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Crude oil families in the Euphrates Graben Petroleum System [Elektronische Ressource] / [Ahmad Aldahik]

273 pages
Crude Oil Families in the Euphrates Graben Petroleum System A Ph.D thesis ofDip. Eng. Ahmad AldahikBerlin Institute of Technology (TU Berlin)Helmholtz Centre Potsdam – GFZ German Research Centre for GeosciencesCrude Oil Families in the Euphrates Graben Petroleum System vorgelegt von Dipl.-Ing. Ahmad Aldahik aus Homs (Talbise)-Syrien von der Fakultät VI – Planen Bauen Umwelt der Technischen Unversität Berlin zur Erlangung des akademischen Grades Doktor der Ingenieurwissenschaften - Dr.-Ing. - genehmigte Dissertation Promotionsausschuss: Vorsitzender: Prof. Dr. G. Franz Berichter: Prof. Dr. B. Horsfield Berichter: Prof. Dr. W. Dominik Berichter: PD Dr. H. Wilkes Tag der wissenschaftlichen Aussprache: 14.12.2010 Berlin 2010 D 83 ... to the soul of my great mother who has traveled from this worldwithout saying GOOD-BYE MY LITTLE .... this work is dedicatedContentsContents iABSTRACT vZUSAMMENFASSUNG viiAcknowledgements ixList of Figures xList of Tables xiv1 Introduction and Background 11.1 Petroleum Geochemistry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.1.1 Petroleum Origin and Generation . . . . . . . . . . . 31.1.2 P Migration and Accumulation . . . . . . . 61.1.3 Petroleum Systems and Oil Families . . . . . . . . . 71.2 Regional Petroleum Geology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101.3 The Study Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 Goals and Objectives 233 Experimental Methods 253.
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Crude Oil Families in the Euphrates
Graben Petroleum System
A Ph.D thesis of
Dip. Eng. Ahmad Aldahik
Berlin Institute of Technology (TU Berlin)
Helmholtz Centre Potsdam – GFZ German Research
Centre for GeosciencesCrude Oil Families in the Euphrates Graben
Petroleum System


vorgelegt von
Dipl.-Ing. Ahmad Aldahik
aus Homs (Talbise)-Syrien


von der Fakultät VI – Planen Bauen Umwelt
der Technischen Unversität Berlin
zur Erlangung des akademischen Grades

Doktor der Ingenieurwissenschaften
- Dr.-Ing. -

genehmigte Dissertation


Promotionsausschuss:

Vorsitzender: Prof. Dr. G. Franz
Berichter: Prof. Dr. B. Horsfield
Berichter: Prof. Dr. W. Dominik
Berichter: PD Dr. H. Wilkes

Tag der wissenschaftlichen Aussprache: 14.12.2010

Berlin 2010
D 83 ... to the soul of my great mother who has traveled from this world
without saying GOOD-BYE MY LITTLE .... this work is dedicatedContents
Contents i
ABSTRACT v
ZUSAMMENFASSUNG vii
Acknowledgements ix
List of Figures x
List of Tables xiv
1 Introduction and Background 1
1.1 Petroleum Geochemistry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.1.1 Petroleum Origin and Generation . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.1.2 P Migration and Accumulation . . . . . . . 6
1.1.3 Petroleum Systems and Oil Families . . . . . . . . . 7
1.2 Regional Petroleum Geology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
1.3 The Study Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
2 Goals and Objectives 23
3 Experimental Methods 25
3.1 Oil Samples Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
3.1.1 Whole Oil Gas Chromatography (GC-FID) . . . . . . 28
3.1.2 Single Ion Monitoring - Gas Chromatography - Mass
Spectrometry (SIM-GC-MS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
iii CONTENTS
3.1.3 Compound Speci c Stable Isotopes . . . . . . . . . . 30
3.2 Rock Samples Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
3.2.1 Solvent Extraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
3.2.2 Gas Chromatography of Saturates GC-FID . . . . . . 36
3.3 Oil and Source Rock Samples Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
3.3.1 Medium Pressure Liquid Chromatography MPLC . . 36
3.3.2 Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry GC-MS . 37
3.3.3 Metastable Reaction Monitoring MRM-GC-MS-MS . 39
4 Results 55
4.1 Oil Samples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
4.1.1 Bulk Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
4.1.2 Molecular Composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
4.1.3 Aliphatic Biomarkers Characteristics . . . . . . . . . 73
4.1.3.1 Hopanes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
4.1.3.2 Steranes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
4.1.4 Diamondoids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
4.1.5 Aromatic Hydrocarbons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
4.1.6 Stable Isotopes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
4.1.6.1 Stable Carbon Isotopes . . . . . . . . . . . 102
4.1.6.2 Stable Hydrogen Isotopes . . . . . . . . . . 107
4.2 Rock Samples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
4.2.1 Source Rock Quality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
4.2.2 Normal Alkanes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
4.2.3 Biomarker Characteristics of Rock Extracts . . . . . 119
5 Discussion and Interpretation 133
5.1 Oil-Oil Correlation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
5.1.1 Oil Families: Classi cation and Identi cation . . . . 138
5.1.2 Oil Families: Maturity Variations . . . . . . . . . . . 146
5.1.3 Oil Families: Stable Isotopic Composition . . . . . . 148
5.1.4 Oil Families: Geographic and Stratigraphic Distribution153
5.2 Oil-Source Rock Correlation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156CONTENTS iii
5.2.1 Source Rock Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
5.2.2 Geochemical Oil-Source Rock Correlation . . . . . . . 158
5.2.3 Possible Oil Migration Pathways . . . . . . . . . . . 160
5.3 Oil Mixing Potential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
5.4 Petroleum Biodegradation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
6 Summary and Conclusions 191
Bibliography 197
Appendices 227
A GCFID Fingerprints of Crude Oils 229
B Geochemical Data of Analysed Oils 243
C Oil Families Geochemistry 255
D Mixing Model Calculations 259
E Concentration of Crude Oil Constituents 261ABSTRACT
Located in the northern part of Arabian Peninsula, Syria is one of the
Middle East oil countries. The most petroliferous province in Syria is the
Euphrates Graben system in the eastern part of the country. Oil and gas
have been discovered in this graben in the mid 1980’s by Shell E&P and
its partners. Since then no comprehensive study has been performed to
investigate the origin of crude oils produced from more than 60 oil elds in
the area. This study deals with this issue from a petroleum geochemistry
perspective and tries to answer open questions regarding the source of light
and heavy oils produced over the Euphrates Graben. Eighty two oil samples
in addition to 37 rock samples have been analysed geochemically in order to
investigate the molecular composition of hydrocarbons and the maturation
degree of their associated source rocks. Routine geochemical analysis in ad-
dition to stable isotopes and diamondoid analyses were carried out for 30 oil
samples. Based on gross composition, biomarker and non-biomarker char-
acteristics, oil-oil correlation identi ed three oil families in the study area:
Family 1, Family 2A and Family 2B. Crude oils of Family 1 have been found
to be generated from a marine, clay-rich and highly mature source rock.
The related source rock is older than Jurassic in age based on age-related
biomarker parameters. Maturity-related parameters (aliphatic biomarkers)
and non-biomarkers (like diamondoids) imply that a highly mature source
rock is responsible for generating Family 1 crude oils. These features t
very well to Palaeozoic Tanf Formation (Abba group) which is equivalent
to Lower Silurian Hot Shales found elsewhere in the Middle East and North
Africa. However, the Upper Cretaceous R’mah Formation and Shiranish
v