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Sketch of Grammar of the Chippeway Languages - To Which is Added a Vocabulary of some of the Most Common Words

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The Project Gutenberg EBook of Sketch of Grammar of the Chippeway Languages, by John Summerfield This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at Title: Sketch of Grammar of the Chippeway Languages  To Which is Added a Vocabulary of some of the Most Common Words Author: John Summerfield Release Date: November 14, 2006 [EBook #19807] Language: English Character set encoding: ASCII *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK GRAMMAR OF THE CHIPPEWAY ***
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This e-text consists of two books: Spellings for the Schools in the Chipeway Language Sketch of Grammar of the Chippeway Language In the first book (Spellings...), the hyphen - is used to separate syllables. In the second book (Grammar...) the hyphen seems to represent the glottal stop. In the word lists of the first book, the first entry in each column was sometimes— but not consistently— capitalized. This capitalization has been retained, whether or not the e-text layout replicates the original. A few punctuation marks in the paradigms and vocabulary lists have been supplied or regularized. Other errors and anomalies are noted with mouse-hover popups. Bracketed text is in the original.
Contents(list added by transcriber) Spellings for the Schools Spellings Prayers Sketch of Grammar Nouns, Pronouns Adjectives(including Numbers) Verbs Conjugation of "to love"(active) Conjugation of "to be" Conjugation of "to be loved"(passive) Participles, Adverbs, Prepositions, Conjunctions, Interjections A Fable Formation of Words Vocabulary
Ah-na-she-nah-pa, Oo-te-ke-too-we-nun; Ka-ke-ke-noo-ah-mah-ween-twah e-kewh, Ka-nah-wah-pahn-tah-gigk Mah-ze-nah-e-kun.
YORK, U. CANADA: Printed for the Canada Conference Missionary Society. 1828
SPELLINGS. Words of one Syllable. Kah Neeje Squach nah keeje shwas sah weeje quaich wah moose paske keene koose kaugk neene noose mongk weene meezhe shongk meene peezhe jeese owh neezhe aahe howh weezhe tdush ewh moozhe Words of two Syllables accented on the second. Ah keh ah toon me nick ah keeng e mah me quom ah kik e kewh me zeh ah mik e newh me squeh ahn doohm e ua me ti k
ah nungk I yahdt nah maih ah owh kah yawsk ne gigk ah pa ke tahn ne peh ah pweh ke quis ne peeng ah sin ke nwazhe ne sing ah tick mah quah Words of two Syllables, accented on the second. Ne sweh oo ninje qui yuck oo chawzhe oon taus shing quawk oo kaudt oo pin shing koub oo kowh oo saum shing kaugk oo kun Oo zidt tah zheh oo mah oo skonzhe te pigk oo nick oo taih wah zhusk Words of two syllables accented on the 1st & 2nd. Ah zheh ke kooh me kaunce a shkum ke zhick me nance a sance ke zis me quaich a squach ki ya me quon a tah koo koosh me tdush a yaudt mah che me owh a zheh mah kuk me zhusk che mon mah mick nah nindt che pywh mah noo na kowh ka che mahn tdah na yaub ka kate ma quah ne win ka gooh me chim ning kah ke kah me kun Words of three syllables accented on the 1st & 2nd. noo sa poo neh wa quain noo tdin se peh wau poose noo tding sah keh we kah noong koom sau kie we nin oo jee she shebe we yause pah mah tain ta we pidt pa kah wa nain ween sah pe toon Words of three Syllables, accented on the second and third. Ah je chaugk ah zhoo gun nah kah mooh ah kah mingk a me quahn ne zhe kaih ah neen teh a yah chick oo me meh ah ne moosh a yah yun oo nah kun ah ne peesh a zhah yun oo ne shkaudt ah noo kee ka yah peh oo que son ah pa kish mah ke sin oon tah shahn ah quing koos mah ne toonce oo ske zhick ah she kun mah ne toosh oo se tongk ah wah kahn mah ske moodt pe je nuck ah wa seeh me ke seh shah wain tung ah yah pa me sah owh shah wa nim Words of three Syllables, accented on the second and half accent on the third. E nah shka mah noo min me she nuck e qua sance me quain tun me tig koonce e shkoo ta me sah poose mun tah min ke na pigk me she min nah ma koos ke noo zhai me she kaih nah ma pin Words of three Syllables accented on the first and third.
Pah ke tin wau bah maudt wau be gun wau be min Words of three syllables accented on the last. Ah nah quodt kah shah kance ke she kudt e we te kah sah meh ke she kuck ing koo che kah moo keede koo se non ing koo twaus kah we kah me nah wah ish pe ming ka ka keh me ne zis ka ah koo ka koo weene me ze saih kah kah keh ka ke quait moo koo mon kah nah ka ke me wun mun ne too kah ke nick ke nah wah mun ne toogk kah ke nah ke ke che nah koo shah Words of three syllables accented on the last. nah too way pe na sheeh ta pain tungk neen ah windt pe pah kim ta pwa tungk ne se tum pe she keh tain ta seh ning ke che sah ke maih wah ne toodt noo se non sah ke toodt wah wah noon nowh ah quay se wah quahn wa koo nain oo che pway shah kah nosh wa wa neh oo ke mah shong qua sheh weje e shin oo me squeem shoo ne yah wig ke waum pah pah say tah be schooch we nah wah pe me zeh tah que shin we wah quahn Words of four syllables, accented on the second and fourth. Ah chit ah mooh me squah ta seh oo ta e min ah kuck koo jeesh ne pwah kah win oo que se mon ah sun ah kooh ne wah pah tahn oo wig ke waum ah wah se seh oo ka yah wis pah ske se gun e nah pe yook oo mah kah keh she kah kah winzhe ke pah e kun oo mong ke zheh ta pwa tah wick ke pim oo say oo tah pe nick wah oo na seh ke tah e kun oo tah pe nun Words of four syllables accented on the sixth. Ah quah tah sheeh na pwah kah chick ah se ke nauk pah kah ah quaih ah zhah wah maig too too shah boo ain tah che yungk waug ke koo mon ke zhe tah yook wah wah ska sheh maun nah ta nis Words of five syllables, a full accent on the last, and half accent on the second. Ah kin tah soo win neeng ke te mah kis ah nah me ah win ne skah te se win ah ne she nah pay nin tah wa mah took ah quah ne pe sahn ne te ke koo took ah sin ne se kah oo kah ke qua win ke moo te schke win oo zhe pe e kun ke nah we schke win pah kun te se win mah ze nah e kun pah pah ke wah yahn me ne te we nun shah wa ne te win me skoo te se min sah ke e te win me tig quah ke zin ween tah mah we shin mon nain e te win we too kah we shin ne kah ne se took Words of five syllables, accented on the first, the third and last.
Pa zhe go kah zhee oo te ke too win peen tah kah ta waun she pe koo pah tick oo ke mah we win wah ne squa se win Accented on the two first and last. Too toosh pim me tay Words of six syllables accented on the third and last. Kah ke pah te se win mah noo min e ka zheeh kah ke qua we ne neh mah kah ta e ne neh kah nah wah pa me shin e she wa pe se win kah nah wa ne me shin ta pwa yain tah moo win Accented on the second and last. Ke too ke mah me non oo mah ze nah e kun kah ke pah te se win wah wah pe koo noo jhee na nahn tah we e waidt Accented on the third and two last. ka ke noo ah mah kaidt ah koo koo pe nah gun mah che ah ye e wish ah wah che wun nah gun Accented on the 4th and last. Ahn e me tah koo zin.
THE LORD'S PRAYER. Ke-sha-mun-ne-too Oo-que-son Oo-tah-ne-me-tah-koo-se-win. NEENG-KE-CHEnoo-se-non, Ish-pe-ming a-yah-yun. Ka-che-mun-ne-too-we-ne-kah-soo-yun. Ke-ke-che-ke-too-ke-mah-we-win pe-tah-we-she-nom. A-na-ne-me-wong-kane oo-mah-ke-zhe ah-keeng ne-kah-e-she-we-pe-se-min; tah-pe-schooch a-she-wa-buk e-we-ty Ish-pe-ming. Me-she-she-nom ka-ne-tah-soo ke-she-kuk me-chim pe-mah-te-se-win. Ki-ya pa-kah-shah-wa-ne-me-she-nom che-sah-ke-che-wa-pe-nah-mah-we-yong mah-che-ah-ye-e-wish, nah-sab-e-koo a-she shah-wa-ne-mong-ke-twah oo-kooh kah-pah-tah-e-yah-me-ke-chik, ki-ya keen e-she-shah-wa-ne-me-she-nom. Ka-goo we-kah ing-koo-chee ah-ne-e-she-we-she-she-kah-kane che-nah-ne-sah-ne-se-yong; mah-noo sah-koo kah-ke-nah shah-koo-te-nah-mah-we-she-nom mah-che-ah-ye-e-wish. Keen-mah-ween ke te-pain-tahn ke-che-oo-ke-mah-we-win, ki-ya euh ke-che-e-she-wa-pe-se-win, ki-ya euh ah-nah-me-ah-win ka-che-me-nwa-tah-quok, kah-ke-nik ki-ya kah-ke-nik.—Amen.
GRACE BEFORE MEAT. Ah-noo-shoo-tah-mah-ka-win, che-pwah-we-se-ningk. O Ke-sha-mun-ne-too Ish-pe-ming a-yah-yun, Shah-wain-tah-mah-we-she-nom mahn-tdah me-chim pe-mah-te-se-win, kah-pah-ke-te-nah-mah-we-yongk; me-tdush ka-oon-je mah-skah-we-se-yongk che-ah-noo-ke-tah-koo yun; me-owh Jesus Christ a-pa-ne-moo-yongk. Amen.
GRACE AFTER MEAT. Ah-noo-shoo-tah-mah-ka-win, kah-e-squah, we-se-ningk. O Ke-sha-mun-ne-too, neeng-keche Noo-se-non, me-quaich wa-wa-neh kah-we-se-ne-yongk noo-koom, ki-ya ain-tah-soo-ke-she-kuck shah-wain-ne-me-yongk; me-sab-owh Jesus Christ kah-ke-nigk ka-ah-pa-ne-moo yongk. Amen.  
Cazenovia: PRESS OF J. F. FAIRCHILD & SON. 1834.
ADVERTISEMENT. The following pages were written as an exercise for my leisure hours, while attending the Oneida Conference Seminary during the past winter. As it is the first attempt that, to my knowledge, has ever been made to reduce the Chippeway language to any system, it cannot be expected to be otherwise than imperfect, and perhaps may hereafter be found to be, in some respects, erroneous. It is, however, as free from errors as my present means have enabled me to make it. It has been printed at the request of my friends, by a fellow student, at his own suggestion and expense. J. SUMMERFIELD. Cazenovia, April 10, 1834.
SKETCH OF GRAMMAR, &c. The Letters used in the Chippeway Language, are twenty-one, viz. A, a; B, b; C, c; D, d; E, e; G, g; H, h; I, i; J, j; K, k; M, m; N, n; O, o; P, p; Q, q; S, s; T, t; U, u; W, w; Y, y; Z, z. F, L, R, V, and X, are not used. There are, in the Chippeway Language, ten parts of Speech, namely, thearticle, thenoun, thepronoun, the adjective, theverb, theparticiple, theadverb, thepreposition, theconjunction, and theinterjection. OF THE ARTICLE. There is but one Article, used definitely both in the masculine and neuter genders, viz. Owh, the, m.; Ewh, the, n. OF NOUNS. A Noun is the name of any person, place, or thing; as, Eneneh, man; Kahdahnahqueeng, Kingston; metig, tree. Nouns are of two sorts, Common and Proper. Common Nouns stand for kinds containing many sorts, or for sorts containing many individuals under them; as, Ahwaseeh, animal; eneneh, man; kegownh, fish; penaseh, bird. Proper Nouns are the names appropriated to individuals, as, Charles, Cazenovia, Ganges. [N.B. Proper names, with a few exceptions, are the same as in English.]
To Nouns belong gender, person, number, and case. GENDER. Gender is the distinction of nouns with regard to sex. Nouns have three genders, the masculine, the feminine, and the neuter. The masculine gender denotes males; as, Eneneh, man. The feminine gender is applied to animals, fishes, and birds; as, Nahbak, a she bear, &c. The neuter gender denotes things without sex; as, Wewahquon, a hat. NUMBER. Number is the distinction of objects as one or more. Nouns are of two numbers, the singular and the plural. The singular number implies but one object; as, Mahzenahegun, a book. The plural number implies more than one; as, Mahzhenahegahnun, books. CASE. Nouns have three cases, the nominative, the possessive, and the objective. The nominative case simply expresses the name of a thing, &c.; as, Owh quewesanceoobahkahmegezeh, the boy plays. The possessive case expresses the relation of property or possession, and always ends with the lettero; as, Noosayo wegewaum, my father's house. The objective case expresses the object of an action or of relation; as John owejeahn Charles, John assists Charles. Nouns may be declined in the following manner: Singular. Plural. Nom. Case, Enenewug,Eneneh, man. men. Poss. Case,Eneneho, man's. Enenewugo, men's. Obj. Case,Eneneh, man. Enenewug, men.
OF PRONOUNS. A Pronoun is a word used instead of a noun, to avoid repeating the same word; as, Pahpenatum eneneh, the man is happy; Pahpenatum, he is happy. PERSONAL PRONOUNS. There are three personal pronouns, viz. Neen, I; keen, thou; ween, he; with their plurals, Nenahwind, we; kenahwah, ye or you; wenahwah, they. Personal pronouns have person, number, gender and case. The persons of pronouns are three in each number, viz. Neen, I, is the first person, Keen, thou, is the second person, Singular. Ween, he, is the third person, Nenahwind, we, is the first person, Kenahwah, you, is the second person, Plural. Wenahwah, they, is the third person, Number.—Pronouns have two numbers, the singular and the plural. Case.—Pronouns have three cases, the nominative, the possessive, and the objective. Pronouns cannot be declined. The cases of each person have the same form. First person.Singular. Plural. Nom. we. Nenahwind,Neen, I. Poss. Nenahwind,Neen, mine. ours. Obj. us.Neen, me. Nenahwind,
OF ADJECTIVES. An Adjective is a word added to a noun to express its quality; as, quahnoj eneneh, a good man; menwawezheh eneneh, an industrious man. Adjectives are not varied to agree with their nouns, nor do they have any regular comparison. The following is a list of Numeral Adjectives: Pazhick, 1
Neezhe, Nesweh, Newin, Nahnun, Ingoodwahsweh, Neswahsweh, Shahsweh, Shongsweh, Metahsweh, Metahsweh ahshepazhick, ahsheneezhe, ahshenesweh, ahshenewin, ahshenahnun, ahsheingoodwahsweh,  ahsheneswahsweh, ahsheswahsweh, ahsheshongsweh, Nestahnah, Nestahnah ahshepachick, ahsheneezhe, ahshenesweh, ahshenewin, ahshenahnun, Nestahnah ahsheingoodwahsweh,  ahsheneswahsweh, ahsheshahsweh, absheshongsweh, Nesemetahnah, Nemedahnah, Nahnemedahnah, Ingoodwahsemedahnah, Neswahsemedahnah, Swahsemedahnah, Shonggahswehmedahnah, Ingoodwak, Nezhwak, Neswak, Newak, Nahnwak, Ingoodwahswak, Nezhahswak, Shawhswak, Shongahswak, Medahswak, Neezhemedahswak, Medahswehdahswak, Nestahnahdahswak, Nemedahnahdahswak,
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 2000 10,000 20,000 40,000
OF VERBS. A Verb is a word which signifies to be, to do, or to suffer; as, Nedahyah, I am; Nedebahkoonewa, I rule; Nedebahkoonegoo, I am ruled. Verbs are of three kinds, active, passive, and neuter. A Verb Active expresses an action, and necessarily implies an agent and an object acted upon; as, Nezhahgeah James, I love James. A Verb Passive expresses passion or a suffering or the receiving of an action, and implies an object acted upon, and an agent by which it is acted upon; as, Chezhahwaneding, to be loved; John oojezhahwanemah neen, John is loved by me. A Verb Neuter expresses neither action nor passion, but being or a state of being; as, Nenebah, I sleep; Nenahmahdub, I sit. Verbs have number, person, mood and tense.
NUMBER AND PERSON. Verbs have two numbers, the singular and the plural. There are three persons in each number; as, Pers.Singular. Plural. 1. Nezhahwanega, I love. Nezhahwanegamin, we love. 2. Kezhahwanega, thou lovest. Kezhahwanegaim, you love. 3. Zhawanega, he loves. Zhahwanegawug, they love. MOOD. The moods are five, Indicative, Subjunctive, Imperative, Potential, and the Infinitive. The Indicative declares or affirms positively, or it asks a question; as, Zhahwanega, he loves; Zhahwaneganah? Does he love? The Subjunctive expresses action or passion in a doubtful manner; as, Kespin zhahwanegaid, if he loves. The Imperative is used for commanding, exhorting, and entreating; as, Mahjahn keen, depart thou; Noodahmooyook, do thou listen. The Potential implies possibility, liberty, power, will; as, Tahgemewan kahnahbuge, it may rain; Kegahwesenemin kiya kahmenequamin, we shall eat and drink. The Infinitive simply expresses the signification of the verb; as, Cheezechegang, to do; Chegegedoong, to speak. TENSE. Verbs have six tenses, the present, the imperfect, the perfect, the pluperfect, the first and second future tenses. The present tense represents a present action as taking place at the time in which it is mentioned; as, Nebop, I laugh; Newob, I see; Nedenadum, I think. The imperfect tense denotes past action or event however distant, finished, but without defining the exact time of its completion; as, Oodanongezahbahneeg ahpe naquaskahwod, they were travelling to the town when he met them. The perfect tense refers not only to what is past but also conveys an allusion to the present time; as, Ahzheh negegezhetoon nemahzhenahegun, I have finished my letter. The pluperfect tense represents a thing, not only as past, but also as prior to some other point of time specified in the sentence; as, Ahzehnegegezhetonahbun letter chebwabedahgweshing, I had finished my letter before he arrived. The first future tense represents the action as yet to come, either with or without respect to the precise time when; as, Owh kezis tahbemookahum wahbung, the sun will rise to-morrow. The second future tense represents a future action that will be accomplished before another future action; as, Negahwesenenahbun nahwahquaig, I shall have dined at twelve o'clock. A Verb is conjugated in the following manner: TO LOVE.—TICADIINVE MOOD. Present Tense. Sing. I love.1. Nezhahwanega, 2. Kezhahwanega, Thou lovest. 3. Zhahwanega, He loves. Plur.1. Nezhahwanegamin, We love. 2. Kezhahwanegaim, Ye or you love. 3. Zhahwanegawug, They love. Imperfect. Sing. loved. I1. Negezhahwanega, 2. Kegezhahwanega, Thou lovedst. 3. Kezhahwanega, He loved. Plur.1. Negezhahwanegamin, We loved. 2. Kegezhahwanegaim, Ye or you loved. 3. Kezhawanegawug, They loved. Perfect. Sing.1. Ahzehnegezhahwanega, have loved. I 2. Ahzehkegezhahwanega, Thou hast loved. 3. Ahzehkezhahwanega, He has loved. Plur.1. Ahzehnegezhahwanegamin, We have loved. 2. Ahzehkegezhahwanegaim, Ye or you have loved.
3. Ahzehkezhahwanegawug, They have loved. Pluperfect. Sing.1. Ahzehnegezhahwaneganahbun, I had loved. 2. Ahzehkegezhahwaneganahbun, Thou hadst loved. 3. Ahzehkezhahwanegabun, He had loved. Plur. had loved. We1. Ahzehnegezhawanegaminahbun, 2. Ahzehkegezhahwanegamwahbun, You had loved. 3. Ahzehkezhahwanegabahneeg, They had loved. First Future. Sing.1. Negahzhahwanega, shall or will love. I 2. Kegahzhahwanega, Thou shalt or wilt love. 3. Tahzhahwanega, He shall or will love. Plur.1. Negahzhahwanegamin, We shall or will love. 2. Kegahzhahwanegaim, You shall or will love. 3. Tahzhahwanegawug, They shall or will love. Second Future. Sing.1. Negahzhahwaneganahbun, I shall have loved. 2. Kegahzhahwaneganahbun, Thou wilt have loved. 3. Tahzhahwanegabun, He will have loved. Plur. shall have loved. We1. Negahzhahwanegaminahbun, 2. Kegahzhahwanegamwahbun, You will have loved. 3. Tahzhahwanegabahneeg, They will have loved. IMPERATIVE MOOD. Present Tense. Sing. Let1. Tahgahneenegazhahwanega, me love. 2. Zhahwanegain, or Kezhahwaneganah, Love thou, or do thou love. 3. Tahgahween tahzhahwanega, Let him love. Plur. us love.1. Tahgahnenahwind gahzhahwanegamin, Let 2. Zhahwanegayook, or Kezhahwanegaimnah, Love ye or you, or do you love. 3. Tahgahwenahwah tahzhahwanegawug, Let them love. POTENTIAL MOOD. Present Tense. Sing. may love. I1. Nedahzhahwanega, 2. Kedahzhahwanega, Thou mayest love. 3. Tahzhahwanega, He may love. Plur.1. Nedahzhahwanegamin, We may love. 2. Kedahzhahwanegaim, You may love. 3. Tahzhahwanegawug. They may love. Imperfect Tense. Sing.1. Nedahgezhahwanega, might love. I 2. Kedahgezhahwanega, Thou mightest love. 3. Tahgezhahwanega, He might love. Plur. We might love.1. Nedahgezhahwanegamin, 2. Kedahgezhahwanegaim, You might love. 3. Tahgezhahwanegawug, They might love. Perfect Tense. Sing. may have loved. I1. Nedahgewezhahwanega, 2. Kedahgewezhahwanega, Thou mayst have loved. 3. Tahgewezhahwanega, He may have loved. Plur. may have loved.1. Nedahgewezhahwanegamin, We 2. Kedahgewezhahwanegaim, You may have loved. 3. Tahgewezhahwanegawug, They may have loved. Pluperfect Tense. Sing. I might have loved.1. Nedahgewezhahwaneganahbun, 2. Kedahgewezhahwaneganahbun, Thou mightest have loved. 3. Tahgewezhahwanegabun, He might have loved. Plur. might have loved. We1. Nedahgewezhahwanegaminahbun, 2. Kedahgewezhahwanegamwahbun, You might have loved.
3. Tahgewezhahwanegabahneeg, They might have loved. SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. Present Tense. Sing. If I love.Kespin zhahwanegayaun, Kespin zhahwanegayun, If thou lovest. Kespin zhahwahnegaid, If he loves. Plur. If we love.Kespin zhahwanegayong, Kespin zhahwanegayaig, If you love. Kespin zhahwanegawod, If they love. INFINITIVE MOOD. Pres. love.Chezhahwanegang, To Perf. have loved.Chegezhahwanegang, To Fut.Ahyegwahwezhahwanegang, To be about to love. PARTICIPLES. Present,Zhahwaneding, Loving. Perfect,Zhahwanemind, Loved. CONJUONGATI OF THEVERBTO BE. INDICATIVE MOOD. Present Tense. Sing. am.Nedahyah, I Kedahyah, Thou art. Ahyah, He is. Plur. are.Nedahyahmin, We Kedahyaum, Ye or you are. Ahyahwug, They are. Imperfect Tense. Sing.Nedahyahnahbun, I was. Kedahyahnahbun, Thou wast. Ahyahbun, He was. Plur. were.Nedahyahmenahbun, We Kedahyahmwahbun, You were. Ahyahbahneeg, They were. Perfect Tense. Sing. have been.Negeahyahnahbun, I Kegeahyahnahbun, Thou hast been. Keahyahbun, He has been. Plur. have been.Negeahyahmin, We Kegeahyaum, You have been. Keahyahwug, They have been. Pluperfect Tense. Sing.Nedahgeweahyahnahbun, I had been. Kedahgeweahyahnahbun, Thou hadst been. Keweahyahbun, He had been. Plur. had been.Nedahgeweahyahmin, We Kedahgeweahyaum, You had been. Keahyahbahneeg, They had been. First Future Tense. Sing.Negahahyah, I shall be. Kegahahyah, Thou wilt be. Tahahyah, He will be. Plur.Negahahyahmin, We shall be. Kegahahyaum, You will be. Tahahyahwug, They will be. Second Future Tense. Sing. shall have been.Negahgeahyahnahbun, I Kegahgeahyahnahbun, Thou wilt have been. Tahgeahyahbun, He will have been.
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