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ISSN 1018-5593 European Commission
Proceedings of the
SECOND EUROPEAN CONFERENCE ON
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UNDERWATER
ACOUSTICS
Edited by
L. Bjørnø
SHE
Volume y
2nd EUROPEAN CONFERENCE ON
UNDERWATER
ACOUSTICS
EDITED BY
L. BJØRNØ
TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY OF DENMARK
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EUROPEAN COMMISSION
PARL EUROP. Biblioih.
M.C.M fáliH\ Published by the
EUROPEAN COMMISSION
Directorate-General XIII
Telecommunications, Information Market and Exploitation of Research
L-2920 Luxembourg
LEGAL NOTICE
Neither the European Commission nor any person acting on behalf of the Commission is
responsible for the use which might be made of the following information
Cataloguing data can be found at the end of this publication
Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 1994
ISBN 92-826-7514-9
© ECSC-EC-EAEC, Brussels · Luxembourg, 1994
Printed in Belgium 2nd EUROPEAN CONFERENCE ON
UNDERWATER ACOUSTICS
VOLUME I Proceedings of the 2nd European Conference on Underwater Acoustics, held at the Technical
University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark, 4-8 July 1994, sponsored by the Commission of the
European Communities in collaboration with the Federation of the Acoustical Societies of Europe,
the Deutsche Akustische Gesellschaft, the Sociedad Española de Acústica, the Société Française
d'Acoustique, the Associazione Italiana di Acustica and the Institute of Acoustics.
Scientific Committee
Professor L. Bjørnø Federation of Acoustical Societies of Europe,
(Chairman) Lyngby, Denmark
Dr. GB. Cannelli Rome, Italy
Dr. R. Carbó Madrid, Spain
Dr. K. Kremer Bremen, Germany
Dr. J.R. Nedwell Eastleigh, UK
Professor J. Papadakis Heraklion, Greece
Dr. M. Weydert CEC-DGXII/D, Brussels, Belgium
Dr. M. Zakharia Lyon, France
Local Organizing Committee
Professor L. Bjørnø (Chairman)
Dr. I. K. Bjørnø
Mr. S. Engelbrecht
Dr. P. Louring Nielsen
Conference Secretariat
2nd European Conference on Underwater Acoustics
Department of Industrial Acoustics
Technical University of Denmark
Building 425
DK-2800 Lyngby, Denmark
Phone: +45 42 88 25 22
Fax: +45 45 93 0190 Preface
NDERWATER ACOUSTICS IS one of the most productive fields of acoustics.
U The great number of papers on underwater acoustic topics published every
year and ther of international conferences held on aspects of underwater
acoustics confirm the viability of this field of scientific endeavour.
On the European scene research and development in underwater acoustics re­
ceived a great push forward with the establishment of the European Community's
scientific programme on Marine Science and Technology (MAST). What before
was a scattered national research and development activity with its scientific re­
sults mostly being presented at national acoustical society meetings, now became
an international cooperation involving universities, research institutes and industri­
al companies in the countries belonging to the European Community. Apart from
bringing research groups in underwater acoustics from various European countries
together in unified research teams, the MAST programme has contributed consid­
erably to the raise in the level of quality in underwater acoustics research in Europe
which has occurred over recent years.
The high quality of research and the considerably increased activity level in
underwater acoustics in Europe called for a forum for presentation of the European
scientific results. Spawned by the need for this forum the series ofn
Conferences on Underwater Acoustics were formed, with the first conference held
in Luxembourg in September 1992.
This Conference, held at the Technical University of Denmark during the days
4-8 July 1994, is the 2nd in the series. The large number of high-quality papers
received by the Scientific Committee of the 2nd European Conference on Underwa­
ter Acoustics was very encouraging, but it also made it difficult for the Committee
to select the very best for presentation in oral and poster sessions. I feel, however,
that we have achieved a first class scientific programme representing the state-of-
the-art in underwater acoustics, a programme to be preserved to the future through
the value of the papers published in these Proceedings.
The Conference will comprise papers related to all major areas of research in un­
derwater acoustics. The plenarys given by professor Walter H. Munk and by
professor Henrik Schmidt deal with the exploitation of acoustics for thermometry
of the oceans and for studies of the influence of the ice cover on underwater sound
propagation in the Arctic regions. Like the results presented in the plenary paper-
s, the scientific results given in the 172 oral and poster presentations published in
these Proceedings are of current interest. The presentations have been distribut­
ed on sessions covering topics like ambient noise, reverberation, scattering, sound
propagation modeling and mesasurements, transducers and instrumentation, data Preface
acquisition and processing, imaging, underwater communication, sonar in fisheries
and in off­shore activities, acoustics in marine geology and geophysics, and tomog­
raphy. The papers contributed to the 2nd European Conference on Underwater
Acoustics and published in these Proceedings come ­ apart from countries in the
European Union ­ from the EFTA countries, from countries in Central and Eastern
Europe, from USA, from Canada, from North and South Africa, from India, from
China, etc.
A conference like the 2nd European Conference on Underwater Acoustics can
only be organized as the result of a teamwork. The Conference has been co­
sponsored by the Commission of the European Communities, by FASE and by the
major acoustical societies in Europe. Dr. Marco Weydert has been of immense as­
sistance in paving the road for the Proceedings. I am very grateful to Dr. Weydert
for a perfect cooperation through all phases of preparations for the Conference.
The Scientific Committee, consisting of G.B. Cannelli, R. Carbó, Κ. Kremer, J.R.
Nedwell, J. Papadakis, M. Weydert and M. Zakharia, contributed greatly to the
definition of topics and to the selection of papers to be presented at the Confer­
ence. The timely support from all members of the Scientific Committee is greatly
appreciated.
The heavy burden of all the small tasks which together bring about an inter­
national conference was carried by the Local Organizing Committee, consisting of
Irina Κ. Bjørnø, Søren Engelbrecht and Peter Louring Nielsen with temporary help
from Vibeke Unmack and Ulrik Gullacksen. Their contribution over the last one
and a half year of the count­down to the Conference is highly acknowledged.
The contributions to the Conference from the European Union, from RESON
A/S, from SAS, from Tuborg Breweries A/S and from the City of Copenhagen are
gratefully acknowledged.
It is my hope, that the Proceedings ­ in two volumes ­ of the 2nd European
Conference on Underwater Acoustics will be received by the international under­
water acoustics community with the same enthusiasm and interest as shown by all
contributors of papers to these Proceedings. May these Proceedings be a valuable
source of information on Underwater Acoustics in the years to come.
Leif Bjørnø
Department of Industrial Acoustics
Technical University of Denmark
DK­2800 Lyngby, Denmark.
Lyngby, 12 April 1994 Contents
VOLUME I
PLENARY PAPERS 1
Seismo­acousticsofthearcticice cover3
H. Schmidt
Acoustictomographyofoceanclimate15
W.H.Munk
AMBIENTNOISE17
INVITED PAPER: Determination of elastic sea floor parameters from shallow­
water ambient noise19
M.J. Buckingham · G.B. Deane · N.M. Carbone
INVITED PAPER: Recent developments in the passive detection of breaking
surface waves 27
D.M.Farmer·L. Ding
TheInfluenceofswell, icebergs and grease ice on ambient noise33
O.M.Johannessen · H. Sagen · S. Sandven · I. Engelsen
Anunderwateracoustic study: From the concept to experiment of theSNECOW
project39
F.Grassia»L.Minna · S. Pagnan · G. Tacconi · A Tesei » A. Tiano
A comparative H.O.S. estimation of class Β non­gaussian underwater acoustic
noise45
F. Borghini · G. Tacconi · A. Tiano
Ambient noise database environment tool set: Conceptual method 51
J.L Espérandieu · M. Cezon · S. Bois
Non­linear excitation of collective oscillations of fresh and saltwaterbubble plu­
mes 63
G.J.Orris · M. Nicholas · M. Querijero
Linearpressure waves in bubbly fluids in the non­interacting regime71
J.L.Leander
Shipradiated noise measurements on sea: Separation of ambient trafficnoise
from the measured signatures 75
fl. Garnier·J.Millet·J.Larcher · G. Goullet viii Contents
REVERBERATION 81
Deterministicreverberationfrom the Mid­Atlantic ridge 83
N.C.Makris·β.Menis»L. Avelino · J.M.Berkson
Calculationsofreverberationby applying backscatteringfunctions89
P.L.Nielsen·L.Bjørnø
Backscatterreductionthrough single mode excitation 95
D.F.Gingras
Far low frequencysoundreverberation intheocean101
D.I. Abrosimov · V.S. Averbakh · E.I.Bolonicheva* L.S. Dolin · V.Yu.
Goldblut · V.JV. Golubev * A.G. Nechaev · K.E.Pigalov · ΛΓ.7. Sirotkina
Characteristic properties of bottom backscattering in the south Baltic sea 105
Z. Klusek · A. Sliwinski » J. Tegowski
Sea bed roughness dependence on acoustic pulse length at normal incidence 111
G.J. Heald . N.G. Pace
SCATTERING 117
INVITEDPAPER:Benchmark solutions for backscattering in simplewaveguide
geometries119
F.B.Jensen·P.Gerstoft
INVITEDPAPER:Resonance properties of sub­surface bubble clouds125
I.K.Bjørnø·L.Bjørnø
INVITEDPAPER:Attenuation and scattering by bubbles and theirinfluence
on surfacebackscatteringstrength133
H.Herwig·fl.Nützel
INVITED PAPER: Modelling of acoustic volume reverberation to estimate ve­
locity, refraction index and turbulence profiles 141
S.D. Kamminga · A. Plaisant·C.Camporeale·D.Nijveldt · H.0.Madsen
Acoustical scattering by a tubeandobservationofguided waves at largeincidence
angles 147
F.Léon·G.Maze
Experimentaland theoretical study of the sound scattering by the axial ribbed
cylindricalshell153
A.Klauson·D. Décultot · G. Maze · J. Metsaveer
Resonancesofdeformed cylindrical shells­experimental visualizationandidenti­
fication159
P.A.Chinnery· V.F. Humphrey
Diffraction of the acoustical fields by the elastic bodies in oceanic waveguides:
Solution by the combine integral method 165
V.E. Belov . S.M. Gorsky . A.Yu. Zinov'ev . A.I. Khil'ko
Scattering of plane wavesfromelasticspheres with surface roughnesses171
S. Sun · L. Bjørnø

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