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The Best of the World's Classics, Restricted to Prose, Vol. VI (of X)—Great Britain and Ireland IV

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The Project Gutenberg eBook, The Best of the World's Classics, Restricted to Prose, Vol. VI (of X)-Great Britain and Ireland IV, by Various, Edited by Henry Cabot Lodge and Francis W. Halsey This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.org Title: The Best of the World's Classics, Restricted to Prose, Vol. VI (of X)--Great Britain and Ireland IV Author: Various Editor: Henry Cabot Lodge and Francis W. Halsey Release Date: December 22, 2007 [eBook #23971] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 ***START OF THE PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE BEST OF THE WORLD'S CLASSICS, RESTRICTED TO PROSE, VOL. VI (OF X)--GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND IV*** E-text prepared by Joseph R. Hauser, Sankar Viswanathan, and the Project Gutenberg Online Distributed Proofreading Team (http://www.pgdp.net) RUSKIN, DICKENS, THACKERAY, DARWIN THE BEST of the WORLD'S CLASSICS RESTRICTED TO PROSE HENRY CABOT LODGE Editor-in-Chief FRANCIS W. HALSEY Associate Editor With an Introduction, Biographical and Explanatory Notes, etc. IN TEN VOLUMES Vol. VI GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND—IV FUNK & WAGNALLS COMPANY NEW YORK AND LONDON COPYRIGHT , 1909, BY FUNK & WAGNALLS COMPANY The Best of the World's Classics VOL. VI GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND—IV 1801—1909 CONTENTS VOL. VI—GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND—IV Page JOHN H ENRY N EWMAN —(Born in 1801, died in 1890.) I The Beginnings of Tractarianism. (From the "Apologia pro Vita Sua") II On His Submission to the Catholic Church. (From the "Apologia") III Of Athens as a True University. (From Volume III of the "Historical Sketches") EDWARD BULWER LYTTON—(Born in 1803, died in 1873.) The Descent of Vesuvius on Pompeii. (From "The Last Days of Pompeii") LORD BEACONSFIELD—(Born in 1804, died in 1881.) Jerusalem by Moonlight. (From "Tancred") C HARLES MERIVALE—(Born in 1808, died in 1893.) The Personality of Augustus Cæsar. (From the "History of the Romans Under the Empire") ALEXANDER W. KINGLAKE—(Born in 1809, died in 1891.) I On Mocking at the Sphinx. (From "Eothen") II The Beginnings of the Crimean War. (From "The Invasion of the Crimea") 37 13 7 3 21 31 42 44 C HARLES D ARWIN—(Born in 1809, died in 1882.) I On Variations in Mammals, Birds and Fishes. (From "The Origin of Species") II The Genesis of a Great Book. (From the "Autobiography," printed in Volume I of the "Life and Letters") JOHN BROWN—(Born in 1810, died in 1882.) Rab and the Game Chicken. (From "Rab and His Friends") WILLIAM M. THACKERAY —(Born in 1811, died in 1863.) I The Imperturbable Marlborough. (From "The History of Henry Esmond") II At the Ball Before the Battle of Waterloo. (From "Vanity Fair") III The Death of Colonel Newcome. (From "The Newcomes") IV London in the Time of the First George. (From the "Four Georges") C HARLES D ICKENS—(Born in 1812, died in 1870.) I Sidney Carton's Death. (The conclusion of "A Tale of Two Cities") II Bob Sawyer's Party. (From Chapter XXXI of "The Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club") III Dick Swiveller and the Marchioness. (From Chapters LVII and LVIII of "The Old Curiosity Shop") IV A Happy Return of the Day. (From Book III, Chapter IV, of "Our Mutual Friend") C HARLOTTE BRONTE—(Born in 1816, died in 1855.) Of the Author of "Vanity Fair." (Preface to the second edition of "Jane Eyre") JAMES ANTHONY FROUDE —(Born in 1818, died in 1894.) I Of History as a Science. (From "Short Studies on Great Subjects") II The Character of Henry VIII. (From the "History of England") III Cæsar's Mission. (From the concluding chapter of "Cæsar—A Sketch") JOHN R USKIN—(Born in 1819, died in 1900.) I Of the History and Sovereignty of Venice. (From Chapter I of "The Stones of Venice") II St. Mark's at Venice. (From Vol. II of "The Stones of Venice") 119 97 105 88 86 80 75 62 65 56 47 51 122 132 136 140 151 III Of Water. (From Vol. II, Section V, of "Modern Painters") GEORGE ELIOT—(Born in 1819, died in 1880.) At the Hall Farm. (From "Adam Bede") H ERBERT SPENCER—(Born in 1820, died in 1904.) I The Origin of Professional Occupations. (From Volume III of "The Principles of Sociology") II Self-Dependence and Paternalism. (From the "Essays, Moral, Political and Esthetic") III The Ornamental and the Useful in Education. (From "Education, Intellectual, Moral and Physical") IV Reminiscences of His Boyhood. (From Part I, Chapter II, of the "Autobiography") V A Tribute to E. L. Youmans. (From Part VII of the "Autobiography") VI Why He Never Married. (From Part XII of the "Autobiography") H ENRY THOMAS BUCKLE —(Born in 1821, died in 1862.) I The Isolation of Spain. (From Vol. II, Chapter VIII, of the "History of Civilization in England") II George III and the Elder Pitt. (From Vol. I, Chapter VII, of the "History of Civilization in England") MATTHEW ARNOLD —(Born in 1822, died in 1888.) The Motive for Culture. (From "Culture and Anarchy") EDWARD A. FREEMAN—(Born in 1823, died in 1892.) The Death of William the Conqueror. (From "The History of the Norman Conquest") THOMAS H ENRY H UXLEY —(Born in 1825, died in 1895.) On a Piece of Chalk. (From "Lay Sermons, Addresses and Reviews") FREDERIC H ARRISON—(Born in 1831.) The Great Books of the World. (From an address on "The Choice of Books") JOHN R ICHARD GREEN—(Born in 1837, died in 1883.) George Washington. (From Book IV, Chapter II, of the "History of the English People") 242 JOHN MORLEY —(Born in 1838.) Voltaire as an Author and as a Man of Action. (From "Voltaire") 244 214 208 204 198 197 195 191 186 181 173 167 159 219 230 R OBERT LOUIS STEVENSON—(Born in 1850, died in 1894.) I Francis Villon's Terrors. (From "A Lodging for the Night: A Story of Francis Villon") II The Lantern Bearers. (From "Across the Plains, with Other Memories and Essays") 247 251 GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND—IV 1801-1909 JOHN HENRY NEWMAN Born in 1801, died in 1890; son of a banker; educated at Oxford; a Fellow of Oriel in 1822, where he was associated with Dr. Pusey; made a voyage to the Mediterranean in 1832-33, returning from which he wrote "Lead, Kindly Light"; joined the Oxford movement in 1833, writing many of the "tracts for the times"; formally joined the Catholic Church in 1845; established an Oratory in 1849; published "Lectures" in 1850, the "Apologia" in 1864, "Grammar of Ascent" in 1870; made a cardinal in 1879. [3] I THE BEGINNINGS OF TRACTARIANISM[1] During the first years of my residence at Oriel, tho proud of my college, I was not quite at home there. I was very much alone, and I used often to take my daily walk by myself. I recollect once meeting Dr. Copleston, then Provost, with one of the Fellows. He turned round, and with the kind courteousness which sat so well on him, made me a bow and said, Nunquam minus solus, quam cum solus. At that time, indeed (from 1823), I had the intimacy of my dear and true friend Dr. Pusey, and could not fail to admire and revere a soul so devoted to the cause of religion, so full of good works, so faithful in his affections; but he left residence when I was getting to know him well. As to Dr. Whately[2] himself, [4] he was too much my superior to allow of my being at my ease with him; and to no one in Oxford at this time did I open my heart fully and familiarly. But things changed in 1826. At that time I became one of the tutors of my college, and this gave me position; besides, I had written one or two essays which had been well received. I began to be known. I preached my first University sermon. Next year I was one of the public examiners for the B. A. degree. In 1828 I became vicar of St. Mary's. It was to me like the feeling of spring weather after winter; and, if I may so speak, I came out of my shell. I remained out of it until 1841. The two persons who knew me best at that time are still alive, beneficed clergymen, no longer my friends. They could tell better than any one else what I was in those days. From this time my tongue was, as it were, loosened, and I spoke spontaneously and without effort. One of the two, a shrewd man, said of me, I have been told, "Here is a Fellow who, when he is silent, will never begin to speak, and when he once begins to speak will never stop." It was at this time that I began to have influence, which steadily increased for a course of years. I gained upon my pupils, and was in particular intimate and affectionate with two of our Probationer Fellows, Robert Isaac Wilberforce (afterward Archdeacon), [5] and Richard Hurrell Froude.[3] Whately then, an acute man, perhaps saw around me the signs of an incipient party of which I was not conscious myself. And thus we discern the first elements of that movement afterward called Tractarian. The true and primary author of it, however, as is usual with great motive powers, was out of sight. Having carried off, as a mere boy, the highest honors of the University, he had turned from the admiration which haunted his steps, and sought for a better and holier satisfaction in pastoral work in the country. Need I say that I am speaking of John Keble?[4] The first time that I was in a room with him was on the occasion of my election to a Fellowship at Oriel, when I was sent for into the Tower, to shake hands with the Provost and Fellows. How is that hour fixt in my memory after the changes of forty-two years; forty-two this very day on which I write! I have lately had a letter in my hands which I sent at the time to my great friend, John William Bowden, with whom I passed almost exclusively my undergraduate years. "I had to hasten to the Tower," I say to him, "to receive the congratulations of all the Fellows. I bore it [6] till Keble took my hand, and then felt so abashed and unworthy of the honor done to me, that I seemed desirous of quite sinking into the ground." His had been the first name which I had heard spoken of, with reverence rather than admiration, when I came up to Oxford. When one day I was walking in High Street with my dear earliest friend just mentioned, with what eagerness did he cry out, "There's Keble!" and with what awe did I look at him! Then at another time I heard a Master of Arts of my college give an account how he had just then had occasion to introduce himself on some business to Keble, and how gentle, courteous, and unaffected Keble had been, so as almost to put him out of countenance. Then, too, it was reported, truly or falsely, how a rising man of brilliant reputation, the present Dean of St. Paul's, Dr. Milman, admired and loved him, adding, that somehow he was strangely unlike any one else. However, at the time when I was elected Fellow of Oriel, he was not in residence, and he was shy of me for years, in consequence of the marks which I bore upon me of the Evangelical and Liberal schools, at least so I have ever thought. Hurrell Froude brought us together about 1828; it is one of the sayings preserved in his "Remains"—"Do you know the story of the murderer who had done one good thing in his life? Well, if I was ever asked what good thing I had ever done, I should say I had brought Keble and Newman to understand each other." FOOTNOTES: [1] [2] From the "Apologia pro Vita Sua." Richard Whately, Bampton lecturer at Oxford in 1822; principal of St. Albans Hall in 1825; afterward Archbishop of Dublin; best known for his "Logic" and "Christian Evidences." When Newman met him, he was already famous for his "Historical Doubts Relative to Napoleon Bonaparte," which had been published in 1814. A brother of James Anthony Froude. Richard Hurrell Froude's influence on the founding of the Tractarian movement was strong. He cooperated with Newman in writing the "Lyra Apostolica." His health had long been delicate, when in 1836 he died. His "Remains" were published in the following year, with a preface by Newman. Three of the "Tracts for the Times" were by Froude. Keble, one of the chief promoters of the Oxford movement, will long be remembered as author of "The Christian Year," published in 1827. For ten years he was Professor of Poetry at Oxford. Three of the "Tracts for the Times" were by him. He was Newman's senior by eight years. [3] [4] II ON HIS SUBMISSION TO THE CATHOLIC CHURCH[5] I had one final advance of mind to accomplish, and one final step to take. That further advance of mind was to be able honestly to say that I was certain of the conclusions at which I had already arrived. That further step, imperative when, such certitude was attained, was my submission to the Catholic Church. This submission did not take place till two full years after the resignation of my living in September 1843; nor could I have made it at an earlier date, without doubt and apprehension; that is, with any true conviction of mind or certitude. [7] In the interval, of which it remains to speak—viz., between the autumns of 1843 and 1845—I was in lay communion with the Church of England: attending its services as usual, and abstaining altogether from intercourse with Catholics, from their places of worship, and from those religious rites and usages, such as the Invocation of Saints, which are characteristics of their creed. I did all this on [8] principle; for I never could understand how a man could be of two religions at once. What I have to say about myself between these two autumns I shall almost confine to this one point—the difficulty I was in as to the best mode of revealing the state of my mind to my friends and others, and how I managed to reveal it. Up to January, 1842, I had not disclosed my state of unsettlement to more than three persons.... To two of them, intimate and familiar companions, in the autumn of 1839; to the third—an old friend too, whom I have also named above —I suppose when I was in great distress of mind upon the affair of the Jerusalem Bishopric. In May, 1843, I made it known, as has been seen, to the