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Entomophagous insects and biotechnologies against olive pests

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168 pages
Medical and biological research
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Commission of the European Communities
Agriculture-
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Entomophagous insects and
biotechnologies against olive pests
Proceedings of the^.C- Experts Meeting "Entomophages and
biological methods in integrated control in olive orchards"
Chania, Creece, 11-12 March 1982
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Joint Research Centre
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Directorate-General for Agriculture
Directorate General for Science, Researcli and Development
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The "Background image on the front cover:
A detail from an aerial infra-red photograph made during the
realisation of a E.C. Community olive tree register Commission of the European Communities
Agriculture
Entomophagous insects and
biotechnologies against olive pests
Proceedings of the E.C.- Experts Meeting "Entomophages and
biological methods in integrated control in olive orchards"
Chania, Greece, 11-12 March 1982
R. Cavalloro, A. Piavaux
Joint Research Centre
Ispra Establishment
Directorate-General for Agriculture
Directorate General for Science, Research and Development
EUR 8647 EN-FR Published by the
COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES
Directorate-General
Information Market and Innovation
Bâtiment Jean Monnet
LUXEMBOURG
Neither the Commission of the European Communities nor any person
acting on behalf of the Commission is responsible for the use which might
be made of the following information.
Cataloguing data can be found at the end of this publication.
Luxembourg : Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 1983
© ECSC - EEC - EAEC, Brussels-Luxembourg 1983
Printed in Italy Foreword
In the context of the "Integrated and biological control" research programme which
is being carried out by the Commission of the European Communities for more accurate
and rational phytosanitary defence, alternative biological methods are becoming more
and more important since they may integrate traditional systems of intervention while
at the same time safeguarding the stability of the agro-ecosystems and human health.
With these aims in view, a group of experts has evaluated the importance of the use
of natural biological agents and of biotechnologies in controlling attacks by the major
olive pests.
The meeting, which was held in Greece under the auspices of the Directorate General
for Agriculture of the European Communities, at the Institute of Subtropical plants and
Olive trees at Chania (Crete), gave a better focus on the problems, provided a useful
exchange of information and gave the opportunity for debates which were of particular
interest. Special consideration was given to the role and importance of beneficial natural
enemies of olive pests such as parasite and predator insects or pathogenic micro­
organisms, the use of sexual pheromones and synthetic products of biological origin,
and the methods and techniques of trapping damaging species, for studying both their
behaviour and their control.
The importance of the research and experiments presented by the participants has
led them to present a formal request to the Commission of the European Communities
to consider the publication of the meeting proceedings and to ensure that they receive
wide circulation.
In accordance with this invitation the various communications presented, which were
of undoubted value and interest, have been collected together in this publication together
with the conclusions of the meeting and the recommendations of the experts, including
the idea that such studies could continue in close collaboration with E.C. Countries which
are interested in the best phytosanitary defence of olive trees.
Ill Contents
List of participants VI
Opening Address
R. Cavalloro VII
M.E. Tzanakakis VIII
N. Psyllakis IX
Papers presented
Trials of biological control against Aspidiotus nerii (Bouche) on
olive trees in Crete
V. Alexandrakis 3
Entomophagous insects of Saissetia oleae (Oliv.) in olive groves
in Tuscany
B. Bagnoli 7
The entomophagous insects of Saissetia oleae (Oliv.) in Sardinia
G. Delrio 15
Trapping of the olive fruit fly by yellow and protein traps in Messinia
during 1981 : Range of attraction, efficiency, calibration
A.P. Economopoulos, P.V. Economopoulos, J. Karydis,
G. Kastoris, S. Pagani 25
Predators of Homoptera pests on olive tree
G. Iperti '. 29
Material for the development of a pest management system
for Dacus oleae (Gmel.) in Corfu
E.T. Kapatos, B.S. Fletcher 57
The introduction of an exotic Coccinellid predator, Rhyzobius forestieri (Muls.)
(Coleoptera, Coccinellidae) into Greece, as a control agent for the black scale,
Saissetia oleae (Oliv.) (Homoptera, Coccidae), on olive trees
P. Katsoyannos 67
Biological control of Dacus oleae (Gmel.) in Greece using the parasite
Opius concolor (Szepl.)
G. Manikas, V. Tsiroyannis 75
Natural enemies of Dacus oleae (Gmel.) (Diptera, Tephritidae) in Crete
S. Michelakis, P. Neuenschwander, F. Bigler 85
Response of Dacus oleae (Gmel.) to synthetic pheromones in' an
experimental field in Tuscany
A. Niccoli, R. Tiberi 89
Setting biological treatments in France, against olive black
scale, Saissatia oleae (Oliv.) (Homoptera, Coccoidea, Coccidae)
A. Partis, J.P. Marro 95
Biotechnical methods for Dacus oleae (Gmel.) control
R. Prota 7/7
Present status of research on biological control of the olive moth in Spain
P. Ramos, M. Campos, J.M. Ramos 72
Conclusions and Recommendations 74List of participants
France IPERTI G. - Station de Zoologie et de Lutte biologique,
Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Route de
Biot, 06560 Valbonne
PANIS, A. -Station de Zoologie et de Lutte biologique,
Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Boulevard
du Cap, 37, 06600 Antibes
Greece ALEXANDRAKIS V. - Institute of Subtropical plants and
Olive trees, Chania (Crete)
ECONOMOPOULOS A.P., "Demokritos" Nuclear Research
Centre, Aghia Paraskevi, Attiki
KAPATOS E., Institute of Olive - M.A.F., Corfu
KATSOYANNOS P. - Phytopathological Institute Benaki,
Kiphissia, Athens
MANIKAS G. - Insectarium of Lykovrissi, Soph. Venizelou
St., 1, Athens
MICHELAKIS S. - Institute of Subtropical plants and Olive
trees, Chania (Crete)
PARASKAKIS J., Institute of Subtropical plants and Olive
trees, Chania (Crete)
POLYKRAKIS J., Institute of Subtropical plants and Olive
trees, Chania (Crete)
PSYLLAKIS N. - Institute of Subtropical plants and Olive
trees, Chania (Crete)
TZANAKAKIS M.E. - Laboratory of Applied Zoology and
Parasitology, Faculty of Agriculture, University, Thessaloniki
Italy BAGNOLI B. - Istituto Sperimentale per la Zoologia agraria,
Via di Lanciola, Cascine del Riccio, 50125 Firenze
DELRIO G. - Istituto di Entomologia agraria, Facoltà di
Agraria, Université, 07100 Sassari
NICCOLI A. - Istituto Sperimentale per la Zoologia agraria,
Via di Lanciola, Cascine del Riccio, 50125 Firenze
PROTA R. - Istituto di Entomologia agraria, Facoltà di
Agraria, Université, 07100 Sassari
ZOCCHI R. - Istituto Sperimentale per la Zoologia agraria,
Via di Lanciola, Cascine del Riccio, 50125 Firenze
Spain RAMOS P. Estaciôn Experimental del Zaidin, C.S.I.C,
Granada
E.C.- Commission CAVALLORO R. - Responsible "Integrated and Biological
Control" Programme, Biology D.G. XII, Joint Research
Centre, 21020 Ispra (VA) Italy
PIAVAUX A. - D.G. VI - F/4, Rue de la Loi, 200,
1049 Bruxelles (Belgium)
VI Opening Address
Prof. R. Cavalloro
Responsable du programme C.C.E. "Lutte intégrée et lutte biologique'
Madame, Messieurs, chers Collègues,
La réunion d'aujourd'hui et de demain ici à Chania se situe dans le cadre de la
coordination de la recherche agronomique, suivant les objectifs de la politique agricole
poursuivie par la Commission des Communautés Européennes.
Un programme de recherche confié à la Direction Générale Agriculture vise en particulier
à la protection intégrée des cultures et à développer des moyens alternatifs de contrôle,
parmi lesquels les agents biologiques naturels et les moyens bio-techniques occupent
une place prééminente.
C'est pour cela qu'une rencontre d'experts avait été prévue, exprès, sur ces thèmes
et notre réunion cherchera, au cours de ces deux journées de travail en commun, de
faire le point sur ce problème lié à la culture de l'olivier.
Cet arbre, symbole de la culture méditerranéenne, a accru davantage son intérêt à
l'échelon des Pays Communautaires depuis le 1 er janvier 1981, date à laquelle la Grèce
est devenue à plein titre Membre des Communautés Européennes.
La collaboration qui liait déjà étroitement le travail des laboratoires français et italiens
s'est élargie aux laboratoires grecs. Et ce n'est pas par hasard que notre rencontre
se réalise ici à Chania, auprès d'un Institut de recherche parmi les plus prestigieux,
où la protection phytosanitaire de l'olivier a toujours été un des objectifs principaux.
Sur le thème de la lutte intégrée en verger d'olivier ont été effectuées aux soins de
la CCE deux réunions, en Italie à Firenze-Follonica et en France à Antibes. Mais ce
n'est que dans cette rencontre que nous allons considérer tout spécialement l'importance
de facteurs tels que les ennemis naturels (entomoparasites, prédateurs, pathogènes),
ou de produits biologiques influençant le comportement des insectes (attractants,
répulsives, régulateurs de croissance), ou bien de technologies ayant-trait à systèmes
de piégeage des ravageurs-clé de l'olivier.
Ces facteurs biologiques et ces technologies représentent un aspect important à évaluer
pour le contrôle des populations dangereuses, notamment Dacus oleae (Gmel.), Prays
oleae (Bern.), Saissetia oleae (Oliv.), et peuvent être valorisés, jouer un rôle fondamental
et trouver une place importante au sein d'une lutte intégrée pour la défense de l'olivier.
Je souhaite que des indications précises et claires puissent ressortir de nos travaux.
A tous les participants les voeux de bon travail, avec la bienvenue la plus chaleureuse
au nom de la Direction Générale Agriculture de la CCE. En particulier, il m'est très
agréable de remercier Mr. le Prof. M.E. Tzanakakis, Président de la réunion, qui a bien
voulu favoriser notre rencontre et accepter de diriger nos discussions, ainsi que l'Institut
des Plantes subtropicales et de l'Olivier en la personne de son Directeur Mr. N. Psyllakis,
qui a soigné sur place l'organisation de la réunion même.
Elle nous permettra de confronter les respectives expériences et observations dans
un secteur de grande actualité et importance, et d'elle, j'en suis certain, découleront
des résultats et des indications précieuses pour une meilleure défense de l'olivier.
VII Opening Address
M.E. Tzanakakis
Chairman of the meeting
Distinguished Participants,
It is a pleasure for me to welcome you to this meeting. Your presentations and discussions
will, no doubt, contribute to the widening of eur knowledge on the use of entomophagous
organisms and biological methods in general, to control olive pests and diseases.
It is fortunate that this meeting takes place in one of the main olive-growing areas of
Greece, near an Institute which has been active in the field this meeting is concerned
with. Thus, I hope that you will also have interesting visits in the field and the laboratories
of the Institute.
Before giving the floor for the speakers, I want to thank Prof. R. Cavalloro, Responsible
for the C.E.C. Programme Committee on Integrated and Biological Control, for making
this meeting possible and for his participation in organizing it, Mr. N. Psyllakis, Director
of Subtropical Plants and Olive Tree Institute in Hania, and the entomologists of his
Institute Drs. S. Michelakis, V. Alexandrakis, J. Paraskakis and J. Polyrakis, for the local
arrangements, and the Chairman of the Technical Board of Crete, for allowing the free
use of this conference room.
VIM