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Different serological cross-reactivity of Trypanosoma rangeliforms in Trypanosoma cruzi-infected patients sera

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10 pages
American Trypanosomiasis or Chagas disease is caused by Trypanosoma cruzi which currently infects approximately 16 million people in the Americas causing high morbidity and mortality. Diagnosis of American trypanosomiasis relies on serology, primarily using indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) with T. cruzi epimastigote forms. The closely related but nonpathogenic Trypanosoma rangeli has a sympatric distribution with T. cruzi and is carried by the same vectors. As a result false positives are frequently generated. This confounding factor leads to increased diagnostic test costs and where false positives are not caught, endangers human health due to the toxicity of the drugs used to treat Chagas disease. Results In the present study, serologic cross-reactivity between the two species was compared for the currently used epimastigote form and the more pathologically relevant trypomastigote form, using IFA and immunoblotting (IB) assays. Our results reveal an important decrease in cross reactivity when T. rangeli culture-derived trypomastigotes are used in IFA based diagnosis of Chagas disease. Western blot results using sera from both acute and chronic chagasic patients presenting with cardiac, indeterminate or digestive disease revealed similar, but not identical, antigenic profiles. Conclusion This is the first study addressing the serological cross-reactivity between distinct forms and strains of T. rangeli and T. cruzi using sera from distinct phases of the Chagasic infection. Several T. rangeli -specific proteins were detected, which may have potential as diagnostic tools.
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Parasites & Vectors
BioMedCentral
Open Access Research Different serological cross-reactivity ofTrypanosoma rangeliforms inTrypanosoma cruzi-infected patients sera 1 1,21 Milene H de Moraes, Alessandra A Guarneri, Fabiana P Girardi, 1 1,34 1 Juliana B Rodrigues, Iriane Eger, Kevin M Tyler, Mário Steindeland 1,4 Edmundo C Grisard*
1 Address: Departamentode Microbiologia e Parasitologia, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040900, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, 2 3 Brazil, InstitutoRené Rachou, Fiocruz, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil,Universidade do Vale do Itajaí, Itajaí, Santa Catarina, Brazil and 4 Biomedical Research Centre, School of Medicine, Health Policy and Practice, University of East Anglia, Norwich, Norfolk, UK
Email: Milene H de Moraes  mihmoraes@ig.com.br; Alessandra A Guarneri  guarneri@cpqrr.fiocruz.br; Fabiana P Girardi  fabianagirardi@ig.com.br; Juliana B Rodrigues  juliberka@gmail.com; Iriane Eger  iriane@univali.br; Kevin M Tyler  K.Tyler@uea.ac.uk; Mário Steindel  ccb1mst@ccb.ufsc.br; Edmundo C Grisard*  grisard@ccb.ufsc.br * Corresponding author
Published: 8 July 2008Received: 11 June 2008 Accepted: 8 July 2008 Parasites & Vectors2008,1:20 doi:10.1186/1756-3305-1-20 This article is available from: http://www.parasitesandvectors.com/content/1/1/20 © 2008 de Moraes et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract Background:American Trypanosomiasis or Chagas disease is caused byTrypanosoma cruziwhich currently infects approximately 16 million people in the Americas causing high morbidity and mortality. Diagnosis of American trypanosomiasis relies on serology, primarily using indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) withT. cruziepimastigote forms. The closely related but nonpathogenicTrypanosoma rangelihas a sympatric distribution withT. cruziand is carried by the same vectors. As a result false positives are frequently generated. This confounding factor leads to increased diagnostic test costs and where false positives are not caught, endangers human health due to the toxicity of the drugs used to treat Chagas disease. Results:In the present study, serologic cross-reactivity between the two species was compared for the currently used epimastigote form and the more pathologically relevant trypomastigote form, using IFA and immunoblotting (IB) assays. Our results reveal an important decrease in cross reactivity whenT. rangeliculture-derived trypomastigotes are used in IFA based diagnosis of Chagas disease. Western blot results using sera from both acute and chronic chagasic patients presenting with cardiac, indeterminate or digestive disease revealed similar, but not identical, antigenic profiles. Conclusion:This is the first study addressing the serological cross-reactivity between distinct forms and strains ofT. rangeliandT. cruziusing sera from distinct phases of the Chagasic infection. SeveralT. rangeli-specific proteins were detected, which may have potential as diagnostic tools.
Background Trypanosoma rangeliandTrypanosoma cruziare closely related and sympatric protozoan parasites that infect tri
atomine bugs, humans and a variety of sylvatic and domestic mammals in overlapping regions of both South and Central America [13].T. rangeliis nonpathogenic to
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