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Coordination of multimedia services and applications in mobile, heterogeneous network environment [Elektronische Ressource] / vorgelegt von Teodora Guenkova-Luy

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294 pages
Coordination of Multimedia Services and Applications in Mobile, Heterogeneous Network Environment Dissertation zur Erlangung des Doktorgrades Dr. rer. nat. der Fakultät für Informatik der Universität Ulm Vorgelegt von Teodora Nikolaeva Guenkova-Luy aus Sofia, Bulgarien Universität Ulm Fakultät für Informatik Abteilung Verteilte Systeme Oberer Eselsberg, 89069 Ulm, Deutschland 2006 Amtierender Dekan: Prof. Dr. H. Partsch 1. Gutachter: Prof. Dr.-Ing. F. J. Hauck 2. Gutachter: Prof. Dr. M. Weber 3. Gutachter: Dr. A. Kassler Tag der Promotion: 01.03.2007 Table of Contents Table of Contents................................................................................................ V List of Figures .................................................................................................VIII List of Tables......................................................................................................XI Abstract ...........................................................................................................XIII Zusammenfassung........................................................................................... XV Acknowledgements....................................................................................... XVII 1 Introduction ................................................................................................... 1 1.1 Motivation.......
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Coordination of Multimedia Services and Applications
in Mobile, Heterogeneous Network Environment











Dissertation zur Erlangung des Doktorgrades Dr. rer. nat.
der Fakultät für Informatik der Universität Ulm


Vorgelegt von

Teodora Nikolaeva Guenkova-Luy

aus Sofia, Bulgarien





Universität Ulm
Fakultät für Informatik
Abteilung Verteilte Systeme
Oberer Eselsberg, 89069 Ulm, Deutschland



2006
Amtierender Dekan: Prof. Dr. H. Partsch
1. Gutachter: Prof. Dr.-Ing. F. J. Hauck
2. Gutachter: Prof. Dr. M. Weber
3. Gutachter: Dr. A. Kassler

Tag der Promotion: 01.03.2007 Table of Contents
Table of Contents................................................................................................ V
List of Figures .................................................................................................VIII
List of Tables......................................................................................................XI
Abstract ...........................................................................................................XIII
Zusammenfassung........................................................................................... XV
Acknowledgements....................................................................................... XVII
1 Introduction ................................................................................................... 1
1.1 Motivation..................................................................................................................... 2
1.2 Negotiations – Where, When and How?....................................................................... 3
1.2.1 Negotiation Backgrounds 4
1.2.2 Application of Negotiations in Automated Systems .............................................. 5
1.2.2.1 Service/Session/QoS Signalling...................................................................... 5
1.2.2.2 Signalling Scenarios........................................................................................ 6
1.2.2.2.1 Yes/No Signalling....................................................................................... 7
1.2.2.2.2 Raw Granularity Signalling ........................................................................ 8
1.2.2.2.3 Fine Granularity Signalling......................................................................... 9
1.3 Optimising the QoS Signalling for Multimedia Applications .................................... 11
1.3.1 Goals of Study...................................................................................................... 11
1.3.2 Contributions, Results and Benefits..................................................................... 12
1.4 Organisation of the Thesis .......................................................................................... 17
2 Negotiating Quality of Service.................................................................... 19
2.1 Domain Model for Identification of the Concerned Entities in the Negotiation ........ 21
2.1.1 Domains, Relations and Activities....................................................................... 22
2.1.2 Aspects of the QoS Provisioning ......................................................................... 25
2.1.2.1 User, Service and Transport Views ............................................................... 26
2.1.2.2 QoS Provisioning Guarantees........................................................................ 28
2.2 QoS Parameters Model ............................................................................................... 30
2.2.1 A Reference Model for End-to-End QoS Coordination....................................... 32
2.2.2 Description Model................................................................................................ 37
2.2.2.1 Protocol User Address Syntax....................................................................... 37
2.2.2.2 QoS Hierarchy 39
2.2.2.3 Optimisation of the QoS Descriptions for Negotiation Purposes.................. 42
2.3 Negotiation Models for System Configurations ......................................................... 43
2.3.1 Communication of the Negotiated Information ................................................... 44
2.3.1.1 Carriers of Capabilities Description .............................................................. 44
2.3.1.2 Models for Organizing of the Communication.............................................. 46
2.3.2 Resource Management Aspects ........................................................................... 52
2.3.2.1 Parties Involved in the Decisions Concerning the Negotiations ................... 53
2.3.2.1.1 Peer’s Resource Management................................................................... 56
2.3.2.1.2 Network and System Aspects at Application of E2ENP .......................... 60
2.3.2.2 Decisions about Negotiations ........................................................................ 62
2.3.2.2.1 Backgrounds of Decision Taking.............................................................. 63
2.3.2.2.2 Validation Procedure for QoS 64 VI
2.4 E2ENP Negotiations within Existing Architectures ................................................... 68
2.4.1 Service and Transport Interaction Scenarios........................................................ 68
2.4.2 Integration in Existing Architectures ................................................................... 71
2.4.2.1 AEQUA and MASA...................................................................................... 72
2.4.2.2 3GPP IMS and ITU H.323 ............................................................................ 76
3 E2ENP Interactions and Scenarios............................................................ 79
3.1 Basic Protocol Structure and Application 80
3.1.1 Modes................................................................................................................... 80
3.1.2 Phases 82
3.1.3 E2ENP Phases Implementation Using SIP Methods ........................................... 87
3.1.4 Managing a Hierarchical QoS Specification with E2ENP................................... 94
3.2 Preconditions for Establishment of E2ENP Sessions ................................................. 98
3.2.1 Peer, Provider and Third-Party Security at Mentoring ........................................ 99
3.2.2 Terminal Registration........................................................................................... 99
3.2.3 PDU Registrations.............................................................................................. 105
3.2.4 Service Discovery of Terminals and Mentoring Entities ................................... 105
3.3 Third-Party Call Control Scenarios .......................................................................... 108
3.3.1 Session Mobility................................................................................................. 108
3.3.1.1 Alternative Services at Session Establishment............................................ 108
3.3.1.2 Multimedia Session Migration.................................................................... 112
3.3.2 Multiparty Negotiations..................................................................................... 119
3.3.2.1 Conference................................................................................................... 119
3.3.2.2 Media Adaptation Services 119
4 E2ENP Negotiation Language.................................................................. 121
4.1 Description Language............................................................................................... 122
4.1.1 Language Definitions and Optimisation Considerations ................................... 122
4.1.2 E2ENP Practical Application............................................................................. 124
4.1.3 Major External Profiles and Mechanisms in E2ENP......................................... 126
4.1.3.1 Audio and Video Profiles for RTP .............................................................. 127
4.1.3.2 Video Resolution Standards ........................................................................ 127
4.1.3.3 MPEG-7 Mechanisms.................................................................................. 129
4.1.3.4 XML Linking, Signing and Transformation................................................ 130
4.2 XML Schemas.......................................................................................................... 135
4.2.1 Session Description Protocol Next Generation.................................................. 138
4.2.2 SDPng Profiles................................................................................................... 139
4.2.3 Integration of XML Signature Syntax................................................................ 139
4.2.4 E2ENP Schema Definitions............................................................................... 142
4.3 The E2ENP XML Structures and Examples............................................................. 146
4.3.1 The XML Header Negotiation ........................................................................... 148
4.3.2 The PDU Header ................................................................................................ 149
4.3.3 Capabilities and QoS Contracts.......................................................................... 153
4.3.4 Media Session Configuration – QoS Contexts................................................... 157
4.3.5 QoS Adaptation Based on Memory ................................................................... 159
4.3.6 External Parties Interactions with the PDU........................................................ 161
4.3.7 PDU Time Set and Invalidation ......................................................................... 163
5 Negotiation Engines................................................................................... 165
5.1 General Architecture and Design.............................................................................. 166
5.2 E2ENP User Agent ................................................................................................... 168
5.2.1 User Agent Architectures 168 VII
5.2.1.1 Basic Architecture....................................................................................... 170
5.2.1.2 Advanced Architecture – Measurements and Enhancements Modules....... 172
5.2.2 Architectural Components.................................................................................. 175
5.2.2.1 XML Processing – Parser, Generator and Content Proxy........................... 175
5.2.2.2 PDU Caches................................................................................................. 178
5.2.2.3 Data Carriers................................................................................................ 180
5.2.2.4 Finite State Machines 182
5.2.2.4.1 Priorities-based MUTEX........................................................................ 183
5.2.2.4.2 Offerer-Answerer Finite State Machines................................................ 197
5.2.2.4.3 External-Action Finite State Machines................................................... 200
5.3 High-Level E2ENP Management............................................................................. 203
5.3.1 Applications Using Memory at Session Management ....................................... 203
5.3.2 Validation Algorithm Use Cases 204
6 E2ENP Performance Evaluations............................................................ 205
6.1 Test Environment...................................................................................................... 206
6.2 Test Scenarios........................................................................................................... 208
6.3 E2ENP UA Components Performance ..................................................................... 210
6.3.1 XML Parser and Generator Performance........................................................... 211
6.3.2 E2ENP UA Performance.................................................................................... 212
6.3.3 Data Carriers Performance – E2ENP UA vs. SIP UA ....................................... 214
6.4 E2ENP UA Network Performance ........................................................................... 215
6.5 Comparison with State-of-the-Art Protocols ............................................................ 220
7 Summary and Conclusions ....................................................................... 223
Annex A Projects Overview – E2ENP Development Steps..................... 225
Annex B Service/Network Profiles at Registrations ................................ 227
Annex C E2ENP XML Examples Used for Measurements .................... 231
Annex D E2ENP Codec Classification Schemes....................................... 239
Annex E Resources Coordination through E2ENP – Recommendations to
E2ENP Applications........................................................................................ 247
References ........................................................................................................ 255
Index ................................................................................................................. 271


VIII
List of Figures
Figure 1: Yes/No signalling – single configuration delivery .................................................................. 6
Figure 2: Raw granularity signalling – configurations level signalling .................................................. 7
Figure 3: Fine granularity signalling – parameter level signalling.......................................................... 8
Figure 4: Domain Model - a class diagram of the service roles........................................................... 20
Figure 5: Architecture for end-to-end application interactions ............................................................. 25
Figure 6: Quality of Service aspects of the multimedia application...................................................... 27
Figure 7: A reference model for identifying the relevant QoS parameters ........................................... 31
Figure 8: E2ENP URI syntax ................................................................................................................ 37
Figure 9: Example of hierarchical QoS specification............................................................................ 39
Figure 10: E2ENP referencing model ................................................................................................... 41
Figure 11: E2ENP basic negotiation architecture ................................................................................. 43
Figure 12: INVITE transaction – client (see also [62])......................................................................... 46
Figure 13: INVITE transaction – server (see also [62]) ........................................................................ 47
Figure 14: Non-INVITE transaction – client (see also [62])................................................................. 48
Figure 15: Non-INVITE transaction – server (see also [62])................................................................ 49
Figure 16: Basic Offer/Answer Model using SIP (see [35]) 51
Figure 17: Offer/Answer Model with resource reservations (see [36])................................................. 51
Figure 18: End-system and Access Provider Network interactions ...................................................... 53
Figure 19: Consistency example ........................................................................................................... 56
Figure 20: Deadlock example................................................................................................................ 58
Figure 21: Validation procedure for QoS.............................................................................................. 64
Figure 22: No Coupling interaction between the service and transport ................................................ 66
Figure 23: Loose Coupling interaction between the service and transport ........................................... 67
Figure 24: Tight Coupling ............................................. 67
Figure 25: Integrated interaction between the service and transport..................................................... 67
Figure 26: E2ENP view on AEQUA/MASA QoS architecture ............................................................ 71
Figure 27: E2ENP contribution to AEQUA/MASA QoS architecture ................................................. 72
Figure 28: 3GPP IMS architecture [203]............................................................................................... 75
Figure 29: ITU H.323 architecture [204]...... 75
Figure 30: E2ENP modes...................................................................................................................... 79
Figure 31: E2ENP phases...................................................................................................................... 81
Figure 32: Application of the E2ENP phases with a single session...................................................... 84
Figure 33: Pre-negotiation, registration and session-end using SIP and E2ENP .................................. 86
Figure 34: Negotiation and re-negotiation using SIP and E2ENP ........................................................ 89
Figure 35: Association between the E2ENP PDUs and the session control object of the application.. 95
Figure 36: Time-management of the E2ENP PDUs.............................................................................. 97
Figure 37: SIP REFER Method [101] ................................................................................................. 100
Figure 38: Inter-domain registration ................................................................................................... 101
Figure 39: PDU management at E2ENP-based proxies ...................................................................... 103
Figure 40: PDU registration in the foreign domain............................................................................. 104
Figure 41: Session redirection............................................................................................................. 106
Figure 42: Session forwarding ............................................................................................................ 107
Figure 43: Session migration scenario ................................................................................................ 110
Figure 44: Coupling and joining of sessions ....................................................................................... 111
Figure 45: Session migration with SIP and E2ENP ............................................................................ 115
Figure 46: Conference with SIP and E2ENP ...................................................................................... 117
Figure 47: Media adaptation management with SIP and E2ENP........................................................ 118
Figure 48: E2ENP and MPEG-21 DIA ............................................................................................... 123
Figure 49: Example of XML header definition of E2ENP PDU instances ......................................... 124
Figure 50: Addition and extraction of mentor information in the PDUs............................................. 131
Figure 51: XML schema inheritance problem in initial E2ENP version ............................................ 133
Figure 52: Integration of the namespaces used in E2ENP .................................................................. 133 IX
Figure 53: SDPng version 4 [81]......................................................................................................... 135
Figure 54: SDPng version 8 [81]......... 137
Figure 55: The RTP package of SDPng version 4 [81]....................................................................... 137
Figure 56: Thversion 8 [81] 137
Figure 57: Integration of XML Signature Syntax [229]...................................................................... 140
Figure 58: E2ENP and SDPng integration schema ............................................................................. 140
Figure 59: E2ENP <purpose> element................................................................................................ 141
Figure 60: E2ENP <adapTarget> element and its substitutes <block>/<enforce> ............................. 141
Figure 61: E2ENP <qosdef> element.................................................................................................. 141
Figure 62: E2ENP <qoscfg> element.... 142
Figure 63: E2ENP <qosinfo> element... 144
Figure 64: Example of simple type for pattern definition ................................................................... 145
Figure 65: Example of simple type for enumeration........................................................................... 145
Figure 66: XML attributes vs. XML elements .................................................................................... 145
Figure 67: E2ENP vs. MPEG-21 DIA description.............................................................................. 145
Figure 68: Negotiation of the applicable XML namespaces ............................................................... 147
Figure 69: Example 1 – Purpose header.............................................................................................. 147
Figure 70: Example 2 – Pur.... 147
Figure 71: Capabilities definition........................................................................................................ 151
Figure 72: QoS contracts definition with E2ENP ............................................................................... 152
Figure 73: RTP streaming configuration............................................................................................. 155
Figure 74: QoS contexts definition with E2ENP ................................................................................ 156
Figure 75: Short Re-negotiation PDU, Re-negotiation of contracts.................................................... 158
Figure 76: Shation of contexts ....................................................................................... 159
Figure 77: <qosinfo> of provider entity at Pre-negotiation................................................................. 160
Figure 78: <qosinfo> of pry at Negotiation ...................................................................... 161
Figure 79: <qosinfo> for transcoding and XPath application ............................................................. 161
Figure 80: PDU’s time resetting.......................................................................................................... 162
Figure 81: PDUs’ invalidation ............................................................................................................ 163
Figure 82: E2ENP general architecture............................................................................................... 165
Figure 83: Asynchronous subsystem communication......................................................................... 166
Figure 84: E2ENP UA architecture..................................................................................................... 168
Figure 85: E2ENP UA – Demo screenshot ......................................................................................... 169
Figure 86: E2ENP UA architecture extensibility ................................................................................ 171
Figure 87: E2ENP processing – association between processed XML code and its processors......... 172
Figure 88: E2ENP content access and the parser/generator package.................................................. 173
Figure 89: Relation between the objects representing <e2enp:purpose>............................................ 173
Figure 90: Content-Proxy interface design (classes relation).............................................................. 174
Figure 91: PDU caches........................................................................................................................ 178
Figure 92: RMI-based SIP surrogate................................................................................................... 180
Figure 93: E2ENP UA coordination MUTEX .................................................................................... 183
Figure 94: E2ENP UA Offerer/Answerer root state............................................................................ 187
Figure 95: E2ENP UA Offerer-Negotiation history state ................................................................... 189
Figure 96: E2ENP UA Answerer-Negotiation history state................................................................ 191
Figure 97: E2ENP UA Offerer-Re-negotiation history state............................................................... 193
Figure 98: E2ENP UA Answerer-Re-negotiation history state........................................................... 195
Figure 99: Answerer Sub-state WaitForCoordDone........................................................................... 196
Figure 100: External-action state machine.......................................................................................... 199
Figure 101: State machine – E2ENP O/A Model and External Actions ............................................. 201
Figure 102: Service/session processing with and without memory .................................................... 201
Figure 103: Registration, validation and negotiation use case ............................................................ 202
Figure 104: Actors in the validation procedure................................................................................... 203
Figure 105: Network test-bed.............................................................................................................. 206
Figure 106: Parser XML Processing times.......................................................................................... 210
Figure 107: Generator XML Processing times.................................................................................... 210
Figure 108: E2ENP UA and pure SIP UA roundtrip times................................................................. 213 X
Figure 109: E2ENP UA roundtrip-times with the RMI-based SIP surrogate on different PCs and in
different networks ........................................................................................................................ 216
Figure 110: Comparison between E2ENP UAs with jSIP and RMI-based SIP surrogate carriers in
different networks using slow PCs............................................................................................... 217
Figure 111: Comparison between E2ENP UAs with jSIP, NIST SIP and RMI-based SIP surrogate
carriers in different networks using fast PCs ............................................................................... 217
Figure 112: Gain of short negotiation rounds compared to the full negotiation rounds (RMI-based SIP
surrogate with fast PCs) ............................................................................................................... 219
Figure 113: XML schema for provider network profile...................................................................... 227
Figure 114: XML schema for provider service profile........................................................................ 228
Figure 115: Full Pre-negotiation (XML file part one)......................................................................... 231
Figure 116: Fuation (XML file part two) ........................................................................ 232
Figure 117: Short Negotiati ............................................................................ 233
Figure 118: S 234
Figure 119: Short Re-negotiation (XML file) ..................................................................................... 235
Figure 120: Full Negotiation ............................................................................................................... 235
Figure 121: Full Re-negotiation PDU header...................................................................................... 236
Figure 122: SDPng simulation (XML file part one) ........................................................................... 236
Figure 123: SDue part two) 237
Figure 124: Session management without memory 249
Figure 125: Session/service management with memory ..................................................................... 253

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