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The Last Journals of David Livingstone, in Central Africa, from 1865 to His Death, Volume II (of 2), 1869-1873 - Continued By A Narrative Of His Last Moments And Sufferings, Obtained From His Faithful Servants Chuma And Susi

134 pages
The Project Gutenberg EBook of The Last Journals of David Livingstone, in Central Africa, from 1865 to His Death, Volume II (of 2), 1869-1873, by David Livingstone This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at Title: The Last Journals of David Livingstone, in Central Africa, from 1865 to His Death, Volume II (of 2), 1869-1873 Continued By A Narrative Of His Last Moments And Sufferings, Obtained From His Faithful Servants Chuma And Susi Author: David Livingstone Editor: Horace Waller Release Date: November 8, 2005 [EBook #17024] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK DAVID LIVINGSTON, II *** Produced by Steven Gibbs and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team at THE LAST JOURNALS OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE, IN CENTRAL AFRICA, FROM 1865 TO HIS DEATH. CONTINUED BY A NARRATIVE OF HIS LAST MOMENTS AND SUFFERINGS, OBTAINED FROM HIS FAITHFUL SERVANTS CHUMA AND SUSI, BY HORACE WALLER, F.R.G.S., RECTOR OF TWYWELL, NORTHAMPTON. IN TWO VOLUMES.—VOL. II. [1869–1873] WITH PORTRAIT, MAPS, AND ILLUSTRATIONS. LONDON: JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET. 1874. Evening Ilala. 29 April, 1873. CONTENTS. LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. CHAPTER I. Bad beginning of the new year. Dangerous illness. Kindness of Arabs.
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The Project Gutenberg EBook of The Last Journals of David Livingstone, in
Central Africa, from 1865 to His Death, Volume II (of 2), 1869-1873, by David Livingstone
This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with
almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or
re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included
with this eBook or online at
Title: The Last Journals of David Livingstone, in Central Africa, from 1865 to His Death, Volume II (of 2), 1869-1873
Continued By A Narrative Of His Last Moments And Sufferings,
Obtained From His Faithful Servants Chuma And Susi
Author: David Livingstone
Editor: Horace Waller
Release Date: November 8, 2005 [EBook #17024]
Language: English
Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1
Produced by Steven Gibbs and the Online Distributed
Proofreading Team at
1874.Evening Ilala. 29 April, 1873.
Bad beginning of the new year. Dangerous illness. Kindness of Arabs. Complete
helplessness. Arrive at Tanganyika. The Doctor is conveyed in canoes. Kasanga
Islet. Cochin-China fowls. Reaches Ujiji. Receives some stores. Plundering
hands. Slow recovery. Writes despatches. Refusal of Arabs to take letters. Thani
bin Suellim. A den of slavers. Puzzling current in Lake Tanganyika. Letters sent
off at last. Contemplates visiting the Manyuema. Arab depredations. Starts for
new explorations in Manyuema, 12th July, 1869. Voyage on the Lake. Kabogo
E as t . Crosses Tanganyika. Evil effects of last illness. Elephant hunter's
superstition. Dugumbé. The Lualaba reaches the Manyuema. Sons of
Moenékuss. Sokos first heard of. Manyuema customs. Illness.
Prepares to explore River Lualaba. Beauty of the Manyuema country. Irritation at
conduct of Arabs. Dugumbé's ravages. Hordes of traders arrive. Severe fever.
Elephant trap. Sickness in camp. A good Samaritan. Reaches Mamohela and is
prostrated. Beneficial effects of Nyumbo plant. Long illness. An elephant of three
tusks. All men desert except Susi, Chuma, and Gardner. Starts with these to
Lualaba. Arab assassinated by outraged Manyuema. Returns baffled to
Mamohela. Long and dreadful suffering from ulcerated feet. Questionable
cannibalism. Hears of four river sources close together. Resumé of discoveries.
Contemporary explorers. The soko. Description of its habits. Dr. Livingstone feels
himself failing. Intrigues of deserters
Footsteps of Moses. Geology of Manyuema land. "A drop of comfort." Continued
sufferings. A stationary explorer. Consequences of trusting to theory.
Nomenclature of Rivers and Lakes. Plunder and murder is Ujijian trading. Comes
out of hut for first time after eighty days' illness. Arab cure for ulcerated sores.
Rumour of letters. The loss of medicines a great trial now. The broken-hearted
chief. Return of Arab ivory traders. Future plans. Thankfulness for Mr. Edward
Young's Search Expedition. The Hornbilled Phoenix. Tedious delays. The bargain
for the boy. Sends letters to Zanzibar. Exasperation of Manyuema against Arabs.
The "Sassassa bird." The disease "Safura."
Degraded state of the Manyuema. Want of writing materials. Lion's fat a specific
against tsetse. The Neggeri. Jottings about Meréré. Various sizes of tusks. An
epidemic. The strangest disease of all! The New Year. Detention at Bambarré.
Goître. News of the cholera. Arrival of coast caravan. The parrot's-feather
challenge. Murder of James. Men arrive as servants. They refuse to go north.
Part at last with malcontents. Receives letters from Dr. Kirk and the Sultan.
Doubts as to the Congo or Nile. Katomba presents a young soko. Forest scenery.
Discrimination of the Manyuema. They "want to eat a white one." Horrible
bloodshed by Ujiji traders. Heartsore and sick of blood. Approach Nyañgwé.
Reaches the Lualaba
The Chitoka or market gathering. The broken watch. Improvises ink. Builds a new
house at Nyañgwé on the bank of the Lualaba. Marketing. Cannibalism. Lake
Kamalondo. Dreadful effect of slaving. News of country across the Lualaba.
Tiresome frustration. The Bakuss. Feeble health. Busy scene at market. Unable
to procure canoes. Disaster to Arab canoes. Rapids in Lualaba. Project for visiting
Lake Lincoln and the Lomamé. Offers large reward for canoes and men. The
slave's mistress. Alarm, of natives at market. Fiendish slaughter of women by
Arabs. Heartrending scene. Death on land and in the river. Tagamoio's
assassinations. Continued slaughter across the river. Livingstone becomes
Leaves for Ujiji. Dangerous journey through forest. The Manyuema understand
Livingstone's kindness. Zanzibar slaves. Kasongo's. Stalactite caves.Consequences of eating parrots. Ill. Attacked in the forest. Providential
deliverance. Another extraordinary escape. Taken for Mohamad Bogharib.
Running the gauntlet for five hours. Loss of property. Reaches place of safety. Ill.
Mamohela. To the Luamo. Severe disappointment. Recovers. Severe marching.
Reaches Ujiji. Despondency. Opportune arrival of Mr. Stanley. Joy and
thankfulness of the old traveller. Determines to examine north end of Lake
Tanganyika. They start. Reach the Lusizé. No outlet. "Theoretical discovery" of
the real outlet. Mr. Stanley ill. Returns to Ujiji. Leaves stores there. Departure for
Unyanyembé with Mr. Stanley. Abundance of game. Attacked by bees. Serious
illness of Mr. Stanley. Thankfulness at reaching Unyanyembé
Determines to continue his work. Proposed route. Refits. Robberies discovered.
Mr. Stanley leaves. Parting messages. Mteza's people arrive. Ancient Geography.
Tabora. Description of the country. The Banyamwezi. A Baganda bargain. The
population of Unyamyembe. The Mirambo war. Thoughts on Sir Samuel Baker's
policy. The cat and the snake. Firm faith. Feathered neighbours. Mistaken notion
concerning mothers. Prospects for missionaries. Halima. News of other travellers.
Chuma is married
Letters arrive at last. Sore intelligence. Death of an old friend. Observations on
the climate. Arab caution. Dearth of Missionary enterprise. The slave trade and its
horrors. Progressive barbarism. Carping benevolence. Geology of Southern Africa.
The fountain sources. African elephants. A venerable piece of artillery.
Livingstone on Materialism. Bin Nassib. The Baganda leave at last. Enlists a new
Short years in Buganda. Boys' playthings in Africa. Reflections. Arrival of the
men. Fervent thankfulness. An end of the weary waiting. Jacob Wainwright takes
service under the Doctor. Preparations for the journey. Flagging and illness. Great
heat. Approaches Lake Tanganyika. The borders of Fipa. Lepidosirens and
Vultures. Capes and islands of Lake Tanganyika. High mountains. Large Bay
False guides. Very difficult travelling. Donkey dies of tsetse bites. The Kasonso
family. A hospitable chief. The River Lofu. The nutmeg tree. Famine. Ill. Arrives at
Chama's town. A difficulty. An immense snake. Account of Casembe's death. The
flowers of the Babisa country. Reaches the River Lopoposi. Arrives at
Chituñkué's. Terrible marching. The Doctor is borne through the flooded country
Entangled amongst the marshes of Bangweolo. Great privations. Obliged to return
to Chituñkué's. At the chiefs mercy. Agreeably surprised with the chief. Start once
more. Very difficult march. Robbery exposed. Fresh attack of illness. Sends
scouts out to find villages. Message to Chirubwé. An ant raid. Awaits news from
Matipa. Distressing perplexity. The Bougas of Bangweolo. Constant rain above
and flood below. Ill. Susi and Chuma sent as envoys to Matipa. Reach
Bangweolo. Arrive at Matipa's islet. Matipa's town. The donkey suffers in transit.
Tries to go on to Kabinga's. Dr. Livingstone makes a demonstration. Solution of
the transport difficulty. Susi and detachment sent to Kabinga's. Extraordinary
extent of flood. Reaches Kabinga's. An upset. Crosses the Chambezé. The River
Muanakazi. They separate into companies by land and water. A disconsolate lion.
Singular caterpillars. Observations on fish. Coasting along the southern flood of
Lake Bangweolo. Dangerous state of Dr. Livingstone
Dr. Livingstone rapidly sinking. Last entries in his diary. Susi and Chuma's
additional details. Great agony in his last illness. Carried across rivers and
through flood. Inquiries for the Hill of the Four Rivers. Kalunganjovu's kindness.
Crosses the Mohlamo into the district of Ilala in great pain. Arrives at Chitambo's
village. Chitambo comes to visit the dying traveller. The last night. Livingstone
expires in the act of praying. The account of what the men saw. Remarks on his
death. Council of the men. Leaders selected. The chief discovers that his guest is
dead. Noble conduct of Chitambo. A separate village built by the men wherein to
prepare the body for transport. The preparation of the corpse. Honour shown by
the natives to Dr. Livingstone. Additional remarks on the cause of death.
Interment of the heart at Chitambo's in Ilala of the Wabisa. An inscription and
memorial sign-posts left to denote spot
They begin the homeward march from Ilala. Illness of all the men. Deaths.
Muanamazungu. The Luapula. The donkey killed by a lion. A disaster at
N'kossu's. Native surgery. Approach Chawende's town. Inhospitable reception. An
encounter. They take the town. Leave Chawende's. Reach Chiwaie's. Strike the
old road. Wire drawing. Arrive at Kumbakumba's. John Wainwright disappears.
Unsuccessful search. Reach Tanganyika. Leave the Lake. Cross the
Lambalamfipa range. Immense herds of game. News of East-Coast Search
Expedition. Confirmation of news. They reach Baula. Avant-couriers sent forwards
to Unyanyembé. Chuma meets Lieut. Cameron. Start for the coast. Sad death of
Dr. Dillon. Clever precautions. The body is effectually concealed. Girl killed by a
snake. Arrival on the coast. Concluding remarks
Full-page Illustrations.
3. CHUMA AND SUSI. (From a Photograph by MAULL & Co.)
Smaller Illustrations.
[Full-resolution image of this map]
Bad beginning of the new year. Dangerous illness. Kindness of Arabs. Complete
helplessness. Arrive at Tanganyika. The Doctor is conveyed in canoes. Kasanga
Islet. Cochin-China fowls. Beaches Ujiji. Receives some stores. Plundering
hands. Slow recovery. Writes despatches. Refusal of Arabs to take letters. Thani
bin Suellim. A den of slavers. Puzzling current in Lake Tanganyika. Letters sent
off at last. Contemplates visiting the Manyuema. Arab depredations. Starts for
new explorations in Manyuema, 12th July, 1869. Voyage on the Lake. Kabogo
E as t . Crosses Tanganyika. Evil effects of last illness. Elephant hunter's
superstition. Dugumbé. The Lualaba reaches the Manyuema. Sons of
Moenékuss. Sokos first heard of. Manyuema customs. Illness.
[The new year opened badly enough, and from letters he wrote subsequently
concerning the illness which now attacked him, we gather that it left evils
behind, from which he never quite recovered. The following entries were made
after he regained sufficient strength, but we see how short they necessarily
were, and what labour it was to make the jottings which relate to his progress
towards the western shore of Lake Tanganyika. He was not able at any time
during this seizure to continue the minute maps of the country in his pocket-
books, which for the first time fail here.]
1st January, 1869.—I have been wet times without number, but the wetting of
yesterday was once too often: I felt very ill, but fearing that the Lofuko might
flood, I resolved to cross it. Cold up to the waist, which made me worse, but I
went on for 2-1/2 hours E.
3rd January, 1869.—I marched one hour, but found I was too ill to go further.
Moving is always good in fever; now I had a pain in the chest, and rust of iron
sputa: my lungs, my strongest part, were thus affected. We crossed a rill and
built sheds, but I lost count of the days of the week and month after this. Very ill
all over.
About 7th January, 1869.—Cannot walk: Pneumonia of right lung, and I cough
all day and all night: sputa rust of iron and bloody: distressing weakness. Ideas
flow through the mind with great rapidity and vividness, in groups of twos and
threes: if I look at any piece of wood, the bark seems covered over with figures
and faces of men, and they remain, though I look away and turn to the same
spot again. I saw myself lying dead in the way to Ujiji, and all the letters I
expected there useless. When I think of my children and friends, the lines ring
through my head perpetually:"I shall look into your faces,
And listen to what you say,
And be often very near you
When you think I'm far away."
Mohamad Bogharib came up, and I have got a cupper, who cupped my chest.
8th and 9th January, 1869.—Mohamad Bogharib offered to carry me. I am so
weak I can scarcely speak. We are in Marungu proper now—a pretty but
steeply-undulating country. This is the first time in my life I have been carried in
illness, but I cannot raise myself to the sitting posture. No food except a little
gruel. Great distress in coughing all night long; feet swelled and sore. I am
carried four hours each day on a kitanda or frame, like a cot; carried eight hours
one day. Then sleep in a deep ravine. Next day six hours, over volcanic tufa;
very rough. We seem near the brim of Tanganyika. Sixteen days of illness. May
be 23rd of January; it is 5th of lunar month. Country very undulating; it is
perpetually up and down. Soil red, and rich knolls of every size and form. Trees
few. Erythrinas abound; so do elephants. Carried eight hours yesterday to a
chief's village. Small sharp thorns hurt the men's feet, and so does the
roughness of the ground. Though there is so much slope, water does not run
quickly off Marungu. A compact mountain-range flanks the undulating country
through which we passed, and may stop the water flowing. Mohamad Bogharib
is very kind to me in my extreme weakness; but carriage is painful; head down
and feet up alternates with feet down and head up; jolted up and down and
sideways—changing shoulders involves a toss from one side to the other of the
kitanda. The sun is vertical, blistering any part of the skin exposed, and I try to
shelter my face and head as well as I can with a bunch of leaves, but it is
dreadfully fatiguing in my weakness.
I had a severe relapse after a very hot day. Mohamad gave me medicines; one
was a sharp purgative, the others intended for the cure of the cough.
14th February, 1869.—Arrived at Tanganyika. Parra is the name of the land at
the confluence of the River Lofuko: Syde bin Habib had two or three large
canoes at this place, our beads were nearly done, so I sent to Syde to say that
all the Arabs had served me except himself. Thani bin Suellim by his letter was
anxious to send a canoe as soon as I reached the Lake, and the only service I
wanted of Syde was to inform Thani, by one of his canoes, that I was here very
ill, and if I did not get to Ujiji to get proper food and medicine I should die. Thani
would send a canoe as soon as he knew of my arrival I was sure: he replied
that he too would serve me: and sent some flour and two fowls: he would come
in two days and see what he could do as to canoes.
15th February, 1869.—The cough and chest pain diminished, and I feel
thankful; my body is greatly emaciated. Syde came to-day, and is favourable to
sending me up to Ujiji. Thanks to the Great Father in Heaven.
24th February, 1869.—We had remarkably little rain these two months.
25th February, 1869.—I extracted twenty Funyés, an insect like a maggot,
whose eggs had been inserted on my having been put into an old house
infested by them; as they enlarge they stir about and impart a stinging
sensation; if disturbed, the head is drawn in a little. When a poultice is put on
they seem obliged to come out possibly from want of air: they can be pressed
out, but the large pimple in which they live is painful; they were chiefly in my
26th February, 1869.—Embark, and sleep at Katonga after seven hours'
27th February, 1869.—Went 1-3/4 hour to Bondo or Thembwé to buy food.
Shore very rough, like shores near Capréra, but here all is covered with
vegetation. We were to cross to Kabogo, a large mass of mountains on the
eastern side, but the wind was too high.
28th February, 1869.—Syde sent food back to his slaves.
2nd March, 1869.—Waves still high, so we got off only on 3rd at 1h. 30m. A.M.
6-1/2 hours, and came to M. Bogharib, who cooked bountifully.
6th March, 1869.—5 P.M. Off to Toloka Bay—three hours; left at 6 A.M., and
came, in four hours, to Uguha, which is on the west side of Tanganyika.
7th March, 1869.—Left at 6 P.M., and went on till two canoes ran on rocks in the
way to Kasanga islet. Rounded a point of land, and made for Kasanga with a
storm in our teeth; fourteen hours in all. We were received by a young Arab
Muscat, who dined us sumptuously at noon: there are seventeen islets in the
Kasanga group.
[1]8th March, 1869.—On Kasanga islet. Cochin-China fowls and Muscovy
ducks appear, and plenty of a small milkless breed of goats. Tanganyika has
many deep bays running in four or five miles; they are choked up with aquatic
vegetation, through which canoes can scarcely be propelled. When the bay has
a small rivulet at its head, the water in the bay is decidedly brackish, though the
rivulet be fresh, it made the Zanzibar people remark on the Lake water, "It is like
that we get near the sea-shore—a little salt;" but as soon as we get out of the
shut-in bay or lagoon into the Lake proper the water is quite sweet, and showsthat a current flows through the middle of the Lake lengthways.
Patience was never more needed than now: I am near Ujiji, but the slaves who
paddle are tired, and no wonder; they keep up a roaring song all through their
work, night and day. I expect to get medicine, food, and milk at Ujiji, but dawdle
and do nothing. I have a good appetite, and sleep well; these are the
favourable symptoms; but am dreadfully thin, bowels irregular, and I have no
medicine. Sputa increases; hope to hold out to Ujiji. Cough worse. Hope to go
9th March, 1869.—The Whydah birds have at present light breasts and dark
necks. Zahor is the name of our young Arab host.
11th March, 1869.—Go over to Kibizé islet, 1-1/2 hour from Kasanga. Great
care is taken not to encounter foul weather; we go a little way, then wait for fair
wind in crossing to east side of Lake.
12th March, 1869.—People of Kibizé dress like those in Rua, with cloth made
of the Muabé or wild-date leaves; the same is used in Madagascar for the
[2]"lamba." Their hair is collected up to the top of the head.
From Kibizé islet to Kabogo River on east side of Lake ten hours; sleep there.
Syde slipped past us at night, but we made up to him in four hours next
13th March, 1869.—At Rombolé; we sleep, then on.
[At last he reached the great Arab settlement at Ujiji, on the eastern shore of
Tanganyika. It was his first visit, but he had arranged that supplies should be
forwarded thither by caravans bound inland from Zanzibar. Most unfortunately
his goods were made away with in all directions—not only on this, but on
several other occasions. The disappointment to a man shattered in health, and
craving for letters and stores, must have been severe indeed.]
14th March, 1869.—Go past Malagarasi River, and reach Ujiji in 3-1/2 hours.
Found Haji Thani's agent in charge of my remaining goods. Medicines, wine,
and cheese had been left at Unyanyembé, thirteen days east of this. Milk not to
be had, as the cows had not calved, but a present of Assam tea from Mr. Black,
the Inspector of the Peninsular and Oriental Company's affairs, had come from
Calcutta, besides my own coffee and a little sugar. I bought butter; two large
pots are sold for two fathoms of blue calico, and four-year-old flour, with which
we made bread. I found great benefit from the tea and coffee, and still more
from flannel to the skin.
15th March, 1869.—Took account of all the goods left by the plunderer; sixty-
two out of eighty pieces of cloth (each of twenty-four yards) were stolen, and
[3]most of my best beads. The road to Unyembé is blocked up by a Mazitu or
Watuta war, so I must wait till the Governor there gets an opportunity to send
them. The Musa sent with the buffaloes is a genuine specimen of the ill-
conditioned, English-hating Arab. I was accosted on arriving by, "You must give
me five dollars a month for all my time;" this though he had brought nothing—
the buffaloes all died—and did nothing but receive stolen goods. I tried to make
use of him to go a mile every second day for milk, but he shammed sickness so
often on that day I had to get another to go; then he made a regular practice of
coming into my house, watching what my two attendants were doing, and going
about the village with distorted statements against them.
I clothed him, but he tried to make bad blood between the respectable Arab
who supplied me with milk and myself, telling him that I abused him, and then
he would come back, saying that he abused me! I can account for his conduct
only by attributing it to that which we call ill-conditioned: I had to expel him from
the house.
I repaired a house to keep out the rain, and on the 23rd moved into it. I gave our
Kasanga host a cloth and blanket; he is ill of pneumonia of both lungs.
28th March, 1869.—Flannel to the skin and tea very beneficial in the cure of my
disease; my cough has ceased, and I walk half a mile. I am writing letters for
8th April, 1869.—Visited Moené Mokaia, who sent me two fowls and rice; gave
him two cloths. He added a sheep.
13th April, 1869.—Employed Suleyman to write notes to Governor of Unyembé,
Syde bin Salem Burashid, to make inquiries about the theft of my goods, as I
meant to apply to Syed Majid, and wished to speak truly about his man Musa
bin Salum, the chief depredator.
Wrote also to Thani for boat and crew to go down Tanganyika.
Syde bin Habib refused to allow his men to carry my letters to the coast; as he
suspected that I would write about his doings in Rua.
27th April, 1869.—Syde had three canoes smashed in coming up past
Thembwé; the wind and waves drove them on the rocks, and two were totally
destroyed: they are heavy unmanageable craft, and at the mercy of any storm if
they cannot get into a shut bay, behind the reeds and aquatic vegetation. Oneof the wrecks is said to have been worth 200 dollars (40l.).
The season called Masika commenced this month with the usual rolling
thunder, and more rain than in the month preceding.
I have been busy writing letters home, and finished forty-two, which in some
measure will make up for my long silence. The Ujijians are unwilling to carry
my letters, because, they say, Seyed Majid will order the bearer to return with
others: he may say, "You know where he is, go back to him," but I suspect they
[4]fear my exposure of their ways more than anything else.
16th May, 1869.—Thani bin Suellim sent me a note yesterday to say that he
would be here in two days, or say three; he seems the most active of the
Ujijians, and I trust will help me to get a canoe and men.
The malachite at Katañga is loosened by fire, then dug out of four hills: four
manehs of the ore yield one maneh of copper, but those who cultivate the soil
get more wealth than those who mine the copper.
[No change of purpose was allowed to grow out of sickness and
disappointment. Here and there, as in the words written on the next day, we find
Livingstone again with his back turned to the coast and gazing towards the land
of the Manyuema and the great rivers reported there.] 17th May, 1869.—Syde
bin Habib arrived to-day with his cargo of copper and slaves. I have to change
house again, and wish I were away, now that I am getting stronger. Attendants
arrive from Parra or Mparra.
[The old slave-dealer, whom he met at Casembe's, and who seems to have
been set at liberty through Livingstone's instrumentality, arrives at Ujiji at last.]
18th May, 1869.—Mohamad bin Saleh arrived to-day. He left this when
comparatively young, and is now well advanced in years.
The Bakatala at Lualaba West killed Salem bin Habib. Mem.—Keep clear of
them. Makwamba is one of the chiefs of the rock-dwellers, Ngulu is another,
and Masika-Kitobwé on to Baluba. Sef attached Kilolo N'tambwé.
19th May, 1869.—The emancipation of our West-Indian slaves was the work of
but a small number of the people of England—the philanthropists and all the
more advanced thinkers of the age. Numerically they were a very small minority
of the population, and powerful only from the superior abilities of the leading
men, and from having the right, the true, and just on their side. Of the rest of the
population an immense number were the indifferent, who had no sympathies to
spare for any beyond their own fireside circles. In the course of time sensation
writers came up on the surface of society, and by way of originality they
condemned almost every measure and person of the past. "Emancipation was
a mistake;" and these fast writers drew along with them a large body, who
would fain be slaveholders themselves. We must never lose sight of the fact
that though the majority perhaps are on the side of freedom, large numbers of
Englishmen are not slaveholders only because the law forbids the practice. In
this proclivity we see a great part of the reason of the frantic sympathy of
thousands with the rebels in the great Black war in America. It is true that we do
sympathize with brave men, though we may not approve of the objects for
which they fight. We admired Stonewall Jackson as a modern type of
Cromwell's Ironsides; and we praised Lee for his generalship, which, after all,
was chiefly conspicuous by the absence of commanding abilities in his
opponents, but, unquestionably, there existed besides an eager desire that
slaveocracy might prosper, and the Negro go to the wall. The would-be
slaveholders showed their leanings unmistakably in reference to the Jamaica
outbreak; and many a would-be Colonel Hobbs, in lack of revolvers, dipped his
pen in gall and railed against all Niggers who could not be made slaves. We
wonder what they thought of their hero, when informed that, for very shame at
what he had done and written, he had rushed unbidden out of the world.
26th May, 1869.—Thani bin Suellim came from Unyanyembé on the 20th. He is
a slave who has risen to freedom and influence; he has a disagreeable outward
squint of the right eye, teeth protruding from the averted lips, is light-coloured,
and of the nervous type of African. He brought two light boxes from Unyembé,
and charged six fathoms for one and eight fathoms for the other, though the
carriage of both had been paid for at Zanzibar. When I paid him he tried to
steal, and succeeded with one cloth by slipping it into the hands of a slave. I
gave him two cloths and a double blanket as a present. He discovered
afterwards what he knew before, that all had been injured by the wet on the
way here, and sent two back openly, which all saw to be an insult. He asked a
little coffee, and I gave a plateful; and he even sent again for more coffee after I
had seen reason to resent his sending back my present. I replied, "He won't
send coffee back, for I shall give him none." In revenge he sends round to warn
all the Ujijians against taking my letters to the coast; this is in accordance with
their previous conduct, for, like the Kilwa people on the road to Nyassa, they
have refused to carry my correspondence.
This is a den of the worst kind of slave-traders; those whom I met in Urungu and
Itawa were gentlemen slavers: the Ujiji slavers, like the Kilwa and Portuguese,
are the vilest of the vile. It is not a trade, but a system of consecutive murders;
they go to plunder and kidnap, and every trading trip is nothing but a foray.Moené Mokaia, the headman of this place, sent canoes through to Nzigé, and
his people, feeling their prowess among men ignorant of guns, made a regular
assault but were repulsed, and the whole, twenty in number, were killed.
Moené Mokaia is now negotiating with Syde bin Habib to go and revenge this,
for so much ivory, and all he can get besides. Syde, by trying to revenge the
death of Salem bin Habib, his brother, on the Bakatala, has blocked up one part
of the country against me, and will probably block Nzigé, for I cannot get a
message sent to Chowambé by anyone, and may have to go to Karagwé on
foot, and then from Rumanyika down to this water.
[In reference to the above we may add that there is a vocabulary of Masai
words at the end of a memorandum-book. Livingstone compiled this with the
idea that it would prove useful on his way towards the coast, should he
eventually pass through the Masai country. No doubt some of the Arabs or their
slaves knew the language, and assisted him at his work.]
29th May, 1869.—Many people went off to Unyembé, and their houses were
untenanted; I wished one, as I was in a lean-to of Zahor's, but the two headmen
tried to secure the rent for themselves, and were defeated by Mohamad bin
Saleh. I took my packet of letters to Thani, and gave two cloths and four
bunches of beads to the man who was to take them to Unyanyembé; an hour
afterwards, letters, cloths, and beads were returned: Thani said he was afraid of
English letters; he did not know what was inside. I had sewed them up in a
piece of canvas, that was suspicious, and he would call all the great men of
Ujiji and ask them if it would be safe to take them; if they assented he would
call for the letters, if not he would not send them. I told Mohamad bin Saleh, and
he said to Thani that he and I were men of the Government, and orders had
come from Syed Majid to treat me with all respect: was this conduct respectful?
Thani then sent for the packet, but whether it will reach Zanzibar I am doubtful. I
gave the rent to the owner of the house and went into it on 31st May. They are
nearly all miserable Suaheli at Ujiji, and have neither the manners nor the
sense of Arabs.
[We see in the next few lines how satisfied Livingstone was concerning the
current in the Lake: he almost wishes to call Tanganyika a river. Here then is a
problem left for the future explorer to determine. Although the Doctor proved by
experiments during his lengthy stay at Ujiji that the set is towards the north, his
two men get over the difficulty thus: "If you blow upon the surface of a basin of
water on one side, you will cause the water at last to revolve round and round;
so with Tanganyika, the prevailing winds produce a similar circulation.". They
feel certain there is no outlet, because at one time or another they virtually
completed the survey of the coast line and listened to native testimony besides.
How the phenomenon of sweet water is to be accounted for we do not pretend
to say. The reader will see further on that Livingstone grapples with the difficulty
which this Lake affords, and propounds an exceedingly clever theory.]
Tanganyika has encroached on the Ujiji side upwards of a mile, and the bank,
which was in the memory of men now living, garden ground, is covered with
about two fathoms of water: in this Tanganyika resembles most other rivers in
this country, as the Upper Zambesi for instance, which in the Barotsé country
has been wearing eastwards for the last thirty years: this Lake, or river, has
worn eastwards too.
1st June, 1869.—I am thankful to feel getting strong again, and wish to go down
Tanganyika, but cannot get men: two months must elapse ere we can face the
long grass and superabundant water in the way to Manyuema.
The green scum which forms on
still water in this country is of
vegetable origin—confervæ.
When the rains fall they swell
the lagoons, and the scum is
swept into the Lake; here it is
borne along by the current from
south to north, and arranged in
long lines, which bend from side
to side as the water flows, but
always N.N.W. or N.N.E., and
not driven, as here, by the
winds, as plants floating above
the level of the water would be. Lines of Green Scum
7th June, 1869.—It is
remarkable that all the Ujiji Arabs who have any opinion on the subject, believe
that all the water in the north, and all the water in the south, too, flows into
Tanganyika, but where it then goes they have no conjecture. They assert, as a
matter of fact, that Tanganyika, Usigé water, and Loanda, are one and the same
piece of river.
Thani, on being applied to for men and a canoe to take me down this line of
drainage, consented, but let me know that his people would go no further than
Uvira, and then return. He subsequently said Usigé, but I wished to know what I
was to do when left at the very point where I should be most in need. He
replied, in his silly way, "My people are afraid; they won't go further; get country
people," &c. Moenegheré sent men to Loanda to force a passage through, butpeople," &c. Moenegheré sent men to Loanda to force a passage through, but
his people were repulsed and twenty killed.
Three men came yesterday from Mokamba, the greatest chief in Usigé, with
four tusks as a present to his friend Moenegheré, and asking for canoes to be
sent down to the end of Urundi country to bring butter and other things, which
the three men could not bring: this seems an opening, for Mokamba being
Moenegheré's friend I shall prefer paying Moenegheré for a canoe to being
dependent on Thani's skulkers. If the way beyond Mokamba is blocked up by
the fatal skirmish referred to, I can go from Mokamba to Rumanyika, three or
four or more days distant, and get guides from him to lead me back to the main
river beyond Loanda, and by this plan only three days of the stream will be
passed over unvisited. Thani would evidently like to receive the payment, but
without securing to me the object for which I pay. He is a poor thing, a slaveling:
Syed Majid, Sheikh Suleiman, and Korojé, have all written to him, urging an
assisting deportment in vain: I never see him but he begs something, and gives
nothing, I suppose he expects me to beg from him. I shall be guided by
I cannot find anyone who knows where the outflow of the unvisited Lake S.W.
of this goes; some think that it goes to the Western Ocean, or, I should say, the
Congo. Mohamad Bogharib goes in a month to Manyuema, but if matters turn
out as I wish, I may explore this Tanganyika line first. One who has been in
Manyuema three times, and was of the first party that ever went there, says that
the Manyuema are not cannibals, but a tribe west of them eats some parts of
[5]the bodies of those slain in war. Some people south of Moenékuss , chief of
Manyuema, build strong clay houses.
22nd June, 1869.—After listening to a great deal of talk I have come to the
conclusion that I had better not go with Moenegheré's people to Mokamba. I
see that it is to be a mulcting, as in Speke's case: I am to give largely, though I
am not thereby assured of getting down the river. They say, "You must give
much, because you are a great man: Mokamba will say so"—though Mokamba
knows nothing about me! It is uncertain whether I can get down through by
Loanda, and great risk would be run in going to those who cut off the party of
Moenegheré, so I have come to the conclusion that it will be better for me to go
to Manyuema about a fortnight hence, and, if possible, trace down the western
arm of the Nile to the north—if this arm is indeed that of the Nile, and not of the
Congo. Nobody here knows anything about it, or, indeed, about the eastern or
Tanganyika line either; they all confess that they have but one question in their
minds in going anywhere, they ask for ivory and for nothing else, and each trip
ends as a foray. Moenegheré's last trip ended disastrously, twenty-six of his
men being cut off; in extenuation he says that it was not his war but Mokamba's:
he wished to be allowed to go down through Loanda, and as the people in front
of Mokamba and Usigé own his supremacy, he said, "Send your force with
mine and let us open the way," so they went on land and were killed. An
attempt was made to induce Syde bin Habib to clear the way, and be paid in
ivory, but Syde likes to battle with those who will soon run away and leave the
spoil to him.
The Manyuema are said to be friendly where they have not been attacked by
Arabs: a great chief is reported as living on a large river flowing northwards, I
hope to make my way to him, and I feel exhilarated at the thought of getting
among people not spoiled by contact with Arab traders. I would not hesitate to
run the risk of getting through Loanda, the continuation of Usigé beyond
Mokamba's, had blood not been shed so very recently there; but it would at
present be a great danger, and to explore some sixty miles of the Tanganyika
line only. If I return hither from Manyuema my goods and fresh men from
Zanzibar will have arrived, and I shall be better able to judge as to the course to
be pursued after that. Mokamba is about twenty, miles beyond Uvira; the scene
of Moenegheré's defeat, is ten miles beyond Mokamba; so the unexplored part
cannot be over sixty miles, say thirty if we take Baker's estimate of the southing
of his water to be near the truth.
Salem or Palamotto told me that he was sent for by a headman near to this to
fight his brother for him: he went and demanded prepayment; then the brother
sent him three tusks to refrain: Salem took them and came home. The Africans
have had hard measures meted out to them in the world's history!
28th June, 1869.—The current in Tanganyika is well marked when the lighter-
coloured water of a river flows in and does not at once mix—the Luishé at Ujiji
is a good example, and it shows by large light greenish patches on the surface
a current of nearly a mile an hour north. It begins to flow about February, and
continues running north till November or December. Evaporation on 300 miles
of the south is then at its strongest, and water begins to flow gently south till
arrested by the flood of the great rains there, which takes place in February and
March. There is, it seems, a reflux for about three months in each year, flow and
reflow being the effect of the rains and evaporation on a lacustrine river of some
three hundred miles in length lying south of the equator. The flow northwards I
have myself observed, that again southwards rests on native testimony, and it
was elicited from the Arabs by pointing out the northern current: they attributed
the southern current to the effect of the wind, which they say then blows south.
Being cooled by the rains, it comes south into the hot valley of this great
Riverein Lake, or lacustrine river.In going to Moenékuss, the paramount chief of the Manyuema, forty days are
required. The headmen of trading parties remain with this chief (who is said by
all to be a very good man), and send their people out in all directions to trade.
Moenemogaia says that in going due north from Moenékuss they come to a
large river, the Robumba, which flows into and is the Luama, and that this again
joins the Lualaba, which retains its name after flowing with the Lufira and Lofu
into the still unvisited Lake S.S.W. of this: it goes thence due north, probably
into Mr. Baker's part of the eastern branch of the Nile. When I have gone as far
north along Lualaba as I can this year, I shall be able to judge as to the course I
ought to take after receiving my goods and men from Zanzibar, and may the
Highest direct me, so that I may finish creditably the work I have undertaken. I
propose to start for Manyuema on the 3rd July.
The dagala or nsipé, a small fish caught in great numbers in every flowing
water, and very like whitebait, is said to emit its eggs by the mouth, and these
immediately burst and the young fish manages for itself. The dagala never
becomes larger than two or three inches in length. Some, putrefied, are bitter,
as if the bile were in them in a good quantity. I have eaten them in Lunda of a
pungent bitter taste, probably arising from the food on which the fish feeds. Men
say that they have seen the eggs kept in the sides of the mouth till ready to go
off as independent fishes. The nghédé-dégé, a species of perch, and another,
the ndusi, are said to do the same. The Arabs imagine that fish in general fall
from the skies, but they except the shark, because they can see the young
when it is cut open.
10th July, 1869.—After a great deal of delay and trouble about a canoe, we got
one from Habee for ten dotis or forty yards of calico, and a doti or four yards to
each of nine paddlers to bring the vessel back. Thani and Zahor blamed me for
not taking their canoes for nothing; but they took good care not to give them, but
made vague offers, which meant, "We want much higher pay for our dhows
than Arabs generally get:" they showed such an intention to fleece me that I
was glad to get out of their power, and save the few goods I had. I went a few
miles, when two strangers I had allowed to embark (from being under
obligations to their masters), worked against each other: so I had to let one
land, and but for his master would have dismissed the other: I had to send an
apology to the landed man's master for politeness' sake.
[It is necessary to say a few words here, so unostentatiously does Livingstone
introduce this new series of explorations to the reader. The Manyuema country,
for which he set out on the 12th of July, 1869, was hitherto unknown. As we
follow him we shall see that in almost every respect both the face of the country
and the people differ from other regions lying nearer to the East Coast. It
appears that the Arabs had an inkling of the vast quantities of ivory which might
be procured there, and Livingstone went into the new field with the foremost of
those hordes of Ujijian traders who, in all probability, will eventually destroy
tribe after tribe by slave-trading and pillage, as they have done in so many other
Off at 6 A.M., and passed the mouth of the Luishé, in Kibwé Bay; 3 1/2 hours
took us to Rombola or Lombola, where all the building wood of Ujiji is cut.
12th July, 1869.—Left at 1.30 A.M., and pulled 7 1/2 hours to the left bank of the
Malagarasi River. We cannot go by day, because about 11 A.M. a south-west
wind commences to blow, which the heavy canoes cannot face; it often begins
earlier or later, according to the phases of the moon. An east wind blows from
sunrise till 10 or 11 A.M., and the south-west begins. The Malagarasi is of
considerable size at its confluence, and has a large islet covered with
eschinomena, or pith hat material, growing in its way.
Were it not for the current Tanganyika would be covered with green scum now
rolling away in miles of length and breadth to the north; it would also be salt like
its shut-in bays. The water has now fallen two feet perpendicularly. It took us
twelve hours to ascend to the Malagarasi River from Ujiji, and only seven to go
down that distance. Prodigious quantities of confervæ pass us day and night in
slow majestic flow. It is called Shuaré. But for the current Tanganyika would be
covered with "Tikatika" too, like Victoria Nyanza.
13th July, 1869.—Off at 3.15 A.M., and in five hours reached Kabogo Eiver;
from this point the crossing is always accomplished: it is about thirty miles
broad. Tried to get off at 6 P.M., but after two miles the south wind blew, and as
it is a dangerous wind and the usual one in storms, the men insisted on coming
back, for the wind, having free scope along the entire southern length of
Tanganyika, raises waves perilous to their heavy craft; after this the clouds
cleared all away, and the wind died off too; the full moon shone brightly, and
this is usually accompanied by calm weather here. Storms occur at new moon
most frequently.
14th July, 1869.—Sounded in dark water opposite the high fountain Kabogo,
326 fathoms, but my line broke in coming up, and we did not see the armed end
of the sounding lead with sand or mud on it: this is 1965 feet.
People awaking in fright utter most unearthly yells, and they are joined in them
by all who sleep near. The first imagines himself seized by a wild beast, the
rest roar because they hear him doing it: this indicates the extreme of helpless

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