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Environmentally orientated research on solid household waste management in Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug-Ugra [Elektronische Ressource] / vorgelegt von Julia Kaazke

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183 pages
Environmentally orientated research on solid household waste management in Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug – Ugra vorgelegt von Julia Kaazke Diplom-Ingenieurin der Landschaftsplanung von der Fakultät VI Planen Bauen Umwelt der Technischen Universität Berlin zur Erlangung des akademischen Grades - Doktorin der Ingenieurwissenschaften - - Dr.-Ing. - genehmigte Dissertation Promotionsausschuss Vorsitzender: Prof. Dr. Volkmar Hartje Berichter: Prof. Dr. Dr. Berndt-Michael Wilke Berichterin: Prof. Dr. Susanne Rotter Tag der wissenschaftlichen Aussprache: 12. März 2010 Berlin 2010 D 83 Preface On the request of Prof. Elena Lapshina from the Ugra State University in Khanty-Mansiysk/ Russia, a meeting was conducted between her, Prof. Berndt-Michael Wilke, Technische Universität Berlin, and me, the author of this thesis, in Berlin in November 2004. Prof. Lapshina wanted to establish this contact in order to discuss ecological problems of the Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug - Ugra Region (KMAO), such as the increasing amount of solid household waste and the lack of waste management concepts which cumulatively result in environmental pollution. Prof. Wilke and I first visited the Ugra State University in Khanty-Mansiysk in February 2005. The aim of this visit was to strengthen the relationship between both universities and to discuss possibilities of a co-operation.
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Environmentally orientated research
on solid household waste management
in Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug – Ugra



vorgelegt von
Julia Kaazke
Diplom-Ingenieurin der Landschaftsplanung


von der
Fakultät VI Planen Bauen Umwelt
der Technischen Universität Berlin

zur Erlangung des akademischen Grades
- Doktorin der Ingenieurwissenschaften -
- Dr.-Ing. -


genehmigte Dissertation








Promotionsausschuss
Vorsitzender: Prof. Dr. Volkmar Hartje
Berichter: Prof. Dr. Dr. Berndt-Michael Wilke
Berichterin: Prof. Dr. Susanne Rotter


Tag der wissenschaftlichen Aussprache: 12. März 2010


Berlin 2010

D 83

Preface

On the request of Prof. Elena Lapshina from the Ugra State University in Khanty-Mansiysk/
Russia, a meeting was conducted between her, Prof. Berndt-Michael Wilke, Technische
Universität Berlin, and me, the author of this thesis, in Berlin in November 2004. Prof.
Lapshina wanted to establish this contact in order to discuss ecological problems of the
Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug - Ugra Region (KMAO), such as the increasing amount
of solid household waste and the lack of waste management concepts which cumulatively
result in environmental pollution.

Prof. Wilke and I first visited the Ugra State University in Khanty-Mansiysk in February 2005.
The aim of this visit was to strengthen the relationship between both universities and to
discuss possibilities of a co-operation. Based on the meetings with Prof. Lapshina and the
visit to Ugra, we decided to create a bilateral project through two dissertations. In these
dissertations, waste analyses were to be carried out to collect information on the quality and
quantity of the solid domestic waste occurring in the region. The Russian company Ugra
Service Ecology, which collects data of environmental parameters in Khanty-Mansiysk,
supported the project with a scientist, Ms Tanja Kaz’mina. Ms Kaz’mina wanted to write a
dissertation on waste management in the Ugra Region.
The title of my dissertation is “Environmentally orientated research on solid household waste
management in Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug - Ugra, Russia” and the main
emphasis is on testing EU tools in Siberia in regard to developing a waste management
concept. The topic of the dissertation by Ms Tanja Kaz’mina is the development and
implementation of national environmental legislation for waste management concepts in
Siberia. Waste analyses in the Ugra Region are the basis of both dissertations.

In December 2005, I visited the Ugra State University again to discuss the project in detail.
We, Ms Kaz’mina and I, decided to take two important towns of the region as model cities
and to start with the research there. Khanty-Mansiysk as the capital and Surgut as the
biggest town in the region were chosen.

From April 2006 until July 2008 waste analyses were carried out in Khanty-Mansiysk. The
waste analyses were subdivided into two series because a second company, the main
disposal company, “M DEP” in Khanty-Mansiysk, started to co-operate with us only in
Autumn 2007, and we thus had the opportunity to also analyse waste from other parts of the
city. The waste analyses in Surgut were completed in one year’s time, from Summer 2006 to
Spring 2007. Ms Kaz’mina was mainly responsible for the implementation of the waste
analyses in Surgut, while I principally did the analyses in Khanty-Mansiysk. Simultaneously,
necessary background data were collected such as environmental conditions, population
structure and its development, methods of waste collection, disposal methods, etc. In
December 2006, we were able to make contact to the local authorities and therefore, it was
possible to get more reliable data regarding the landfills, amount of waste in the past and
present as well as plans for future waste disposal.

In May 2008, during the “3rd International Environmental Forum” of Khanty-Mansiysk
Autonomous Okrug - Ugra in Nizhnevartovsk, a contact was made to the Perm State
Technical University. Ms Yuliya Anfimova and Ms Natalya Slyusar as employees of the
Environmental Protection Department from the Perm State Technical University also work on
I
the development of a waste management concept for KMAO. A co-operation among the
three universities was introduced in order to discuss the development of a waste
management concept for Ugra, to exchange information, as well as to build up synergy
effects.

Finally, I would like to mention that the implementation of the waste analyses was carried out
without any financial support. All equipment was donated by private companies. The
students of the Ugra State University and the employees of the waste disposal company in
Surgut worked on a voluntary basis.

Julia Kaazke
II
Acknowledgements
This dissertation is the result of a bilateral effort between the Ugra State University in Khanty-
Mansiysk, Russian Federation, and Technische Universität Berlin, Germany. During the
various phases of the dissertation I have been helped by a number of people both in the
Russian Federation and in Germany.

I am greatly indebted to Prof. Dr. Dr. Berndt-Michael Wilke and Prof. Dr. Vera Susanne
Rotter, for without them the study would not exist. They supported me in identifying and
implementing the topic as well as in accompanying and coaching me throughout the entire
time of the dissertation. Additionally, Prof. Dr. Dr. Berndt-Michael Wilke assisted me in
raising funds and in managing travel to the research area in the Russian Federation.

I also would like to thank the people in Khanty-Mansiysk and in Surgut, Russian Federation.
Let me especially mention Mr Yuri Reytov, Rector of the Ugra State University until 2008,
and Prof. Dr. Elena Lapshina, Head of the Department for Foreign Affairs of the Ugra State
University. They proposed the topic and supported the project in situ. I would like to express
thanks to Liliya Kasatkina and Natalya Popova for their help in translating all my interviews,
in supporting the waste analyses and their guidance and introduction to the Russian
mentality. My particular thanks go to all the students at Ugra State University who gave up
their leisure time in order to help me to implement the waste analyses as well as the
questionnaires.
Furthermore, I would like to say thank you very much to the people of the local
administrations in Khanty-Mansiysk and Surgut: Mr A.N. Kutscheravy, Mr Fedor Tomsha, Mr
Alexander Burov from the Department of Municipal Communal Service, as well as Mr S.V
Pikonow, Mrs Evgnya Kiseleva and Ms Tanja Kaz’mina from the Department of Nature
Protection. All these people took time away from their work duties for my interviews in order
to answer my numerous questions. Special thanks go to Mr J.A. Rybik, Mr S. A.
Vsevolodovich and Mr G. A. Romanovich as the directors of the landfill site in Khanty-
Mansyisk and as the directors of the company “Schistie Dom”. They always supported me
with information about waste disposal in Khanty-Mansiysk.

My special thanks to the Konrad Adenauer Foundation and the International Bureau of the
Federal Ministry of Education and Research for funding my dissertation and travels to
Khanty-Mansiysk and Surgut. Without the financial support of both institutions, an
implementation of the research would not have been possible.

I am also greatly indebted to Mr Bertram Zwisele (ARGUS GmbH, Germany) as he
introduced me to the correct implementation of waste analysis and always answered my
questions regarding implementation and evaluation of waste analyses with patience.

Let me thank Mr Peter Beigl (BOKU - University of Natural Resources and Applied Life
Sciences, Wie, Austria) and Prof. Montse Meneses (University Rovira I Virgili, Tarragona,
Spain) for the support in becoming familiar with the software programs for waste prognosis
and life cycle assessment.

I would also like to thank Mr Georg Hosoya and Mrs Karin Jakob-Deters from the Technische
Universität Berlin, Germany, as well as Mr Marcus Schrenker of the Humboldt Universität
III
Berlin, Germany. They introduced me to the evaluation of questionnaires and the field of
social sciences.

My special thanks to Ms Nadine Wersing, who proof-read my dissertation.

I also would like to mention and thank the “Kramer and Kramer” company which sponsored a
lot of equipment for the waste analyses in Khanty-Mansiysk and in Surgut.

Last but not least, I would like to express my gratitude to my family and friends. I would
especially like to mention my parents, who also sponsored equipment and advised me with
ideas for equipment for the waste analyses, and Anika Lerche who answered my questions
regarding mathematical issues patiently all the time. My sincere thanks to my friend Gerit
Kulessa for her special help with the continuous question “Why?”, which truly lead to improve
the content of my dissertation.

Thank you very much!
IV
Table of contents
PREFACE ________________________________________________________________ I
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ___________________________________________________ III
TABLE OF CONTENTS ____________________________________________________ V
LIST OF TABLES ________________________________________________________VIII
LIST OF FIGURES ________________________________________________________IX
ABBREVIATIONS_________________________________________________________ X
UNITS __________________________________________________________________ X
DEFINITION OF TERMS____________________________________________________XI
ABSTRACT_____________________________________________________________XIII
ZUSAMMENFASSUNG ___________________________________________________XIV
1. INTRODUCTION ______________________________________________________ 1
1.1. Aim of the dissertation ______________________________________________ 2
1.2. Outline of the dissertation ___________________________________________ 4
2. BACKGROUND INFORMATION _________________________________________ 5
2.1. Desk study of decision support tools for the preparation of integrated solid
waste management concepts _________________________________________ 5
2.1.1. Strategies for preparing integrated solid waste management concepts________________ 5
2.1.2. Tools for analysing amount and composition of solid household waste_______________ 11
2.1.3. Tools for public participation in an integrated solid waste management concept _______ 13
2.1.4. Tools for waste prognosis __________________________________________________ 15
2.1.5. Tools for Life Cycle Assessment of waste treatment _____________________________ 17
2.2. European legislation regarding waste management _____________________ 21
2.3. The Russian Federation ____________________________________________ 22
2.4. The research area - Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug - Ugra __________ 23
3. METHODOLOGY ____________________________________________________ 26
3.1. Terminology and scope of the dissertation ____________________________ 26
V
3.2. Preparation of an integrated waste management concept _________________ 26
3.3. Analysis of solid household waste ____________________________________ 29
3.4. Public participation through questionnaires ____________________________ 36
3.5. Prognosis of solid household waste___________________________________ 40
3.6. Proposed scenarios for solid household waste treatments ________________ 42
3.7. Environmental evaluation of waste treatment scenarios by Life Cycle
Assessment _______________________________________________________ 44
4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION ___________________________________________ 47
4.1. Waste analysis ____________________________________________________ 47
4.1.1. Background information and identification of influencing factors for waste disposal
systems in Khanty-Mansiysk and Surgut ______________________________________ 47
4.1.2. Quantification of waste amount in Khanty-Mansiysk and Surgut ____________________ 50
4.1.3. Composition of waste in Khanty-Mansiysk and Surgut____________________________ 52
4.1.4. Discussion of waste analyses data ___________________________________________ 55
4.2. Public participation_________________________________________________ 63
4.2.1. Results of questionnaires in Khanty-Mansiysk __________________________________ 63
4.2.2. Discussion of questionnaire results___________________________________________ 67
4.3. Waste prognosis ___________________________________________________ 69
4.3.1. Forecasting waste amount in Khanty-Mansiysk and Surgut________________________ 69
4.3.2. Forecasting waste composition in Khanty-Mansiysk and Surgut ____________________ 70
4.3.3. Sensitivity analysis _______________________________________________________ 73
4.3.4. Discussion of waste prognosis results ________________________________________ 77
4.4. Environmental assessment of scenarios _______________________________ 79
4.4.1. Results of LCA-IWM ______________________________________________________ 79
4.4.2. Sensitivity analysis _______________________________________________________ 81
4.4.3. Discussion of LCA results __________________________________________________ 86
5. APPLICABILITY OF DECISION SUPPORT TOOLS__________________________ 90
5.1. Analysis of solid household waste ____________________________________ 90
5.1.1. Definition of waste ________________________________________________________ 91
5.1.2. Sampling type ___________________________________________________________ 91
5.1.3. Sampling level and sampling unit ____________________________________________ 91
5.1.4. Sampling size ___________________________________________________________ 94
5.1.5. Duration and time period for recurrence of waste analyses ________________________ 95
5.1.6. Sample preparation and sorting _____________________________________________ 95
5.1.7. Waste catalogue _________________________________________________________ 96
5.1.8. Evaluation of waste analyses and presentation of results _________________________ 97
5.1.9. Equipment and costs for waste analyses ______________________________________ 97
5.1.10. Applicability and recommendation for using SWA-Tool in Siberian regions __________ 102
VI
5.2. Questionnaires___________________________________________________ 103
5.2.1. Types of questions ______________________________________________________ 103
5.2.2. Types of questionnaire ___________________________________________________ 104
5.2.3. Types of implementation of questioning ______________________________________ 104
5.2.4. Types of sampling_______________________________________________________ 105
5.2.5. Sampling sizes _________________________________________________________ 106
5.2.6. Description and evaluation of results ________________________________________ 106
5.2.7. Applicability and recommendation for application of questionnaires in Siberian regions_ 106
5.3. Waste prognosis implementation ___________________________________ 108
5.3.1. Reliability and validity of tools for prognosis of waste amount _____________________ 108
5.3.2. Reliability and validity of tools for prognosis of waste composition _________________ 111
5.3.3. Time horizon of waste prognosis ___________________________________________ 111
5.3.4. Importance of waste prognosis as a sustainable indicator in the international context __ 112
5.3.5. Applicability and recommendation for using waste prognosis tools for Siberian regions_ 112
5.4. Life Cycle Assessment ____________________________________________ 114
5.4.1. Data background for LCI and LCIA within the LCA-IWM _________________________ 114
5.4.2. Default data and data required by the user ___________________________________ 115
5.4.3. Target group ___________________________________________________________ 116
5.4.4. Applicability of the manual and deliverable reports as well as validity of the results of
LCA-IWM______________________________________________________________ 116
5.4.5. Applicability and recommendation for an application of LCA-IWM__________________ 117
5.5. Guideline for preparing an integrated waste management concept________ 120
5.5.1. Aim __________________________________________________________________ 120
5.5.2. Level of implementation __________________________________________________ 120
5.5.3. Type and definition of waste _______________________________________________ 121
5.5.4. General outline _________________________________________________________ 121
5.5.5. Target group and basis of legislation ________________________________________ 122
5.5.6. Consideration of local conditions ___________________________________________ 123
5.5.7. Applicability and recommendation for using the guidance note by the EC for the
Siberian region _________________________________________________________ 123
6. CONCLUSIONS ____________________________________________________ 125
APPENDIX - CHAPTER 2 BACKGROUND INFORMATION _______________________A-1
APPENDIX - CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY ___________________________________A-9
APPENDIX - CHAPTER 4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION____________________ ZIP FILE
APPENDIX - CHAPTER 5 APPLICABILITY OF DECISION SUPPORT TOOLS ______A-29
REFERENCES __________________________________________________________R-1

VII
List of Tables

Table 2-1: Overview of implementation of work steps as recommended by the manuals by
intergovernmental organisations ____________________________________ 10
Table 2-2: Overview of tools for analysis of waste composition and amount on international
level __________________________________________________________ 11
Table 2-3: List of relevant LCA software tools for assessment of waste management systems
according to IEGLCA (Thomas, 2009, pers. comm.) _____________________ 20
Table 3-1: Work steps for a waste management concept and main tools of their
implementation __________________________________________________ 28
Table 3-2: Distribution of residential structure in Khanty-Mansiysk (Tomsha, 2007, pers.
comm.) ________________________________________________________ 31
Table 3-3: Distribution of residential structure in Surgut (Kiseleva, 2008, pers. comm.) ___ 31
Table 3-4: Waste categories and examples used in the sorting analysis _______________ 34
Table 3-5: Overview of starting point of annual statistical evaluation __________________ 35
Table 3-6: Overview and summary of all scenarios _______________________________ 43
Table 4-1: Waste amount in Khanty-Mansiysk and Surgut. Errors indicate C.I. on a 90%
-1 -1confidence level [kg c d ]. ________________________________________ 51
Table 4-2: Extrapolation of annual waste amounts in Khanty-Mansiysk________________ 57
Table 4-3: Extrapolation of annual waste amounts in Surgut ________________________ 58
Table 4-4: Overview of statistical accuracy of annual results in Surgut ________________ 60
Table 4-5: Overview of statistical accuracy of annual results in Khanty-Mansiysk ________ 60
Table 4-6: Annual proportions of organics (kitchen) and organics (garden) in Khanty-
Mansiysk and Surgut [w/w %]_______________________________________ 62
2Table 4-7: Results of c -tests and correlation factor _______________________________ 66
Table 4-8: Basis data for the prognosis of waste amount___________________________ 69
Table 4-9: Sensitivity of annual amounts and prognosis based on social data in Khanty-
Mansiysk in 2012 ________________________________________________ 74
Table 4-10: Sensitivity analysis regarding different annual amounts based on 290,200
inhabitants in Surgut______________________________________________ 75
Table 4-11: Subdivision of the overall results of each impact category into single results of
impacts of “temporary storage”, “collection and transport” and “treatment plants”
[World Inhabitant Equivalents] ______________________________________ 81
Table 5-1: Advantages and disadvantages of SWA-Tool and ASTMI regarding sampling level
______________________________________________________________ 93
Table 5-2: Primary waste categories by ASTMI and SWA-Tool ______________________ 96
Table 5-3: Summary of commonalities and differences between ASTMI and SWA-Tool
(based on Martinho et al., 2008; Dahlén and Lagerkvist, 2008)_____________ 99
Table 5-4: Waste prognosis formulas _________________________________________ 110
Table 5-5: Summary of advantages and disadvantages of LCA-IWM regarding its application
in Siberia______________________________________________________ 118

VIII