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Range Rover manual Brakes system

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78 pages
Description The brake system fitted to Range Rovers is of the I.H. split type. Early 1987 Range Rover vehicles were fitted during manufacture with an Automotive Products (AP) master cylinder and servo assembly, together with associated brake pipes and pedal box assembly. The brake failure warning system on the AP type master cylinder is a Pressure Differential Warning Actuator (P.D.W.A.) switch, which is activated when the shuttle valve moves along its bore due to pressure d i f f e r e n t i a l i n e i t h e r t h e p r i m a r y o r secondary circuits caused by fluid loss or seal failure. The result of the shuttle valve movement is to illuminate a brake failure warning light in the instrument binnacle. Later 1987 models are fitted with an uprated Lucas Girting type LSC 115 servo and 25,4mm AS/AS master cylinder plus associated brake pipes and pedal box assembly. The brake failure warning system on the Lucas Girling type is a Fluid Level Warning Indicator (F.L.W.I.) which is incorporated into the fluid reservoir cap and is activated when fluid loss in the reservoir is sufficient so that the float in the switch drops and in turn illuminates a brake failure warning light in the instrument binnacle.
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R O V E R reducing valve. BRAKE SYSTEM Descriptionfailure switch incorporated in the masterA brake cylinder will illuminate a panel warning light if a The brake system fitted to Range Rovers is of the failure occurs in either the primary or secondary I.H. split type. hydraulic circuits. Early 1987Range Rover vehicles were fitted during T h e b r o n t t i v i d e d , f h e i e s e r v o i r d s f r a k e r l u i d manufacture with an Automotive Products (AP) section (section closest to the servo) feeds the master cylinder and servo assembly, together with primary circuit and the rear section feeds the associated brake pipes and pedal box assembly.secondarycircuit. Undernormaloperating The brake failure warning system on the AP type c o n d i t i o n s b o t h t h e p r i m a r y a n d s e c o n d a r y master cylinder is a Pressure Differential Warning hydraulic circuits operate simultaneously on brake Actuator (P.D.W.A.) switch, which is activated when pedal application. In the event a failure in the t h e s h u t t l e v a l v e m o v e s a l o n g i t s b o r e d u e t o p r i m a r y c i r c u i t t h e s e c o n d a r y c i r c u i t w i l l s t i l l pressure d i f f e r e n t i a l i n e i t h e r t h e p r i m a r y o r function and operate front and rear calipers. secondary circuits caused by fluid loss or seal Alternatively, i f t h e s e c o n d a r y c i r c u i t f a i l s , t h e failure. The result of the shuttle valve movement is primary circuit will still function and operate the to illuminate a brake failure warning light in the upper pistons in the front calipers. instrument binnacle. If the servo should fail, both hydraulic circuits will Later 1987 g r e a t e r p e d a l w o u l d r e q u i r e u n c t i o n f u t b Lucasmodels are fitted with an t i l l s Girting type LSC servo and AS/AS pressure. master cylinder plus associated brake pipes and The hand-operated parking brake is completely pedal box assembly. independent of the hydraulic circuits. The brake failure warning system on the Lucas Brake pad wear sensors are incorporated into the Girling type is a Fluid Level Warning Indicator front right and rear left hand side, inboard brake ( F . L . W . I . ) w h i c h i s i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e f l u i d pads. The sensors will illuminate a brake pad wear reservoir cap and is activated when fluid loss in the warning light in the instrument binnacle, when pad reservoir is sufficient so that the float in the switch thickness has been reduced to approximately 3mm drops and in turn illuminates a brake failure warning(0.118in). light in the instrument binnacle. NOTE: It should be noted that the two systems C A U T I O N : T H O R O U G H L Y C L E A N A L L B R A K E a r e n o t i n t e r c h a n g e a b l e o n a c o m p o n e n t b y CALIPERS,PIPESA N D BEFORE c o m p o n e n t b a s i s b u t m u s t b e c h a n g e d a s a C O M M E N C I N G W O R K O N A N Y P A R T O F T H E c o m p l e t e p a c k a g e , i e , s e r v o , m a s t e r c y l i n d e r , B R A K E S Y S T E M . F A I L U R E T O D O S O C O U L D brake pipes and pedal box. CAUSE FOREIGN MATTER TO ENTER THE SYSTEM AND CAUSE DAMAGE TO SEALS, AND PISTONS The AP system can be found on pages : I L L WW H I C H B R A K E T H E I M P A I R S E R I O U S L Y 1-19 inclusive.SYSTEM EFFICIENCY. The Lucas Girling system can be found on pages :T o n s u r e e h e t r a k e b y s t e m s f f i c i e n c y e s i n o t 31-42 inclusive.i m p a i r e d t h e f o l l o w i n g w a r n i n g s m u s t e b a d h e r e d BRAKE SYSTEM (Vehicles fitted with AP servo and master cylinder)W A R N I N G : Description D O N O T u s e b r a k e f l u i d p r e v i o u s l y b l e d f r o m the system. The hydraulic braking system fitted to the Range Rover is of the dual line type, incorporating primaryDO NOT use old or stored brake fluid. and secondary hydraulic circuits. ENSURE that only new fluid is used and that it is NOTE: References m a d e t o p r i m a r y a n d taken fromasealed container: secondary do not imply main service brakes or e m e r g e n c y b r a k e s b u t d e n o t e h y d r a u l i c l i n e D O N O T f l u s h t h e b r a k e s y s t e m w i t h a n y f l u i d identification. o t h e r t h a n t h e r e c o m m e n d e d b r a k e f l u i d . ( S e e Lubricants, Fluids and Capacities Section The brake pedal is connected to a vacuum-assisted mechanical servo which in turn operates a tandemThe brake system should be drained and flushed master cylinder. The front disc brake calipers each S e e ( n t e r v a l s . r h e ta t i e r v i c e s e c o m m e n d e d house four pistons, the upper pistons are fed byMaintenance Section 10). the primary hydraulic circuit, the lower pistons by the secondary hydraulic circuit. The rear disc brake calipers each house two pistons and these are fed by the secondary hydraulic circuit via a pressure REVISED: JULY 87
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PRIMARY HYDRAULIC CIRCUIT
SECONDARYHYDRAULIC CIRCUIT
WARNING: Some components on the vehicle, such as gaskets and friction surfaces (brake linings, clutch discs or automatic transmission brake bands), may contain asbestos. Inhaling asbestos dust is dangerous to your health and the following essential precautions must be observed:-Work out of doors or in a well ventilated area and wear a protective mask.
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1 9 8 7 R O V E R
Dust found on the vehicle or produced d u r i n g w o r k o n t h e v e h i c l e s h o u l d b e removed by vacuuming and not by blowing. Dust waste should be dampened, placed in a sealed container and marked to ensure safe disposal.  any cutting, drilling etc., is attempted on materials containing asbestos the item should be dampened and only hands tools or low speed power tools used.
REVISED: JULY 87
 
 
  
 
BRAKE SYSTEM LAYOUT
HOSES
1.Front left hand flexible hoses. 2. Front right hand flexible hoses. 3. Intermediate flexible hose. PIPES 4. Feed to front left hand hose connector. 5. Feed to front right hand hose connector. 6. Feed to front left hand caliper.
7. Feed to front right hand caliper. 8. Feed to rear left hand caliper. 9. Feed to rear right hand 10.Feed to two way connector. 11.Feed to intermediate hose.  Feed to pressure reducing valve.  Brake failure warning switch.
     
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BRAKES Bleed . The hydraulic system comprises two completely independent sections. The rear calipers and the l o w e r p i s t o n s i n t h e f r o n t c a l i p e r s f o r m t h e secondary section, while the upper pistons in the f r o n t c a l i p e r s f o r m t h e p r i m a r y s e c t i o n . T h e following procedure covers bleeding the complete system, but it is permissible to bleed one section only if disconnections are limited to that section. Bleeding will be assisted if the engine is run or a vacuum supply is connected to the servo. WARNING: IF THE ENGINE IS RUNNING DURING THE BRAKE BLEEDING PROCESS ENSURE THAT NEUTRAL GEAR IS SELECTED AND THAT THENOTE:Whenbleeding thesystem PARKING BRAKE IS APPLIED.commence with the caliper furthest from the master cylinder and bleed from the When bleeding any part of the secondary section,screw on the same side as the fluid inlet almost full brake pedal travel is available. Whenpipes, then close the screw and bleed from bleeding the primary section only, brake pedalthe screw on the opposite side of the same travel will be restricted to approximately half.caliper. Tighten the bleed screws to the correct torque. ( s e e s e c t i o n WARNING: Before commencing to bleed thevalues). system it is necessary to loosen off the brake failure warning switch to prevent the shuttleBleeding valve damaging the switch unit. 1. Fill the fluid reservoir with the correct fluid, 1.Disconnect the leads from the switch. Section’. see 2. Unscrew the switch and insert th washer between the switch and master cylinder beforeNOTE: The correct fluid level must be depressing the brake pedal.maintained throughout the procedure of 3. After completion of bleeding, remove thbleeding washer and screw in the switch and tighten to t h e c o r r e c t t o r q u e ( s e e s e c t i o n 2. Connect a bleed hose to the bleed screw on values).t h e e a r r f u r t h e s t c a l i p e r t h e f r o m m a s t e r cylinder. 3. Submerge the free end of the bleed hose in a container of clean brake fluid. 4. Loosen the bleed screw.  Operate the brake pedal -fully and allow to return. NOTE: Allow at least five seconds to elapse with the foot right off the pedal to ensure t h a t t h e p i s t o n s f u l l y r e t u r n b e f o r e operating the pedal again.
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6 . R e p e a t 5 u n t i l f l u i d c l e a r o f a i r b u b b l e s13.Connect a bleed hose to the other screw on appears in the container, then keeping the t h e f r o n t c a l i p e r f u r t h e s t f r o m t h e m a s t e r pedal fully depressed, tighten the bleed screw. cylinder. 7. Remove the bleed hose and replace the dust14.Repeat 3 to 7 for the second secondary screw cap on the bleed screw. on the front caliper. 15.Refit the front wheel. 16.Repeat 9 to15for the front caliper nearest the master cylinder. 17. and tighten the PDWA washerRemove the switch to the correct torque. (see section 06-Torque BRAKE PRESSURE REDUCING VALVE Remove and refit Removing 1. Remove all dust, grime, etc., from the vicinity o f t h e p r e s s u r e r e d u c i n g v a l v e f l u i d p i p e unions. 2 . D i s c o n n e c t t h e o u t l e t f l u i d p i p e f r o m t h e pressure reducing valve. Plug the pipe and reducing valve port to prevent the ingress of Repeat 1 to 7 for the other rear caliper. foreign matter. Remove the front wheel on the side furthest 3 . R e m o v e t h e v a l v e f r o m t h e t h r e e - w a y from the master cylinder. connector and plug both openings. 10.Connect a bleed hose to the primary bleed Withdraw the pressure reducing valve from the screw on the front caliper furthest from the engine compartment. master cylinder. 11.bleed hose to the secondary bleedConnect a screw on the same side of the caliper as the primary screw. 12.Repeat 3 to 7 for the front caliper, bleeding from the two screws simultaneously.
Refitting Reverse the removal instructions. Bleed the brake systems. NOTE: The pressure reducing valve is not a serviceable item, in the event of failure or damage, a new unit must be fitted. C o n t i n u e d
REVISED: DEC. 87
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 BRAKES
MASTER CYLINDER-OVERHAUL CAUTION:Brake fluid is corrosive, if any fluid comes into contact w i t h b o d y p a i n t w o r k , immediately flush with a large quantity of water and wipe clean with a soft cloth. 1.Disconnect the brake pipes from the side of the master cylinder and plug the outlet ports. 2.Disconnect the electrical plug from the PDWA switch. 3. u t s n n d a h e t w o t p r i n g s a s h e r s wR e m o v e securing the cylinder to th unit.
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4. Remove the reservoir filler cap and drain off the surplus fluid. 5. Remove the two screws securing the reservoir to the master cylinder. 6. Lift the reservoir off the master cylinder. 7. Carefully the two reservoir sealing rubbers from the master cylinder. 8. Secure the master cylinder in a vice and push t h e p r i m a r y p i s t o n d o w n t h e b o r e a n d withdraw the secondary piston stop pin.
9. Press down the primary piston and removethe circlip. 10. Withdraw the primary piston assembly.
11. Apply a high pressure air lin secondary o u t l e t p o r t t o e x p e l t h e s e c o n d a r y p i s t o n assembly.
REVISED:DEC.87
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WARNING: Safety glasses must be worn. Do not operate or direct the air line towards oneself or other personnel in the workshop. Apply a short burst of air only, if the secondary piston is not e x p e l l e d f r o m i t s b o r e r e p e a t t h e a b o v e instruction.
12.Remove the PDWA switch from the side of the master cylinder. 13.Remove the large end plug and copper washer r e t a i n i n g t h e s h u t t l e v a l v e i n t h e m a s t e r cylinder. 14.Apply a high pressure air line to the primary outlet port to expel the shuttle valve from its bore. WARNING: Safety glasses must be worn. Do not operate or direct the air line towards oneself or other personnel in the workshop. Apply a short b u r s t o f a i r o n l y , i f t h e s h u t t l e v a l v e i s n o t e x p e l l e d f r o m i t s b o r e r e p e a t t h e a b o v e instruction.
C o n t i n u e d
 
 
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KEY TO MASTER CYLINDER
1. Securing screws 2.Reservoir 3.Reservoir 4. End plug 5.Copper washer 6.Shuttle valve 7. Secondary piston stop pin  Nutsand washers securing cylinder to servo Primary piston 10. 11. Secondary piston 12. PDWA switch 13. washer 14. Plastic sleeve
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PRIMARY PISTON SEALS SECONDARY PISTON SEALS 15.Remove the retaining screw from the primary19. r o m t h eo l l o w i n g i t e m s fRemove t h e f piston and remove the following items. secondary piston: (A) Spring retainer Spring  Piston spring Seal retainer  Circlip Recuperating seal  Seal retainer Washer  Recuperating seal  Washer 20. Taking care not to the piston pry off the outer seal. 16.Taking care not to damage the piston, pry off the outer seal. 16
21.Fit a new outer seal using the same procedure a s f o r t h e p r i m a r y p i s t o n o u t e r s e a l b y 17. the seal between the finger and squeezingFit a new outer seal into its groove by squeezing the seal between the finger and thumb into an oval shape and press the raised thumb into an oval shape and press the raised part of the seal over the flange using the part of the seal overtheflange using the of the other hand. fingers fingers of the other hand.22.Fit the recuperating seal assembly parts in the  18. order of removal.Fit a new recuperating seal and assemble the reverse parts in reverse order of removal. Compress the spring and secure the assembly with the retaining screw. Tighten the screw securely.
REVISED: JULY 88
Continued
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SHUTTLE VALVE ‘0’ RINGS ASSEMBLING MASTER CYLINDER 2 3 . W i t h d r a w t h e p l a s t i c s l e e v e a n d c a r e f u l l y It is important that the following instructions are remove the two rings from the valve taking carried out precisely, otherwise damage could be care not to damage the piston. c a u s e d t o t h e n e w s e a l s w h e n i n s e r t i n g t h e plungers into the cylinder bore. Generous amounts of new brake fluid should be used to lubricate the parts during assembly. Never use old fluid or any other form of cleaning and lubricating material. Cleanliness throughout is essential.
25. Clamp the cylinder in a vice and lubricate the secondary piston seals and cylinder bore. Place the piston assembly into the cylinder until the recuperation seal is resting centrally in the 24. Fit a new ring into the ring groove at mouth of the bore. Gently insert the piston the centre of the valve. Fit the remainin with a circular rocking motion. as illustrated. ring into the small groove at the end of the While ensuring that the seal does not become valve. Do not fit the plastic sleeve at this t r a p p e d , e a s e t h e s e a l i n t o t h e b o r e a n d stage.slowly push the piston down in one continuous movement. NOTE: o l l e d rT h e n h o u l d s i n g s r e b o t a l o n g t h e p i s t o n , b u t s h o u l d b e s t r e t c h e d slightly and eased down the piston and into the grooves.
26. Slowly press the piston down the bore and fit the secondary piston stop-pin. 27. Fit the primary plunger assembly using the same method as for the secondary plunger. P r e s s t h e p l u n g e r d o w n a n d s e c u r e t h e assembly with the circlip. NOTE: Insert the plastic sleeve into the shuttle valve bore, ensuring it seats at the bottom of the bore.
REVISED: JULY 88
   
        
  
 
28. Lubricate the rings and fit the shuttle valve. Disconnect the servo operating rod from the Fit the end plug using a new copper sealingbrake pedal. washer and tighten the plug securely. Remove the four nuts and springwashers securing the brake pedal and servo assemblies CAUTION: To prevent damage to the ‘0’ ring atto the engine compartment closure panel. t h e e n d o f t h e v a l v e e n s u r e i t r e m a i n s i n t h eWithdraw the pedal assembly from the vehicle. s m a l l g r o o v e u n t i l t h e v a l v e r e a c h e s t h e s m a l l plastic sleeve. 29. to the end of theFit the plastic washer PDWA switch and screw the switch into the master cylinder. 30.Fit new seals to the bottom of the reservoir. 31.Press the reservoir into the lop of the master cylinder and secure in position with the two retaining screws. 32.Fit the master cylinder to the servo and secure with the two nuts and spring washersa nd tighten to the correct torque (see section  values). 33.Bleed the brakes, After final bleed remove the  washer from the PDWA switch and tighten the switch to the correct torque section  values).
DISMANTLING Disconnect the pedal return spring. Remove the circlip from the shaped end of PEDAL ASSEMBLY-OVERHAULthe pedal shaft. 10.Withdraw the pedal shaft. Remove the pedal assembly11.Withdraw the pedal from the box. Disconnect the battery negative lead. 2Remove the lower dash panel fixings, lower the panel to gain access to the electrical connections at the rheostat switch and bulb check unit. Disconnect the leads and remove the lower dash from the vehicle, detach the trim pad from around the pedal assembly. Disconnect the electrical leads from the stop light switch. Remove the vacuum hose and disconnect the electrical plug to the cruise control brake vent switch.
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