUTHOR OF "THE DENIZENS OF THE JUNGLE;" "THE AFGHAN KNIFE;" "SEONEE, OR CAMP LIFE IN THE SATPURA RANGE," ETC. WITH 170 ILLUSTRATIONS BY THE AUTHOR, T. W. WOOD, AND OTHERS. CALCUTTA: THACKER, SPINK, AND CO. BOMBAY: THACKER AND CO., LIMITED. LONDON: W. THACKER AND CO. 1884. LONDON: PRINTED BY WILLIAM CLOWES AND SONS, LIMITED, STAMFORD STREET AND CHARING CROSS. THIS POPULAR HISTORY OF OUR INDIAN MAMMALS IS Respectfully Dedicated (BY PERMISSION) TO ONE WHO TAKES A DEEP INTEREST IN ALL THAT CONCERNS OUR EASTERN EMPIRE, THE RIGHT HON. THE EARL OF NORTHBROOK, G.C.S.I., LATE GOVERNOR-GENERAL AND VICEROY OF INDIA. PREFACE. This work is designed to meet an existing want, viz.: a popular manual of Indian Mammalia.
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The Project Gutenberg EBook of Natural History of the Mammalia of India
and Ceylon, by Robert A. Sterndale
This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with
almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or
re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included
with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.org
Title: Natural History of the Mammalia of India and Ceylon
Author: Robert A. Sterndale
Release Date: October 16, 2006 [EBook #19550]
Language: English
Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1
*** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK MAMMALIA OF INDIA ***
Produced by Ron Swanson
FELIS TIGRIS.
NATURAL HISTORYOF THE
MAMMALIA OF INDIA
AND CEYLON.
BY
ROBERT A. STERNDALE,
F.R.G.S., F.Z.S., &c.,
AUTHOR OF "THE DENIZENS OF THE JUNGLE;" "THE AFGHAN KNIFE;"
"SEONEE, OR CAMP LIFE IN THE SATPURA RANGE," ETC.
WITH 170 ILLUSTRATIONS BY THE AUTHOR, T. W. WOOD,
AND OTHERS.
CALCUTTA:
THACKER, SPINK, AND CO.
BOMBAY: THACKER AND CO., LIMITED.
LONDON: W. THACKER AND CO.
1884.
LONDON:
PRINTED BY WILLIAM CLOWES AND SONS, LIMITED,
STAMFORD STREET AND CHARING CROSS.
THIS
POPULAR
HISTORY OF OUR INDIAN MAMMALS
IS
Respectfully Dedicated
(BY PERMISSION)
TO ONE WHO TAKES A DEEP INTEREST IN ALL THAT
CONCERNS OUR EASTERN EMPIRE,
THE RIGHT HON.
THE EARL OF NORTHBROOK, G.C.S.I.,LATE GOVERNOR-GENERAL AND VICEROY OF INDIA.
PREFACE.
This work is designed to meet an existing want, viz.: a popular manual of Indian
Mammalia. At present the only work of the kind is one which treats exclusively
of the Peninsula of India, and which consequently omits the more interesting
types found in Assam, Burmah, and Ceylon, as well as the countries bordering
the British Indian Empire on the North. The geographical limits of the present
work have been extended to all territories likely to be reached by the sportsman
from India, thus greatly enlarging the field of its usefulness.
The stiff formality of the compiled "Natural Histories" has been discarded, and
the Author has endeavoured to present, in interesting conversational and often
anecdotal style, the results of experience by himself and his personal friends; at
the same time freely availing himself of all the known authorities upon the
subject.
CONTENTS.
NO.
INTRODUCTION
ORDER BIMANA
ORDER QUADRUMANA
Genus Hylobates—The Gibbons—
1. Hylobates hooluck (White-fronted Gibbon)
2. Hylobates lar (White-handed Gibbon)
3. Hylobates syndactylus (Siamang)
Genus Presbytes—Cuvier's Genus Semnopithecus—
4. Semnopithecus vel Presbytes entellus (Bengal Langur)
5. Semnopithecus vel P. schistaceus (Himalayan Langur)
6. Semnopithecus vel P. priamus (Madras Langur)
7. Semnopithecus vel P. Johnii (Malabar Langur)
8. Semnopithecus vel P. jubatus (Nilgheri Langur)
9. Semnopithecus vel P. pileatus (Capped Langur)
10. Semnopithecus vel P. Barbei (Tipperah Langur)
11. Semnopithecus vel P. Phayrei (Silvery-Leaf Monkey)
12. Semnopithecus vel P. obscurus (Dusky-Leaf Monkey)
13. Semnopithecus vel P. cephalopterus (Ceylon Langur)
14. Semnopithecus vel P. ursinus (Great Wanderu)
15. Semnopithecus vel P. thersites
16. Semnopithecus vel P. albinus (White Langur)
SUB-FAMILY PAPIONINÆ
Genus Inuus—
17. Inuus vel Macacus silenus (Lion Monkey)18. Inuus vel M. rhesus (Bengal Monkey)
19. Inuus vel M. pelops (Hill Monkey)
20. Inuus vel M. nemestrinus (Pig-tailed Monkey)
21. Inuus vel M. leoninus (Long-haired Pig-tailed Monkey)
22. Inuus vel M. arctoides (Brown Stump-tailed Monkey)
23. Inuus vel M. Thibetanus (Thibetan Stump-tailed Monkey)
Genus Macacus—
24. Macacus radiatus (Madras Monkey)
25. Macacus pileatus (Capped Monkey)
26. Macacus cynomolgus (Crab-eating Macacque)
27. Macacus carbonarius (Black-faced Crab-eating Monkey)
FAMILY LEMURIDÆ
Genus Nycticebus—
28. Nycticebus tardigradus (Slow-paced Lemur)
Genus Loris—
29. Loris gracilis (Slender Lemur)
SUB-ORDER PLEUROPTERA—FAMILY GALÆOPITHECIDÆ
Genus Galæopithecus—
30. Galæopithecus volans (Flying Lemur)
ORDER CARNARIA
CHEIROPTERA
MEGACHIROPTERA—SUB-FAMILY PTEROPODIDÆ
Genus Pteropus—
31. Pteropus Edwardsii vel medius (Common Flying Fox)
Pteropus Leschenaultii (Cynonycteris amplexicaudata) (Fulvous Fox-
32.
Bat)
Genus Cynopterus—
33. Cynopterus marginatus (Small Fox-Bat)
34. Macroglossus (Pteropus) minimus (Tenasserim Fox-Bat)
Genus Eonycteris—
35. Eonycteris spelæa
MICROCHIROPTERA—SUB-FAMILY VAMPYRIDÆ
Genus Megaderma—
36. Megaderma lyra (Large-eared Vampire Bat)
37. Megaderma spectrum (Cashmere Vampire)
38. Megaderma spasma
RHINOLOPHINÆ
Genus Rhinolophus—
39. Rhinolophus perniger vel luctus (Large Leaf-Bat)
40. Rhinolophus mitratus (Mitred Leaf-Bat)
41. Rhinolophus tragatus vel ferrum-equinum (Dark-brown Leaf-Bat)
42. Rhinolophus Pearsonii (Pearson's Leaf-Bat)
43. Rhinolophus affinis (Allied Leaf-Bat)
44. Rhinolophus rouxi (Rufous Leaf-Bat)
45. Rhinolophus macrotis (Large-eared Leaf-Bat)
46. Rhinolophus sub-badius (Bay Leaf-Bat)47. Rhinolophus rammanika
48. Rhinolophus Andamanensis
49. Rhinolophus minor
50. Rhinolophus coelophyllus
51. Rhinolophus Garoensis
52. Rhinolophus Petersii
53. Rhinolophus trifoliatus
Genus Hipposideros vel Phyllorhina—
54. Hipposideros armiger (Large Horse-shoe Bat)
55. Hipposideros speoris (Indian Horse-shoe Bat)
56. Hipposideros murinus (Little Horse-shoe Bat)
57. Hipposideros cineraceus (Ashy Horse-shoe Bat)
58. Hipposideros larvatus
59. Hipposideros vulgaris (Common Malayan Horse-shoe Bat)
60. Hipposideros Blythii
61. Phyllorhina diadema
62. Phyllorhina Masoni
63. Phyllorhina Nicobarensis
64. Phyllorhina armigera
65. Phyllorhina leptophylla
66. Phyllorhina galerita
67. Phyllorhina bicolor
Genus Coelops—
68. Coelops Frithii (Frith's Tailless Bat)
Genus Rhinopoma—
69. Rhinopoma Hardwickii (Hardwick's Long-tailed Leaf-Bat)
SUB-FAMILY NOCTILIONIDÆ
Genus Taphozous—
70. Taphozous longimanus (Long-armed Bat)
71. Taphozous melanopogon (Black-bearded Bat)
72. Taphozous saccolaimus (White-bellied Bat)
73. Taphozous Theobaldi
74. Taphozous Kachhensis
Genus Nyctinomus—
75. Nyctinomus plicatus (Wrinkle-lipped Bat)
76. Nyctinomus tragatus
SUB-FAMILY VESPERTILIONIDÆ
Genus Plecotus—
77. Plecotus auritus vel homochrous
Genus Vesperugo—
78. Vesperugo noctula
79. Vesperugo leucotis
80. Vesperugo maurus
81. Vesperugo affinis
82. Vesperugo pachyotis
83. Vesperugo atratus84. Vesperugo Tickelli
85. Vesperugo pachypus
86. Vesperugo annectans
87. Vesperugo dormeri
88. (Vesperugo) Scotophilus serotinus (Silky Bat)
89. (Vesperugo) Scotophilus Leisleri (Hairy-armed Bat)
Scotophilus pachyomus
90. (Vesperugo) Scotophilus Coromandelianus (Coromandel Bat)
91. (Vesperugo) Scotophilus lobatus (Lobe-eared Bat)
Genus Scotophilus—
92. Scotophilus fuliginosus (Smoky Bat)
93. Scotophilus Temminckii
94. Scotophilus Heathii
95. Scotophilus emarginatus
96. Scotophilus ornatus
97. Scotophilus pallidus
Noctulinia noctula
Nycticejus Heathii (Large Yellow Bat)
Nycticejus luteus (Bengal Yellow Bat)
Nycticejus Temminckii (Common Yellow Bat)
Nycticejus castaneus (Chestnut Bat)
Nycticejus atratus (Sombre Bat)
Nycticejus canus (Hoary Bat)
Nycticejus ornatus (Harlequin Bat)
98. Nycticejus nivicolus (Alpine Bat)
Genus Harpiocephalus—
99. Harpiocephalus harpia
100. Harpiocephalus (Murina) suillus (The Pig-Bat)
101. Harpiocephalus auratus
102. Harpiocephalus griseus
103. Harpiocephalus leucogaster
104. Harpiocephalus cyclotis
Genus Kerivoula—
105. Kerivoula picta (Painted Bat)
Kerivoula pallida
106. Kerivoula papillosa
107. Kerivoula Hardwickii
Genus Vespertilio—
108. Myotis (Vespertilio) murinus
109. Myotis Theobaldi
110. Myotis parvipes
111. Vespertilio longipes
112. Vespertilio mystacinus
113. Vespertilio muricola
114. Vespertilio montivagus
115. Vespertilio murinoides116. Vespertilio formosus
117. Vespertilio Nepalensis
118. Vespertilio emarginatus
Genus Miniopterus—
119. Miniopterus Schreibersii
Genus Barbastellus—
120. Barbastellus communis
121. Nyctophilus Geoffroyi
INSECTIVORA
FAMILY TALPIDÆ—THE MOLES
Genus Talpa—
122. Talpa micrura (Short-tailed Mole)
123. Talpa macrura (Long-tailed Mole)
124. Talpa leucura (White-tailed Mole)
FAMILY SORECIDÆ
Genus Sorex—
125. Sorex cærulescens (Common Musk Shrew, better known as Musk-rat)
126. Sorex murinus (Mouse-coloured Shrew)
127. Sorex nemorivagus (Nepal Wood Shrew)
128. Sorex serpentarius (Rufescent Shrew)
129. Sorex saturatior (Dark-brown Shrew)
130. Sorex Tytleri (Dehra Shrew)
131. Sorex niger (Neilgherry Wood Shrew)
132. Sorex leucops (Long-tailed Shrew)
133. Sorex soccatus (Hairy-footed Shrew)
134. Sorex montanus (Ceylon Black Shrew)
135. Sorex ferrugineus (Ceylon Rufescent Shrew)
136. Sorex Griffithi (Large Black Shrew)
137. Sorex heterodon
Genus Feroculus—
138. Feroculus macropus (Large-footed Shrew)
139. Sorex Hodgsoni (Nepal Pigmy-Shrew)
140. Sorex Perroteti (Neilgherry Pigmy-Shrew)
141. Sorex micronyx (Small-clawed Pigmy-Shrew)
142. Sorex melanodon (Black-toothed Pigmy-Shrew)
143. Sorex nudipes (Naked-footed Shrew)
144. Sorex atratus (Black Pigmy-Shrew)
Sub-genus Soriculus—
145. Soriculus nigrescens (Mouse-tailed Shrew)
Genus Crossopus—
146. Crossopus Himalaicus (Himalayan Water-Shrew)
Genus Nyctogale—
147. Nyctogale elegans (Thibet Water-Shrew)
Genus Corsira—
148. Corsira Alpina (Alpine Shrew)
Genus Anurosorex—149. Anurosorex Assamensis (Assam Burrowing Shrew)
FAMILY ERINACEIDÆ—THE HEDGEHOGS
Genus Erinaceus—
150. Erinaceus collaris (Collared Hedgehog)
151. Erinaceus micropus (Small-footed Hedgehog)
152. Erinaceus pictus (Painted Hedgehog)
153. Erinaceus Grayi
154. Erinaceus Blanfordi
155. Erinaceus Jerdoni
156. Erinaceus megalotis (Large-eared Hedgehog)
FAMILY HYLOMIDÆ
Genus Hylomys—
157. Hylomys Peguensis (Short-tailed Tree-Shrew)
FAMILY TUPAIIDÆ
Genus Tupaia—
158. Tupaia Ellioti (Elliot's Tree-Shrew)
159. Tupaia Peguana vel Belangeri (Pegu Tree-Shrew)
160. Tupaia Chinensis
161. Tupaia Nicobarica
162. Gymnura Rafflesii (Bulau)
CARNIVORA
ARCTOIDEA—PLANTIGRADA
URSIDÆ
Genus Ursus—
163. Ursus Isabellinus (Himalayan Brown Bear)
164. Ursus (Helarctos) torquatus vel Tibetanus (Himalayan Black Bear)
165. Ursus (Helarctos) gedrosianus (Baluchistan Bear)
166. Ursus (Helarctos) Malayanus (Bruang or Malayan Sun Bear)
167. Ursus (Melursus) labiatus (Common Indian Sloth Bear)
AILURIDÆ
Genus Ailuropus—
168. Ailuropus melanoleucos
Genus Ailurus—
169. Ailurus fulgens (Red Cat-Bear)
SEMI-PLANTIGRADES
MELIDIDÆ; OR, BADGER-LIKE ANIMALS
Genus Arctonyx—
170. Arctonyx collaris (Hog-Badger)
171. Arctonyx taxoides (Assam Badger)
Genus Meles (Sub-genus Taxidia)—
172. Meles (Taxidia) leucurus (Thibetan White-tailed Badger)
173. Meles albogularis (White-throated Thibetan Badger)
Genus Mellivora—
174. Mellivora Indica (Indian Ratel or Honey-Badger)
Genus Gulo—The Glutton or Wolverene
Genus Helictis—175. Helictis Nipalensis (Nepal Wolverene)
176. Helictis moschata (Chinese Wolverene)
MUSTELIDÆ—MARTENS AND WEASELS
Genus Martes—The Martens—
177. Martes flavigula (White-cheeked Marten)
178. Martes abietum (Pine Marten)
179. Martes toufoeus
Genus Mustela—The Weasels—
180. Mustela (Vison: Gray) sub-hemachalana (Sub-Hemachal Weasel)
181. Mustela (Gymnopus: Gray) kathiah (Yellow-bellied Weasel)
182. Mustela (Gymnopus: Gray) strigidorsa (Striped Weasel)
183. Mustela erminea (Ermine or Stoat)
184. Mustela (Vison: Gray) canigula (Hoary Red-necked Weasel)
185. Mustela Stoliczkana
186. Mustela (Vison) Sibirica
187. Mustela alpina (Alpine Weasel)
188. Mustela Hodgsoni
189. Mustela (Vison) Horsfieldi
190. Mustela (Gymnopus) nudipes
Genus Putorius—The Pole-cat—
191. Putorius larvatus vel Tibetanus (Black-faced Thibetan Pole-cat)
192. Putorius Davidianus
193. Putorius astutus
194. Putorius Moupinensis
LUTRIDÆ—THE OTTERS
Genus Lutra—
195. Lutra nair (Common Indian Otter)
196. Lutra monticola vel simung
197. Lutra Ellioti
198. Lutra aurobrunnea
Genus Aonyx—Clawless Otters—
199. Aonyx leptonyx (Clawless Otter)
ÆLUROIDEA
FELIDÆ—THE CAT FAMILY
Genus Felis—
200. Felis leo (Lion)
201. Felis tigris (Tiger)
THE PARDS OR PANTHERS
202. Felis pardus (Pard)
203. Felis panthera (Panther)
204. Felis uncia (Ounce or Snow Panther)
205. Felis Diardii vel macrocelis (Clouded Panther)
206. Felis viverrina (Large Tiger-Cat)
207. Felis marmorata (Marbled Tiger-Cat)
208. Felis Bengalensis (Leopard-Cat)
209. Felis Jerdoni (Lesser Leopard-Cat)210. Felis aurata (Bay Cat)
211. Felis rubiginosa (Rusty-spotted Cat)
212. Felis torquata (Spotted Wild-Cat)
213. Felis manul (Black-chested Wild-Cat)
214. Felis scripta
215. Felis Shawiana (Yarkand Spotted Wild-Cat)
216. Felis chaus (Common Jungle-Cat)
217. Felis isabellina (Thibetan Lynx)
218. Felis caracal (Red Lynx)
219. Felis jubata (Hunting Leopard)
HYÆNIDÆ—THE HYÆNAS
Genus Hyæna—
220. Hyæna striata (Striped Hyæna)
VIVERRIDÆ—THE CIVET FAMILY
Genus Viverra—
221. Viverra zibetha (Large Civet Cat)
222. Viverra civettina (Malabar Civet-Cat)
223. Viverra megaspila
224. Viverra Malaccensis (Lesser Civet-Cat)
Genus Prionodon—
225. Prionodon pardicolor (Tiger Civet or Linsang)
226. Prionodon maculosus (Spotted Linsang)
227. Prionodon gracilis (Malayan Linsang)
Genus Paradoxurus—The Musangs—
228. Paradoxurus musanga (Common Musang)
229. Paradoxurus (Paguma of Gray) Grayii (Hill Musang)
230. Paradoxurus bondar (Terai Musang)
231. Paradoxurus trivirgatus (Three-striped Musang)
232. Paradoxurus leucotis (White-eared Musang)
233. Paradoxurus zeylanicus (Golden Musang)
234. Paradoxurus (Paguma) laniger
Genus Arctictis—
235. Arctictis binturong (Binturong)
HERPESTIDÆ—THE ICHNEUMON OR MUNGOOSE FAMILY
Genus Herpestes—
236. Herpestes pallidus vel griseus (Common Grey Mungoose)
237. Herpestes Jerdoni vel monticolus (Long-tailed Mungoose)
238. Herpestes Smithii (Ruddy Mungoose)
239. Herpestes auropunctatus (Gold-speckled Mungoose)
240. Herpestes fuscus (Neilgherry Brown Mungoose)
241. Herpestes (Onychogale of Gray) Maccarthiæ
242. Herpestes ferrugineus
243. Herpestes vitticollis (Stripe-necked Mungoose)
244. Urva cancrivora (Crab-eating Mungoose)
CYNOIDEA
Genus Canis—The Dog—

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