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The Apple

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160 pages
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Ajouté le : 08 décembre 2010
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The Project Gutenberg EBook of The Apple, by Various This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.org Title: The Apple Author: Various Editor: Kansas State Horticultural Society Release Date: March 22, 2010 [EBook #31729] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE APPLE *** Produced by Steven Giacomelli, Stephen H. Sentoff and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team at http://www.pgdp.net (This file was produced from images produced by Core Historical Literature in Agriculture (CHLA), Cornell University) THE APPLE. THE KANSAS APPLE . THE BIG RED APPLE . THE LUSCIOUS, RED-CHEEKED FIRST LOVE OF THE FARMER'S BOY. THE HEALTHFUL, HEARTY HEART OF THE DARLING DUMPLING. WHAT IT IS. HOW TO GROW IT. ITS COMMERCIAL AND ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE. HOW TO UTILIZE IT. COMPILED AND REVISED BY THE KANSAS STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY, WILLIAM H. BARNES, SECRETARY, State Capitol, Topeka, Kan. 1898. THE APPLE! WHAT IT IS. DEFINITION. [Pg 3] The fleshy pome or fruit of a rosaceous tree (Pyrus malus), the origin of which is probably the wild crab-apple of Europe, cultivated in innumerable varieties in the temperate zones. It is scarcely known in the wild state, but as an escape from cultivation its fruit becomes small, acid, and harsh, and is known as the crab; the cultivated crab-apple is the fruit of other species of Pyrus. Of the cultivated crabs there are the Siberian (Pyrus prunifolia), the Chinese (Pyrus spectabillis), and the Cherry-crab (Pyrus baccata), all natives of northern Asia. The apple was first introduced into America from England, in 1629, by the governor of Massachusetts Bay. LAWS PERTAINING TO APPLE ORCHARDISTS. Extracts from General Statutes of Kansas, 1897. CUTTING OR DESTROYING FRUIT- OR SHADE-TREES. (Vol. 2, p. 374.) § 423. If any person shall cut down, injure or destroy or carry away any tree placed or growing for use, shade or ornament, or any timber, rails or wood standing, being or growing on the land of any other person, or shall dig up, quarry or carry away stones, ore or mineral, gravel, clay or mold, roots, fruits, or plants, or cut down or carry away grass, grain, corn, flax or hemp in which he has no interest or right, standing, lying or being on land not his own, or shall knowingly break the glass or any part of it in any building not his own, the party so offending shall pay to the party injured treble the value of the thing so injured, broken, destroyed or carried away, with costs, and shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and shall be subject to a fine not exceeding $500. DESTRUCTION BY FIRE. (Vol. 2, p. 372.) § 415. If any person shall wantonly and wilfully set on fire any woods, marshes or prairies so as thereby to occasion any damage to any other person he shall upon conviction be punished by fine not exceeding five hundred dollars and not less than fifty dollars, or by imprisonment in the county jail not more than six months and not less than ten days, or by both such fine and imprisonment. DECEPTION IN SALE OF TREES, PLANTS, ETC. (Vol. 2, p. 318.) § 126. Any person or persons who shall misrepresent, deceive or defraud any person or persons in the sale of any fruit, shade or ornamental tree or trees, or any vine, shrub, plant, bulb, or root, by substituting inferior or different varieties, or who shall falsely represent the name, age or class of any fruit, shade or ornamental tree or trees, or any vine, shrub, plant, bulb, or root, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and on conviction shall be fined not less than $10 nor more than $200, or by imprisonment in the county jail not less than thirty days nor more than six months, or by both such fine and imprisonment, and shall be liable to the party or parties injured thereby in treble the amount of all damages sustained, to be recovered in any court having jurisdiction thereof. TO PRESERVE ORDER AT HORTICULTURAL FAIRS. (Vol. 2. p. 955.) § 4. All county agricultural and horticultural societies, duly incorporated under the laws of this state, shall have power during the time of holding their fairs to appoint such police force and make such laws and regulations as shall be deemed necessary for the well ordering and government of the society. WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. (Vol. 2. p. 944.) § 11. Green apples shall weigh forty-eight pounds per bushel. Dried apples shall weigh twenty-four pounds per bushel. [Pg 4] AN ACT FOR THE PROTECTION OF BIRDS. (Vol. 2, p. 934.) § 1. The owner of an orchard may at any time shoot blue-jays, orioles, or yellowhammers. TABLE OF CONTENTS THE APPLE page 5 THE STATE, BY DISTRICTS 42 A SUMMARY OF THE FOREGOING DISTRICT REPORTS 187 MISCELLANEOUS ARTICLES RELATING TO ORCHARDS 191 ENEMIES OF THE APPLE 204 APPLES FOR THE TABLE 218 INDEX 225 THE APPLE. THE CHEMISTRY OF THE APPLE TREE. Written specially for "The Kansas Apple," By Prof. E. H. S. BAILEY, Chemist at the Kansas State University. In the cultivation of the apple tree, which, like most plants, gets its nourishment from two sources, the soil and the atmosphere, these must be first considered. From the soil come the mineral ingredients, those that are given back to the soil when the plant is burned, and from the atmosphere come the ingredients of no less importance in the growth of the tree, but which mostly disappear as invisible gases upon combustion. Upon the character of this soil, and upon the climate, a general term that may be said to cover the conditions of the atmosphere, depend the success of the horticulturist. In addition to this, insect pests are liable to constantly menace the crop. In the making of soils, a process that is constantly going on, the most important agents are water, air, frost, sunshine, and the action of living organisms. By this combined action, the mountain, with its rich store of mineral matter, is disintegrated, its constituents are partly dissolved in the water and partly carried mechanically to the plains below; the air is distributed through the soil; seeds are dropped; the living animal forms begin to multiply; the soil is enriched, and gradually it begins to be in a condition suitable to bear the simpler forms of vegetable life, which in turn decaying, add to the richness of the soil. Furthermore, the mechanical condition of the soil has much to do with the successful growth of the plant. If the
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