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Les différents usages des cours d'eau

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Les différents usages des cours d'eauExtrait du E D D - Guyanehttp://webtice.ac-guyane.fr/eddLes différents usages descours d'eau- Contexte général et contexte guyanais - L'HOMME ET LA NATURE - L'homme et l'eau - Date de mise en ligne : mardi 10 novembre 2009E D D - GuyaneCopyright © E D D - Guyane Page 1/7Les différents usages des cours d'eau
Les différents usages des cours d'eau
Extrait du E D D - Guyane
http://webtice.ac-guyane.fr/edd
Les différents usages des
cours d'eau
- Contexte général et contexte guyanais -
L'HOMME ET LA NATURE -
L'homme et l'eau -
Date de mise en ligne : mardi 10 novembre 2009
E D D - Guyane
Copyright © E D D - Guyane
Page 1/7
Les différents usages des cours d'eau
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{margin-bottom:0cm;} ul {margin-bottom:0cm;} --»
1.
Le déplacement en pirogue
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Copyright © E D D - Guyane
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Les différents usages des cours d'eau
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De tout temps, les populations se sont installées à proximité des rivières ou des fleuves pour assurer les usages
quotidiens en eau, se déplacer, communiquer et commercer avec les régions voisines. <o:p></o:p>
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Dans les communes de l’intérieur, les cours d’eau sont des lieux de vie par excellence. Ils jouent un
rôle social : permettent aux femmes de se retrouver pour le bain des enfants, laver les vêtements, faire la vaisselle
ou de constituer des réserves d’eau. Ils servent de voies de communication pour : se rendre à
l’abattis, pêcher, rejoindre les zones de chasse ou de cueillette, communiquer et échanger. <o:p></o:p>
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Dans certaines communes situées sur le fleuve, Apatou, Grand-Santi, les élèves des hameaux se rendent à
l’école en pirogue scolaire. <o:p></o:p>
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Les cours d’eau rythment la vie des habitants de l’intérieur : lorsque la saison sèche est très marquée,
il arrive que le faible débit de l’eau rende la navigation difficile voir impossible. <o:p></o:p>
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2.
La pêche
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Pour les populations habitant le long des fleuves, le régime alimentaire repose sur les activités de subsistance :
l'agriculture sur brûlis, la pêche, la chasse ou la collecte. <o:p></o:p>
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Des études menées dans le haut Maroni ont montré que la consommation par personne et par jour pouvait atteindre
entre 300 et 600 g de poisson par jour. <o:p></o:p>
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Cette quantité élevée a le mérite de satisfaire les besoins nutritifs en protéines de bonne qualité. <o:p></o:p>
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L'aïmara bouilli est introduit dans l'alimentation des enfants du haut Maroni avant l'apparition de la première dent.
<o:p></o:p>
Copyright © E D D - Guyane
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Les différents usages des cours d'eau
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3.
La production d'eau potable
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En Guyane, l’eau potable est issue à 98 % des cours d’eau, c’est à dire de l’eau
superficielle. <o:p></o:p>
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Ainsi, l’Ile de Cayenne est approvisionnée par la rivière de la Comté, la commune de Régina par l'eau du
fleuve de l’Approuague et celle de Maripasoula par celle du fleuve Maroni. <o:p></o:p>
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4.
La production d'énergie
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En 1994, la société EDF a construit un barrage sur le fleuve Sinnamary au lieu dit Petit-Saut. <o:p></o:p>
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Cette installation approvisionne une grande partie du littoral. <o:p></o:p>
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Cette infrastructure a fait l'objet d'études d'impacts puis d'études et de mesures d'accompagnement destinées à en
amoindrir l'impact, qui reste toutefois fort (suppression <o:p></o:p>
de le forêt, création d'un microclimat, accumulation de matières et de métaux…). <o:p></o:p>
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Cet impact est à comparer avec celui qui aurait été occasionné avec le doublement de la centrale thermique du
Dégrad des Cannes.
Copyright © E D D - Guyane
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