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GRADE 8 Science Standards and Benchmark Proficiencies Focus on Physical ScienceI.MOTION ØThe velocity of an object is the rate of change of its position. II.FORCES ØUnbalanced forces cause changes in velocity. III.STRUCTURE OF MATTERØEach of the more than 100 el ements of matter has distinct properties and a distinct atomic structure. All forms of matter are composed of one or more of the elements.IV.EARTH IN THE SOLAR SYSTEM (Earth Science)ØThe structure and composition of the universe can be learned from studying stars and galaxies and their evolution.V.REACTIONS ØChemical reactions are processes in which atoms are rearranged into different combinations of molecules. VI.CHEMISTRY OF LIVING SYSTEMS (Life Science) ØPrinciples of chemistry underlie the functioning of biological systems.VII.PERIODIC TABLE ØThe organization of the periodic table is based on the properties of the elements and reflects the structure of atoms.VIII. DENSITY AND BUOYANCY ØAll objects experience a buoyant force when immersed in a fluid.IX.INVESTIGATION AND EXPERIMENTATION ØScientific progress is made by asking meaningful questions and conducting careful investigations.
Science Standards and Benchmark Proficiencies L.A. Archdiocese – Fall 2003
Grade 8 p.1
Aligning the Instructional Program with the Grade Level Standards and BenchmarksIn order to align the instructional program with the prescribed content standards for the grade, it is critical that the standards and their affiliated benchmarks are reviewed regularly so as to become very familiar with them. At the outset of each quarter/trimester an initial decision must be made as to which standards and benchmark proficiencies will be included in the instructional program. At the end of each quarter/trimester the teacher should fill out theresponse section next to each benchmark. This activity will serve as a checkpoint and will help gauge what still needs to be taught or what should be re taught. Complete the Response SectionST/B= Standard and BenchmarkP:Priority benchmarkQ:Quarter 1 or 2 or 3 or 4At the start of the quarter/trimester, select the benchmarks you consider to be your “priority benchmarks.” Mark the box under the “P” code.At the end of each quarter/trimester complete the response sectionof the standard/benchmark listings, indicating to what extent students have mastered the benchmark. A: More than 75% of the B: Abouthalf of the C:fewer then 25% of the students are proficientstudents are proficientstudents are proficientSample Recording of the Response Form GRADE 2I.PHYSICAL SCIENCEThe motion of objects can be observed and measured. As a basis for understanding this concept, students in the SECOND GRADE will … ST/BP ST/B: Standard/Benchmark P: Priority Benchmark Q Q Q Q Degree of Mastery:% of students at end of each Q: Quarter1234A= 75% or more B=about half C=fewer than 25%ST1.PknowA B B that the position of an object can be described by C locating it in relation to another object or to the background. ST1.Bknowthatan object's motion can be described by recording A A B B the change in position of the object over time.
Science Standards and Benchmark Proficiencies L.A. Archdiocese – Fall 2003
Grade 8 p.2
GRADE 8 Science Standards and Benchmark Proficiencies Focus on Physical Science I.MOTIONThe velocity of an object is the rate of change of its position. As a basis for understanding this concept, students in the EIGHT GRADE will … ST/BStandard/Benchmark P: P ST/B: Priority Benchmark Q Q Q Q Degree of Mastery: % of students at end of each Q: Quarter 1 2 3 4 A= 75% or more B=about half C=fewer than 25%ST1.Aknowthatposition is defined in relation to some choice of a standard reference point and a set of reference directions. ST1.Bknowthat average speed is the total distance traveled divided by the total time elapsed and that the speed of an object along the path traveled can vary. ST1.Cknowhow to solve problems involving distance, time, and average speed. ST1.Dknowthat the velocity of an object must be described by specifying both the direction and the speed of the object. ST1.Eknowthat changes in velocity may be due to changes in speed, direction, or both. ST1.Fknowhow to interpret graphs of position versus time and graphs of speed versus time for motion in a single direction. II.FORCES Unbalanced forces cause changes in velocity. As a basis for understanding this concept, students in the EIGHT GRADE will … ST/BPST/B: Standard/Benchmark P: Priority Benchmark Q Q Q Q Degree of Mastery: % of students at end of each Q: Quarter 1 2 3 4 A= 75% or more B=about half C=fewer than 25%ST2.Aknowthat a force has both direction and magnitude. ST2.Bknowthat when an object is subject to two or more forces at once, the result is the cumulative effect of all the forces. ST2.Cknowthat when the forces on an object are balanced, the motion of the object does not change. ST2.Dknowhow to identify separately the two or more forces that are acting on a single static object, including gravity, elastic forces due to tension or compression in matter, and friction. ST2.Eknowthat when the forces on an object are unbalanced, the object will change its velocity (it will speed up, slow down, or change direction.) ST2.Fknowthat the greater the mass of an object, the more force is needed to achieve the same rate of change in motion. ST2.Gknowthe role of gravity in forming and maintaining the shapes of planets, stars, and the solar system. Science Standards and Benchmark Proficiencies Grade 8 p.3 L.A. Archdiocese – Fall 2003
III.STRUCTURE OF MATTEREach of the more than 100 elements of matter has distinct properties and a distinct atomic structure. All forms of matter are composed of one or more of the elements. As a basis for understanding this concept, students in the EIGHT GRADE will …ST/BStandard/Benchmark P: P ST/B: Q Q Q QPriority Benchmark Degree of Mastery: % of students at end of each Q: Quarter 1 2 3 4 A= 75% or more B=about half C=fewer than 25%ST3.Aknowthe structure of the atom and know it is composed of protons, neutrons, and electrons.ST3.Bknowthat compounds are formed by combining two or more different elements and that compounds have properties that are different from their constituent elements. ST3.Cknowthatatoms and molecules form solids by building up repeating patterns, such as the crystal structure of NaCl or long chain polymers. e.g..plastics. ST3.Dknowthat the states of matter (solid, liquid, gas) depend on molecular motion. ST3.Eknowthat … ·in solids the atoms are closely locked in position and can only vibrate. ·in liquids the atoms and molecules are more loosely connected and can collide with and move past one another. ·in gases the atoms and molecules are free to move independently, colliding frequently. ST3.Fknowhow to use the periodic table to identify elements in simple compounds.
Science Standards and Benchmark Proficiencies L.A. Archdiocese – Fall 2003
Grade 8 p.4
IV.EARTH IN THE SOLAR SYSTEM (Earth Science)The structure and composition of the universe can be learned from studying stars and galaxies and their evolution. As a basis for understanding this concept, students in the EIGHT GRADE will …ST/BQ Q Q QP ST/B: Standard/Benchmark P: Priority Benchmark Degree of Mastery: % of students at end of each Q: Quarter 1 2 3 4 A= 75% or more B=about half C=fewer than 25%ST4.Aknowthat galaxies are clusters of billions of stars and may have different shapes.ST4.Bknowthat the Sun is one of many stars in the Milky Way galaxy and that stars may differ in size, temperature, and color. ST4.Cknowhow to use astronomical units and light years as measures of distances between the Sun, stars, and Earth. ST4.Dknowthat stars are the source of light for all bright objects in outer space and that the Moon and planets shine by reflected sunlight, not by their own light. ST4.Eknowthe appearance, general composition, relative position and size, and motion of objects in the solar system, including planets, planetary satellites, comets, and asteroids. V.REACTIONS Chemical reactions are processes in which atoms are rearranged into different combinations of molecules. As a basis for understanding this concept, students in the EIGHT GRADE will …ST/B.Standard/Benchmark P: P ST/B: Q Q Q QPriority Benchmark Degree of Mastery: % of students at end of each Q: Quarter 1 2 4 4 A= 75% or more B=about half C=fewer than 25%ST5.Aknowthat reactant atoms and molecules interact to form products with different chemical properties. ST5.Bknowthatthe idea of atoms explains the conservation of matter: In chemical reactions the number of atoms stays the same no matter how they are arranged, so their total mass stays the same. ST5.Cknowthat chemical reactions usually liberate heat or absorb heat. ST5.Dknowthat physical processes include freezing and boiling, in which a material changes form with no chemical reaction. ST5.Eknowhow to determine whether a solution is acidic, basic, or neutral.
Science Standards and Benchmark Proficiencies L.A. Archdiocese – Fall 2003
Grade 8 p.5
VI.CHEMISTRY OF LIVING SYSTEMS (Life Science) Principles of chemistry underlie the functioning of biological systems. As a basis for understanding this concept, students in the EIGHT GRADE will …ST/B.P ST/B: Standard/Benchmark P: Priority Benchmark Q Q Q Q Degree of Mastery: % of students at end of each Q: Quarter 1 2 4 4 A= 75% or more B=about half C=fewer than 25%ST6.Aknowthat carbon, because of its ability to combine in many ways with itself and other elements, has a central role in the chemistry of living organisms. ST6.Bknowthat living organisms are made of molecules consisting largely of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, and sulfur. ST6.Cknowthat living organisms have many different kinds of molecules, including small ones, such as water and salt, and very large ones, such as carbohydrates, fats, proteins, and DNA. VII.PERIODIC TABLE The organization of the periodic table is based on the properties of the elements and reflects the structure of atoms. As a basis for understanding this concept, students in the EIGHT GRADE will … ST/BQ Q Q QP ST/B: Standard/Benchmark P: Priority Benchmark Degree of Mastery: % of students at end of each Q: Quarter 1 2 3 4 A= 75% or more B=about half C=fewer than 25%ST7.Aknowhow to identify regions corresponding to metals, nonmetals, and inert gases. ST7.Bknowthat each element has a specific number of protons in the nucleus (the atomic number) and that each isotope of the element has a different but specific number of neutrons in the nucleus. ST7.Cknowthat substances can be classified by their properties, including their melting temperature, density, hardness, and thermal and electrical conductivity.
Science Standards and Benchmark Proficiencies L.A. Archdiocese – Fall 2003
Grade 8 p.6
VIII.DENSITY AND BUOYANCY All objects experience a buoyant force when immersed in a fluid. As a basis for understanding this concept,students in the EIGHT GRADE will …ST/BP ST/B: Standard/Benchmark P: Q Q Q QPriority Benchmark Degree of Mastery: % of students at end of each Q: Quarter 1 2 3 4 A= 75% or more B=about half C=fewer than 25%ST8.Aknowthat density is mass per unit volume. ST8.Bknowhow to calculate the density of substances (regular and irregular solids and liquids) from measurements of mass and volume. ST8.Cknowthat the buoyant force on an object in a fluid is an upward force equal to the weight of the fluid the object has displaced. ST8.Dknowhow to predict whether an object will float or sink. IX.INVESTIGATION AND EXPERIMENTATION Scientific progress is made by asking meaningful questions and conducting careful investigations. As a basis for understanding this concept and addressing the content in the other three strands, students should develop their own questions and perform investigations.Students in the EIGHT GRADE will …ST/BQ Q Q QPriority Benchmark Standard/Benchmark P: P ST/B: Degree of Mastery: % of students at end of each Q: Quarter 1 2 3 4 A= 75% or more B=about half C=fewer than 25%ST9.Aplanand conduct a scientific investigation to test a hypothesis. ST9.Bevaluatethe accuracy and reproducibility of data. ST9.Cdistinguishbetween variable and controlled parameters in a test. ST9.Drecognizethe slope of the linear graph as the constant in the relationshipy=kxand apply this principle in interpreting graphs constructed from data. ST9.Econstructappropriate graphs from data and develop quantitative statements about the relationships between variables. ST9.Fapplysimple mathematic relationships to determine a missing quantity in a mathematic expression, given the two remaining terms (including speed = distance/time, density = mass/volume, force = pressure x area, volume = area x height). ST9.Gdistinguishbetween linear and nonlinear relationships on a graph of data
Science Standards and Benchmark Proficiencies L.A. Archdiocese – Fall 2003
Grade 8 p.7
electrolyte
efficiency
pulley terminal battery
Physical Science Motion
inclined plane
ammeter
conservation of change electric field
electromagnetic induction energy, potential force, centripetal fulcrum
current, direct
cell, wet
Newton
induction machine, compound
friction
gravity
force
electrical potential energy
Principle, Archimedes’ screw terminal velocity voltage work
force, unbalanced gears
watt
Science Standards and Benchmark Proficiencies L.A. Archdiocese – Fall 2003
inertia mass
Ohm’s law
free fall
force, balanced
force, input
fuse
fluid
machine momentum, law of conservation of power
acceleration variable, dependent slope
hydraulic system lever momentum
air resistance
acceleration
projectile
potential difference Principle, Pascal’s static electricity transformer, stepdown wedge
tendon transformer, stepup weight
Principle, Bernoulli’s static discharge transformer
energy, law of conservation of force, buoyant
joule mechanical advantage
grounded
conduction
circuit breaker
energy, kinetic
electrode
motion time International reference point System of Units speed velocity
turbine wheel and axle
pressure
cell, electrochemical current, alternating electric generator electroscope
cell, dry
Forces
Grade 8 p.8
distance variable, independent
plate meter
density
GRADE EIGHT Standards Based Vocabulary for Science
Pascal
density
Earth in the Solar System (Earth Science)asteroid belt astronomy axis big bang chromosphere comet constellation convex lens corona crater diagram, eclipse Hertzsprung Russel eclipse, solar eclipsing binary electromagnetic spectrum equinox galaxy galaxy, galaxy, elliptical irregular gas giant geocentric giant star gravity heliocentric inertia latitude light year
thermostat
viscosity
radiation
covalent
Structure of Matterbimetallic strip change of state
terrestrial planets universe
eclipse, lunar ellipse
gas Law, Charles’ ore
electrolysis
change, physical conductor
absolute zero
compound
ionic molecule point of melting
specific heat
sublimation
solution
electron, valence insulator mixture point of freezing proton
proportional, directly scale, Fahrenheit temperature
convection current electron
asteroid black hole core
volume
thermal expansion weight
condensation
heat mass point of boiling
proportional, inversely scale, Kelvin
chemical bond
galaxy, spiral greenhouse effect magnitude, absolute meteorite orbit
tide
Science Standards and Benchmark Proficiencies L.A. Archdiocese – Fall 2003
wavelength
maria
nuclear fusion penumbra
white dwarf
visible light
star, binary telescope
pulsar satellite
main sequence
magnitude, apparent meteoroid orbit, geosynchronous prominence rotation, retrograde spectrograph supernova
nebula parallax
atom
star, proto telescope, reflecting tide, spring
vaporization
quasar solar flare
star, neutron telescope, radio
tide, neap
Scale, Celsius
evaporation
electrode
element
photosphere rotation
solstice sunspot
telescope, refracting umbra
Grade 8 p.9
meteor
observatory phase
revolution solar wind
change, chemical conduction
Law, Boyles’ nucleus pressure
chemical equation conservation of mass digestion, chemical enzyme
digestion, mechanical family
period proton salt
ion, polyatomic
nucleus products reaction, replacement solution, concentrated subscript
electron
solution, saturated symbol
solution, dilute
carbohydrate digestion
indicator
neutralization polar, nonpolar reaction, endothermic solute
fullerene
hydrocarbon lipid
chemical formula corrosive
activation energy bond, ionic
concentration
coefficient
chemical reaction crystal
base
acid
bond, covalent
atomic number
acid rain
bond, double
acid, fatty cellulose
inhibitor
Chemistry of Living Systems (Life Science)
ion
solvent
group
neutron precipitate reaction, exothermic solution
acid, amino carbohydrate, complex DNA
acid, nucleic cholesterol
solution, unsaturated synthesis
graphite hydrocarbon, substituted monomer polymer
vitamin
nutrient RNA
formula, molecular group, carboxyl hydrocarbon, unsaturated nucleotide protein
formula, structural group, hydroxyl isomer
organic acid starch
electron dot diagram Halogen
Science Standards and Benchmark Proficiencies L.A. Archdiocese – Fall 2003
Grade 8 p.10
digestion
alcohol diamond
suspension
ester
decomposition
glucose hydrocarbon, saturated mineral organic compound subscript
catalyst
electron, valence + hydrogen (H )
Reactions
hydroxide ion (H ) molecular compound PH scale reactants solubility
actinide
chemical symbol electron
halogen family metal, alkali
noble gas particle, alpha proton
radioactive decay
Archimedes
gravity
alloy
conductor
electron, valence isotopes metal, alkaline earth nonmetal particle, beta radiation therapy reactivity
buoyant force
mass
Periodic Table
atomic mass
corrosion
family
lanthanide metal, transition nuclear fusion period radiation, gamma semiconductor
atomic mass unit (amu) diatomic molecule group
magnetic metalloid
nuclear reaction periodic table radiation, nuclear supernova
Density and Buoyancy
density
principle
Science Standards and Benchmark Proficiencies L.A. Archdiocese – Fall 2003
fluid
volume
atomic number
ductile
half life
malleable neutron
nucleus plasma radioactive dating tracer
graduated cylinder
Grade 8 p.11
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