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Benchmark Slides

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T H E TA S K F O R C E O N T H E F U T U R E O F A M E R I C A N I N N O VAT I O NInnovation is America’s Heartbeatwww.futureofinnovation.orgTHE KNOWLEDGE ECONOMY: IS THE UNITED STATES LOSING ITS COMPETITIVE EDGE?Benchmarks of our Innovation FutureFebruary 16, 2005U.S. GRADUATE INSTITUTIONS: FOREIGN STUDENTS OUTNUMBER U.S. STUDENTSU.S. Students Foreign Students90,00060,00030,00001980 1984 1988 1992 1996 2000Source: National Science Foundation, Graduate Students and Postdoctorates in Science and Engineering: Fall 2001, Tables 8-9. Compiled by the APS Office of Public Affairs.The Task Force on the Future of American Innovation -- http://futureofinnovation.org Number of StudentsASIAN PHD. STUDENTS ARE STAYING AT HOME(1986 - 1999)Chinese South Korean TaiwaneseChinese Universities South Korean Universities Taiwanese UniversitiesU.S. Universities U.S. Universities U.S. Universities2,500 1,5007,5005,625 1,875 1,1253,750 1,250 7501,875 625 3750 0 0Source: National Science Foundation, Science and Engineering Indicators 2002, Appendix Table 2-41.Adapted from Diana Hicks, “Asian countries strengthen their research,” Issues in Science and Technology, Summer 2004.Compiled by the APS Office of Public Affairs.The Task Force on the Future of American Innovation -- http://futureofinnovation.org 198719891991199319951997199919871989199119931995199719991987198919911993199519971999S&E ARTICLES: U.S. ALREADY PASSED BY WESTERN EUROPE, ASIA ...
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T H E T A S K F O R C E O N T H E F U T U R E O F A M E R I C A N I N N O VA T I O N I n n o v a t i o n i s A m e r i c a s H e a r t b e a t w w w. f u t u r e o f i n n o v a t i o n . o r g
THE KNOWLEDGE ECONOMY:
IS THE UNITED STATES LOSING ITS COMPETITIVE EDGE?
Benchmarks of our Innovation Future February 16, 2005
U . S . G R A D U AT E I N S T I T U T I O N S : F O R E I G N S T U D E N T S O U T N U M B E R U . S . S T U D E N T S
90,000
60,000
30,000
0 1980
U.S. Students
1984
1988
Foreign Students
1992
1996
2000
Source: National Science Foundation,Graduate Students and Postdoctorates in Science and Engineering: Fall 2001, Tables 8-9. Compiled by the APS Office of Public Affairs.
The Task Force on the Future of American Innovation--http://futureofinnovation.org
A S I A N P H D . S T U D E N T S A R E S TAY I N G AT H O M E
7,500
5,625
3,750
1,875
0
Chinese
Chinese Universities U.S. Universities
2,500
1,875
1,250
625
0
(1986 - 1999)
South Korean
South Korean Universities
U.S. Universities
1,500
1,125
750
375
0
Taiwanese
Taiwanese Universities
U.S. Universities
Source: National Science Foundation,Science and Engineering Indicators 2002, Appendix Table 2-41. Adapted from Diana Hicks, “Asian countries strengthen their research,”Issues in Science and Technology, Summer 2004. Compiled by the APS Office of Public Affairs.
The Task Force on the Future of American Innovation--http://futureofinnovation.org
S & E A R T I C L E S : U . S . A L R E A D Y PA S S E D B Y W E S T E R N E U R O P E , A S I A R A P I D LY C L O S I N G
250,000
187,500
125,000
62,500
0 1988
United States
1990
1992
Western Europe
1994
1996
Asia
1998
2000
1988
Other. 20%
Western Europe 31%
2001
Other 16%
Western Europe 36%
Source: National Science Foundation, Science and Engineering Indicators 2004. Appendix Table 5-35. Compiled by the APS Office of Public Affairs.
The Task Force on the Future of American Innovation--http://futureofinnovation.org
Asia 11%
U.S. 38%
U.S. 31%
Asia 17%
U . S . PAT E N T A P P L I C AT I O N S : FA S T E S T G R O W I N G E C O N O M I E S G A I N I N G O N U . S . R A P I D LY
1,000
100
10
1 1989
1992
1995
1998
2001
2004
2007
United States
Other Established Economies
Fastest Growing Economies
Other Established Economies:
Canada, France, Germany,
Italy, Japan, Netherlands,
Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom
Fastest Growing Economies:
China, Hong Kong, India,
Ireland, Israel, Singapore,
South Korea, Taiwan
Source: National Science Foundation,Science and Engineering Indicators 2004, Appendix Table 6-11. Compiled by the APS Office of Public Affairs
The Task Force on the Future of American Innovation--http://futureofinnovation.org
T O TA L R & D I N V E S T M E FA S T E S T G R O W I N G E C O N O M I E S G A I N I N G R A P I D LY O N U . S .
1000
100
10 1995
1997
1999
2001
2003
2005
2007
United States
Fastest Growing Econo
st Growing Economies:
China, Ireland, Israel, Singapore,
South Korea, Taiwan
(India and Hong Kong data not available)
Source: Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development,Main Science and Technology Indicators, May 2003. Compiled by the APS Office of Public Affairs The Task Force on the Future of American Innovation--http://futureofinnovation.org
F E D E R A L I N V E S T M E N T I N P H Y S I C A L S C I E N C E S I N S I G N I F I C A N T D E C L I N E
0.100%
0.075%
0.050%
0.025%
0% 1970
Ratio of U.S. Federal Government Funding for Physical Sciences Research to
1975
U.S. Gross Domestic Product: 1970-2003
1980
1985
1990
1995
2000
Source: American Association for the Advancement of Science.www.aaas.org/spp/rd/guidisc.htm Compiled by the APS Office of Public Affairs
The Task Force on the Future of American Innovation--http://futureofinnovation.org
H I G H - T E C H I N D U S T R Y O U T P U T: C H I N A R A P I D LY G A I N I N G O N U . S .
10,000
1,000
100
10 1989
1991
1993
1995
1997
1999
2001
2003
2005
2007
United States
China
High-tech industry includes aerospace, computers and office machinery; communications equipment; pharmaceuticals ; and medical, precision and optical instruments.
Source: National Science Foundation,Science and Engineering Indicators 2004, Appendix Table 6-1. Compiled by the APS Office of Public Affairs
The Task Force on the Future of American Innovation--http://futureofinnovation.org
H I G H - T E C H H A S D E L I V E R E D F O R T H E U . S . E C O N O M Y . . .
Cumulative U.S. Trade Balance, 1990-2003
Advanced Technology Products
$243 billion
All Goods
-$3.4 trillion
. . . B U T W I L L I T C O N T I N U E ?
U.S. Trade Balance for High-Tech Products, 1990-2003
$40,000
$30,000
$20,000
$10,000
$0
$-10,000
$-20,000
$-30,000 1990
1992
1994
1996
Source: U.S. Census Bureau Foreign Trade Statistics,U.S. International Trade in Goods and Services. Compiled by the APS Office of Public Affairs.
The Task Force on the Future of American Innovation--http://futureofinnovation.org
1998
2000
2002
H I G H - T E C H I N D U S T R Y E X P O R T S : U . S . L O S I N G W O R L D S H A R E
Other Emerging Asian Economies 4% 7%
Japan 15%
European Union 43%
United States 31%
1980
Emerging Asi Economies 25%
Other
apan 10%
United
Emerging Asian Economies:China, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, Hong Kong, India
Source: National Science Foundation,Science and Engineering Indicators 2004, Appendix Table 6-1 Compiled by the Association of American Universities
The Task Force on the Future of American Innovation--http://futureofinnovation.org
2001
Union