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Pour obtenir le grade de
Spécialité : Micro et Nano Electronique
Arrêté ministériel : 7 août 2006

Présentée par
Hatem Mohamed Zakaria Radwan

Thèse dirigée par Laurent Fesquet et
codirigée par Marc Renaudin

préparée au sein du Laboratoire TIMA
dans l'École Doctorale « Electronique, Electrotechnique,
Automatique et Traitement du Signal »

Architecture Asynchrone pour L’Efficacité
Energétique et L’Amélioration du
Rendement en Fabrication dans les
Technologies Décananométriques:
Application à un Système sur Puce Multi-

Thèse soutenue publiquement le « 24 Février 2011 »,
devant le jury composé de :
M. Michel ROBERT
Professeur des Universités, LIRMM, Président
Professeur des Universités, ENSSAT, Rapporteur
Professeur des Universités, Laboratoire LIP6, Rapporteur
M. Laurent Fesquet
Maitre de Conférences, TIMA, Directeur de thèse
M. Marc Renaudin
Directeur Technique, TIEMPO, Co-encadrant
M. Carlos Canudas-de-Wit
Directeur de Recherche, GIPSA-Lab, CNRS, Membre
M. Mario Diaz Nava
Directeur Technique, STMicroelectronics, Invité
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Asynchronous Architecture for Power
Efficiency and Yield Enhancement in the
Decananometric Technologies:
Application to a Multi-Core System-on-Chip


Hatem Zakaria

France, 2011

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To …

My dear Wife and lovely child, Ali
My Parents, Sisters and Brother
My lovely country Egypt

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This thesis arose in part out of years of research that has been done within the
Concurrent Integrated Systems group (CIS) of the TIMA laboratory in Grenoble. By that
time, I have worked with a great number of people whose contribution in assorted ways
to the research and the making of the thesis deserved special mention. It is a pleasure to
convey my gratitude to them all in my humble acknowledgment.
In the first place I would like to record my gratitude to Dr. Laurent Fesquet for his
supervision, advice, and guidance from the very early stage of this research as well as
giving me extraordinary experiences throughout the work. Above all and the most
needed, he provided me unflinching encouragement and support in various ways. His
truly scientist intuition has exceptionally enriched my growth as a scientist want to be.
I greatly indebted to my co-supervisor Dr. Marc Renaudin for all his precious
support, consistent encouragement and valuable guidance thought the start of my thesis. I
owe an enormous debt of gratitude to him, for the confidence that he accorded to me by
accepting to participate in the supervision of my thesis.
I am grateful to the thesis jury members for their precious time which they have
scarified for me. Thanks to Prof. Michel Robert, for the interest he gave to this work by
agreeing to be the president of my thesis jury. I am also thankful to the thesis reviewers,
Prof. Olivier Sentieys and Prof. Habib Mehrez, the interest they have shown towards my
work has brought an outside perspective on enriching the subject. Their constructive
suggestions on the thesis are really appreciated for me. I am grateful that in the midst of
their activities, they accepted these tasks. My thanks also go to Dr. Carlos Canudas-de-
Wit and Dr. Mario Diaz Nava, for their commitment to take part in my jury committee.
My deep regards for Dr. Gilles Sicard, for his precious friendly attitude and his
immediate help for many administrative issues. I am also grateful to Mr. Alexandre
Chagoya, the responsible of service design and test at CIME Nanotech. He always
provided me with the needed help and software tools for my work. I also thank all the

Hatem Zakaria Université de Grenoble
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administrative staff of the TIMA laboratory and the EEATS, who have always been
gentle with me and helped me to get things done very smoothly.
Collective and individual acknowledgments are also owed to my colleagues in
CIS group whose present somehow perpetually refreshed, helpful, and memorable. Many
thanks go in particular to Eslam and Oussama for their friendship, brotherhood and
continual support in work and life. Thanks to Taha, Hakim, Franck and Gregory for the
great discussions and open minded attitude. I cannot finish without thanking also Khaled,
Saeed, Jeremie, Florant, Alexandre, Hawraa, Olivier, Mathieu, David and Rodrigo.
Special thanks also go to all my colleagues in the ARAVIS Minalogic project, those from
INRIA, CEA-Leti and STMicroelectronics for their appreciated discussions and valuable
remarks all over my PhD work.
My warm special thanks to my family, for their consideration of my research
abroad. Without their encouragement, inseparable support and prayers it would have been
impossible for me to finish this work. My Father, in the first place is the person who put
the fundament my learning character, showing me the joy of intellectual pursuit ever
since I was a child. My Mother is the one who sincerely raised me with her caring and
gently love. My sisters and brother, who inspired my life with the real meaning of the
family. My dearest and lovely kid, Ali who is the real source of happiness in my life, he
actually suffered a lot because of my busyness.
Words fail me to express my appreciation to my wonderful and beautiful wife,
whose prayers, dedication, love, continual support and persistent confidence in me, has
taken the load off my shoulder. I owe her for being unselfishly let her intelligence,
passions, and ambitions collide with mine.
All gratitude to my dearest teachers and professors those did great efforts to drive
me up to the scientific level which I have now. Special thanks for Dr. Abdel Aziz El-
Bassiouni who always keep encouraging and supporting me to do the best.
Hatem ZAKARIA Grenoble, France
February 2011

Hatem Zakaria Université de Grenoble
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Continuous scaling of CMOS technology push circuit designs towards multi-core
complex SoCs. Unfortunately with the nanometric technologies, the integrated system
performances after fabrication will not be fully predictable. Indeed, the process variations
really become huge at the chip scale. Therefore the design of such complex SoCs in the
nanoscale technologies is now constrained by many parameters such as the energy
consumption and the robustness to process variability. This implies the need of efficient
algorithms and built-in circuitry able to adapt the system behavior to the workload
variations and, at the same time, to cope with the parameter variations which cannot be
predicted or accurately modeled at design time. In this context, this thesis work addresses
the design of Globally Asynchronous Locally Synchronous “GALS” based Network-on-
Chip “NoC” architectures in the upcoming CMOS technologies. A novel methodology to
dynamically control the speed of different voltage-frequency NoC islands according to
the process variability impact on each domain is proposed. This control technique can
improve the performances, the energy consumption, and the yield of future SoC
architectures in a synergistic manner. The control methodology is based on the design of
an asynchronous programmable self-timed ring where the controller takes into account
the dynamic workload and the process variability effects. The controller especially
considers the operating frequency limit which does not exceed the maximum locally
allowed value for a given clock domain. With such an approach, it is no more required to
separately guaranty the timing performances for each node at design time. This
drastically relaxes the fabrication constraints and helps the yield enhancement.

Hatem Zakaria Université de Grenoble
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