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Iconography of Lithuanian architecture in the second part of the XIX century – in the first part of the XX century: art documentary aspect ; Lietuvos architektūros ikonografija XIX a. II pusėje - XX a. I pusėje: dailės dokumentiškumo aspektas

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VYTAUTAS MAGNUS UNIVERSITY Rūta Statulevičiūt÷Kaučikien÷ ICONOGRAPHY OF LITHUANIAN ARCHITECTURE IN THE SECOND PART OF THE XIX CENTURY – IN THE FIRST PART OF THE XX CENTURY: ART DOCUMENTARY ASPECT Summary of doctoral dissertation Humanities, Arts Criticism (03 H) Kaunas, 2008 The doctoral dissertation worked out through 20042008 at Vytautas Magnus University. Scientific supervisor: prof. habil. dr. Vytautas Levandauskas (Vytautas Magnus University, Humanities, Arts Criticism – 03 H) Council of defence of the doctoral dissertation: Chairman: habil. dr. Alg÷ Jankevičien÷ (Kaunas Technical University, Humanities, Arts Criticism – 03 H) Members: doc. dr. Dalia Klajumien÷ (Vilnius Academy of Fine Arts, Humanities, Arts Criticism – 03 H) doc. dr. Laima Laučkait÷ (Culture, Philosophy and Art Institute, Humanities, Arts Criticism – 03 H) doc. dr. Aušrin÷ Slavinskien÷ (Vytautas Magnus University, Humanities, Arts Criticism – 03 H) doc. dr. Laima Šinkūnait÷ (Vytautas Magnus University, Humanities, Arts Criticism – 03 H) Opponents: habil. dr. Rūta Janonien÷ (Vilnius Academy of Fine Arts, Humanities, Arts Criticism – 03 H) prof. habil. dr.
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VYTAUTAS MAGNUS UNIVERSITY              Rūta Statulevičiūt÷Kaučikien÷  ICONOGRAPHY OF LITHUANIAN ARCHITECTURE IN THE SECOND PART OF THE XIX CENTURY – IN THE FIRST PART OF THE XX CENTURY: ART DOCUMENTARY ASPECT        Summary of doctoral dissertation Humanities, Arts Criticism (03 H)                Kaunas, 2008
The doctoral dissertation worked out through 20042008 at Vytautas Magnus University.    Scientific supervisor:prof. habil. dr. Vytautas Levandauskas Magnus University, (Vytautas Humanities, Arts Criticism – 03 H)    Council of defence of the doctoral dissertation:  Chairman:  habil. dr. Alg÷ Jankevičien÷(Kaunas Technical University, Humanities, Arts Criticism – 03 H)  Members: doc. dr. Dalia Klajumien÷(Vilnius Academy of Fine Arts, Humanities, Arts Criticism – 03 H) doc. dr. Laima Laučkait÷ Arts , Philosophy and Art Institute, Humanities (Culture, Criticism – 03 H) doc. dr. Aušrin÷ Slavinskien÷ (Vytautas Magnus University, Humanities, Arts Criticism – 03 H) doc. dr. Laima Šinkūnait÷(Vytautas Magnus University, Humanities, Arts Criticism – 03 H)  Opponents: habil. dr. Rūta Janonien÷(Vilnius Academy of Fine Arts, Humanities, Arts Criticism – 03 H) prof. habil. dr. Jurgis Vanagas (Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Humanities, Arts Criticism 03 H)    The official defence of the dissertation will be held at a public meeting of the Council of Arts Criticism Scientific Field in the Vytautas Magnus University arts gallery “101” in Laisv÷s avenue No. 53101, at 10 a.m. on December 12, 2008.  Adress: K. Donelaičio St. 58, Kaunas, LT – 44248, Lithuania Phone: (8 37) 323599; fax: (8 37) 203858    The summary of the doctoral dissertation was distributed on November , 2008.   The dissertation is available at the National M. Ma žvydas library, library of Vytautas Magnus University and library of the Kaunas Technical University.       
 
 
VYTAUTO DIDŽIOJO UNIVERSITETAS               Rūta Statulevičiūt÷Kaučikien÷  LIETUVOS ARCHITEKTŪROS IKONOGRAFIJA XIX a. II pus÷je  XX a. I pus÷je: DAILöS DOKUMENTIŠKUMO ASPEKTAS       Daktaro disertacijos santrauka Humanitariniai mokslai, menotyra (03 H)                 Kaunas, 2008
Disertacija rengta 20042008 metais Vytauto Didžiojo universitete    Mokslinis vadovas:prof. habil. dr. Vytautas Levandauskas (Vytauto Didžiojo universitetas, humanitariniai mokslai, menotyra – 03 H)    Disertacija ginama Vytauto Didžiojo universiteto Menotyros mokslo krypties taryboje:  Pirminink÷  habil. dr. Alg÷ Jankevičien÷ technologijos universitetas, humanitariniai (Kauno mokslai, menotyra – 03 H)  Nariai:  doc. dr. Dalia Klajumien÷ dail÷s akademija, humanitariniai mokslai, (Vilniaus menotyra – 03 H) doc. dr. Laima Laučkait÷ (Kultūros, filosofijos ir meno institutas, humanita riniai mokslai, menotyra – 03 H) doc. dr. Aušrin÷ Slavinskien÷(Vytauto Didžiojo universitetas, humanitariniai mokslai, menotyra – 03 H) doc. dr. Laima Šinkūnait÷ Didžiojo universitetas, humanitariniai mokslai, (Vytauto menotyra – 03 H)  Oponentai: habil. dr. Rūta Janonien÷(Vilniaus dail÷s akademija, humanitariniai mokslai, menotyra – H03) prof. habil. dr. Jurgis Vanagas Gedimino technikos universitetas, (Vilniaus humanitariniai mokslai, menotyra – H03)    Disertacija bus ginama viešame Menotyros mokslo krypt ies tarybos pos÷dyje 2008 m. gruodžio m÷n. 12 d. 10 val. Vytauto Didžiojo universiteto menų galerijoje „101“.  Adresas: Laisv÷s al. 53101, LT – 44309, Kaunas, Lietuva    Disertacijos santrauka išsiuntin÷ta 2008 m. lapkričio m÷n. d.   Disertaciją galima peržiūr÷ti Vytauto Didžiojo universiteto, Kauno technologijos universiteto ir Lietuvos nacionalin÷je M. Mažvydo bibliotekose        
 
INTRODUCTION   The representation of the city emerged together with it. The image of the city changed from symbol to detail of the background and from docume nt to architectural fantasies. It symbolized the divine order, Jerusalem that had come “from Heaven of God” (Rev 1026). The city was reflected diagrammatically and unified dur ing the Middle Ages. Painters of the Renaissance pictured the city more often than their predecessors. They composed fictitious and sometimes real views of cities in the backgrounds of paintings following the demands of the new optic. Gradually views of the townscapes lost symbolic meaning and assumed more independent and authentic features. The cognitive meaning was given to cityscapes during the XVIII century; they became the means of education and science. Despi te a new mission, fantastic details appeared in architecture views and in retrospective visions of the city and artistic reconstructions.  Architectural views and townscapes appeared in the Lithuanian painting of the XVIXVII centuries. Mainly there were diagrammatic and symbo lic small panoramas, backgrounds of portraits, elements of the devotional views. New quality veduta reached Lithuania in the end of the XVIII century and became popular during the XIX century, when every painter tried to touch the theme of Vilnius or another old town of Lithuani a. Photography reached Lithuania in the fifth decade of the XIX century and occupied archit ecture iconography till the end of the century. Painted, drawn and pressed townscapes and views of buildings lost their documentary value and resigned to photoiconoraphy.  Theboejtcof this paper is the Lithuanian architecture iconography of the second part of the XIX century – the first part of the XX century. Iconography is understood as the whole of architectural views created by graphic and painting techniques. Views of the sites, panoramas with architecture, townscapes, views of separate buildings and their groups and artistic reconstructions are attributed to this group. A lot of architectural views were created during the second part of the XIX century and first part of the XX century, therefore, minor forms architecture and views of folk architecture are not included and analyzed in this paper.  Theobjectiveof the research is to identify a distinction and a documentary value of the Lithuanian architecture iconography created in the second part of the XIX century and first part of the XX century and the influence of photoiconoraphy to it; to find the continuity of the West Europe iconographic views traditions and adaptation s in the Lithuanian art of the researched period.  Tasks of the research: 1. to investigate and systematise the architecture iconography, kept in funds of museums and libraries of Lithuania; to collect and summarise information publicised in press and Internet.
 
2. to exclude the most important aspects of the creatio n of iconographic views in the West Europe in the XVIIIXIX centuries. 3. to analyze the first manifestation of veduta in the Lithuanian art in the end of the XVIII century (Pranciškus Smuglevičius); 4. documentary of architecture iconography in the Lithuanian art of theto explore the first part of the XIX century (Juozapas Peška, Pietro de Rossis, Zygmuntas Vogelis and pupils of Vilnius art school); 5. to find out the documentary value of the architecture iconography of the second part of the XIX century and first part of the XX century ; its value and place in the Lithuanian art of the researched period; 6.  iconography in the itectureto explore the influence of photography to the arch Lithuanian art of the second part of the XIX century and first part of the XX century; 7. to evaluate the Lithuanian architecture iconography of the second part of the XIX century and first part of the XX century in the context of the West Europe art. 8. to find out the documentary value of the imaginative iconography of architecture in the Lithuanian art of the second part of the XIX ce ntury and first part of the XX century.  Territorial borderlines of analysis. The Lithuanian architecture views in the second part of the XIX century – the first part of the XX century are researched in this paper. The research encompasses many Lithuanian towns and citie s in former Vilnius and Kaunas gubernatorials and in the territory of the interwar Republic of Lithuania. Context of the analysis. The Lithuanian architecture iconography in the second part of XIX century – the first part of the XX century is e valuated in the context of the West Europe (France, Italy and Czech), neighboring the Baltic S ea states (Poland and Latvia) and Belarus. Chronologic contexts encompass a period from the end of the XVIII century to the end of the XIX century. This period signifies first manifestati ons of veduta and the prosperity of the architectural views in Lithuania. Chronological borders of the analysis. The period of the analysis – the second part of the XIX century – the second part of the XX century  encompasses late manifestations of the Lithuanian iconography art, the inter synthesis of features, the interaction of the iconographic art and photography and late transformations of the architecture iconography. In this research the second part of the XIX century covers the seventh – tenth decades of the century. The first part of the XX century ends with the fifth decade. This segment of the time was not selected incidentally. First photographs appeared in Lithuania in the forth decade of the XIX century. In the autumn 1839 photographs of the Verkiai palace we re taken. Vilnius city was started to be
photographed around 1860. The most important counterf ort was in 1863, when Juozapas Čechavičius started his photographic activity. In 1881 he started to photograph and to publish views of Vilnius and its vicinities. Gradually phot ography became available not only for professionals but also for people at large. Artists began to use photography as a subsidiary branch of art to record architecture: they photographed buildings and later repainted them. Exact and reliable architecture views were created when photography became popular. Drawn and painted architecture iconography lost progressively its topicality and the monopoly of the architecture fixation. Despite the competition w ith photography, individual artists created iconographic views till the fifth decade of the XX century. Thought it should be noted that there were not created any phenomenally valuable iconograp hic works after the death of the last architecture drawer Juozapas Kamarauskas after the II World war. All drawn architecture views were outrivaled by photography in the viewpoint of documentary. Naturally, several artists (Vytautas Gabriūnas, Arūnas Paslaitis, etc.) continued to create architecture views but these works were an activity representing individual creators’ attitudes towards culture and history heritage. The iconographic value of their works pale beside q uickly improving and easy applicable possibilities of the photography. The perspective of the time and history is important too when documentary value is judged. Some buildings, reflected in paintings and pictures in the first part of the XX century were destroyed and their exterior changed. Therefore, works which recorded not yet demolished buildings or exceptional city silhouette have bigger documentary value than created after WW II. Last mentioned shows the same views of architecture as photography and professionally made outlines, which are unambiguous ly objective sources. That is why architecture iconography, created in the second part of the XX century, is not so valuable as earlier in terms of documentary. The research is divided in three stages according t o dominant features of vedutta and iconographic views. The prime creators represent each of them: 1.  –the end of the XVIII century first manifestations of – the beginning of the XIX century vedutta in the Lithuanian art s Smuglevičius, Pietro de Rossi, Juozapa (Pranciškus Peška); 2. (27 decades) – populiarity and maturity of the vedutta inthe first part of the XIX century the Lithuanian art Peška, (Vincentas Dmachauskas, Napoleonas Orda, Juozapas Kanutas Ruseckas, Ivanas Trutnevas and Vilnius art shool); 3. the second part of the XIX century – the first part of the XX century – late architecture iconography and imaginative reconstructions(Gerardas Bagdonavičius, Mečislovas Bulaka, Jonas Buračas, Mstislavas Dobužinskis, Jurg is Hoppenas, Bronislavas Jamontas, Pranciškus Jurjevičius, Petras and Rimtas Kalpokai, Juozapas Kamarauskas, Juozapas Marševskis, Napoleonas Orda, Arkadijus Pressas, Alfredas Römeris ir Sofija
 
Saltonait÷Römerien÷, Kajetonas Skl÷rius, Vincentas Slendzinskis, Kazys Šimonis, Adomas Varnas, etc.). The structure of the paperis tightly related to the objective of the paper and stages of the research enumerated above. Three sections of the paper are distinguished: 1. origins (the end of the XVIII century and beginning of the XIX century) and maturity (the first part of the XIX century) of veduta in the Lithuanian art; 2. Lithuanian architecture iconography (the second part of the XIX century and firstlate part of the XX century). Views drawn from nature are analyzed; 3. Lithuanian architecture iconography (the second part of the XIX century and firstlate part of the XX century). Imaginative reconstructions and retrospective views are analyzed. While researching the documentary of iconography, photography was used as a subsidiary revise instrument. It provided a unique possibility to determine documentary value of architectural images that were created by painters. When comparing graphic and painting images with photographs, it is easier to evaluate creators’ fantasies and the relation of reality in works and to recognize imaginative work elements. While choosing photographs for iconographic research one paid attention to artistic expression means used in them (perspective, chiaroscuro contrasts) and view documentary that depends on them directly.  The performed research supplements Lithuanian archit ectural iconographic researches of the second part of the XIX century and first part o f the XX century. In known monographs, albums and publications one presents and analyzes wo rks of separate authors, iconography of towns and monumental buildings. However, up to now there has been no works in which they tried to summarize the features and peculiarities of Lithuanian architectural iconography of the second half of the XIX century and first half of th e XX century, and present contextual evaluations. Not much has been said about the relat ion of photographs and art in architectural iconography. Which one influenced which? How this i nfluence was displayed? There are no researches declared where one would have analyzed a rchitectural iconography of imaginative nature. Whether this tendency appeared just in late iconography or it developed from the beginning of veduta? What is the relation of documentary and fantasy in iconographic works of the period under research? Are these architectural images a reliable source? How one should evaluate them? In the work one tries to answer these questions and present objective evaluations of the phenomena.  Presented research is relevant to Lithuanian studi es of art and culture by presenting new facts, qualitative and quantitative evaluations of Lithuanian architectural iconography of the second part of the XIX century and first part of th e XX century. Applied work nature is important. In the dissertation presented systematized information can be applied while  
performing architectural researches, creating and evaluating conceptions of buildings and their complex restoration or reconstruction, and restorati on projects. In this work presented evaluations of architectural iconography of the sec ond part of the XIX century and first part of the XX century will help to look more objectively into architectural images of the period in the aspect of documentary and to pay attention to their weak sides. Arguments among specialists related to concrete iconographic information of arc hitectural object evidence that research of such nature was/is necessary. The importance of icon ographic material while creating reconstruction projects is undoubted. For instance, while creating reconstruction conceptions of Vilnius High Castle Western Tower, so called Royal Palace or other big object – Trakai island castle one appealed to old original iconography, analyzed retrospective imaginative creations, and artistic reconstructive suggestions. In the XXI cen tury big reconstruction projects that were performed they revealed that the existence of certai n iconographic materials was often understood as undoubted indicator of its reliability. However, if documentary and at the same time the reliability of the source become unquestion able, antiauthentic and retrospective precedents of illusionary architecture can be created (for instance, Vilnius Bernardinai complex reconstruction project, so called reconstruction of Royal Palace). Hence, it is important not just know where and what iconographic sources are saved but also to understand the nature and tendencies of architectural iconography of a certain period. Sources.The main objects that are analyzed in the work areiconographic sourcesand they are saved in funds of Lithuanian museums and archives. While gathering information for the research, in the funds about 700 original works were examined, pictures were taken of 155 of them and used for illustration work. These are of the second part of the XIX century and first part of the XX century architectural images that we re created using different techniques: graphics, painting, lithography, and impresses in press. In the albums, selections and press more than 200 published iconographic works were researched. While performing iconographic research one used IIII volumes of Lithuanian Architectural History, literature and sources about different architectural monuments. One also used postcard albums of Kaunas, Klaip÷da, Šilut÷ and Vilnius that were issued by Lithuanian National Museum, a set of old photographs “Vilnius castle in old photographs”, published J. Čechavicius, S. F. Fleur y and J. BulhakAS photographs, other reproductions of art works and photographs that wer e printed in various editions and press. Iconographic material and maps of state culture heritage commissions that are published online were used. The important source of iconographic mater ial is galleries online and museums of foreign countries online. One of the mentioned is “ Olga’s Gallery” where painters’ biographies and reproductions of works are presented.  Visual information is systematized using MS Excel p rogram. Data is entered into the following fields: author, name of the work, date, te chnique, nature (documentary, artistry,  
imagination), object (interior, small architecture, b uilding, buildings group, town fragment, town), object number (does not apply to town fragment and town), view point (low, eyelevel, topoview), usage of staffage, originality (original painting, compilation, copy). Chosen criteria determine documentary view is understood as thataccurate conveyance of an architectural view. Creations where stylistic expression and demonstration of technique dominate conditionally are called “artistic”. Data that is systematized in a database can be grouped according to any chosen criteria (for instance, date or works of certain author can be grouped). According to the data that was systematized in the database, features of iconographic artworks were summarized, determined tendencies of that period of time and cartogram was created.  Other group of researched sources ispublications in old press.In order to reveal heritage protection discourse that was developed in the second part of the XIX century and first part of the XX century and rhetoric in press and de termine its influence on the creation of iconographic images, one analyzed articles of Jonas Basanavičius, Vladimiras Dubeneckis, Paulius Galaun÷, Justinas Vienožinskis, Jonas VabalasGudaitis and other authors that were published in the press of those times. They reveal singlemindedly formed attitude to old architecture, and encourage not just to be interested in the past of own nation, but also to protect it and to document it. Illegal buildings and reconstructions are criticized. It is noticeable that art analysts valued not documentary of architectural panoramas and buildings, but conveyance of mood and often confined stating that “object of paintings or drawings remained unchanged”. Literature.  development in Western the first part of the dissertation when veduta In Europe was discussed, refer to publications of fore ign authors. Ernest Theodore DeWald in his bookItalian Painting 12001600, properly analyzes painting features of painters of Italian regions and popular subjects of the 13th17thDutch landscapes are presented in thecentury. Examples of album “VWXYZ[\]^_ `^\aZW] ХVII вd]Y”. In Western Europe art the development of landscape and townscape is coherently discussed in Norbert Wo lf bookLandscape Paintingand Jane Turner’sThe Dictionary of Art”.Articles “Landscape Painting” and “Townscape” are valuable by the factual information, introduced artist who formed the genre and indicated stage works. Other important information source is Kenneth Clark bookLandscape into Artand the third volume of Modern PainterscalledOf Many Thingsof John Ruskin. In the first book the author analyzes the main aspects of the landscape (symbolic, documentary, fantastic, utopian (ideal) and natural landscape) that were presented in the works of pain ters of the 16th19th centuries. K. Clark analyzes not just pure landscape genre but also its early manifestation. As an equivalent part of landscapes, townscapes are discussed and examples ar e given. Referring to the origin of the landscape genre reasons determined by K. Clark, the birth conditions of landscape in Lithuanian art are analyzed. In monograph of J. Ruskin, the lan dscape is analyzed thoroughly; essential tendencies and features are distinguished. The landscape genre is rather widely discussed together 
with the stages of its developments (classical, medi eval and contemporary (modern)). While writing this work one refers to J. Ruskin’s division of a landscape into 1) detailed, mimetic Dutch landscapes and 2) creatively improvised Italian panoramas.  While researching the development of architectural landscape in Lithuanian art, V. Dr÷ma’s monograph “Lost Vilnius” is useful not ju st by its largely published iconographic sources, but also by the coherently reconstructed view of the old town and presented contextual information. This fundamental work was one of the most important while reviewing the early architectural iconography of Lithuania and essential support while researching the views of Vilnius city. Other, the only one monograph of landscape (also of architectural) that introduces painting is calledLandscape in Lithuanian Paintingby Augustinas Savickas. In the book he presents overview of chronological genre development and concise creative analysis of the most famous Lithuanian landscaper painters largely illust rated by examples. It is noticeable that A. Savickas evaluates in a negative way documentary of landscapes and townscapes and emphasizes the importance of mood, artistry and style originality. For the performed research it is very important Vytautas Levandauskas and Renata Vaič ekonyt÷Kepežinskien÷’s monograph “Napoleon Orda: Architectural Landscapes of Old Lithuania” that was published in 2006. In the chapter of this book “Life and creation” the author s present the overview of historical and cultural environment of the XIX century and beginnin g of iconographic creation in Lithuania. While summarizing the reasons of veduta creation and iconographic architectural images in Lithuania, one refers to information presented in this monograph about the architectural images published in France in XIX century and architectural documentation tendencies of this period. New evaluations of old iconography are presented in Ruta Janonien÷’s article “Iconographic Sources of Vilnius Lower Castle of 16th19thIn the publication one critically looks atCenturies”. P. Smulgevicius’ series of Vilnius views and raises doubtful documentary aspects of these works. One also widely discusses supposed P. de Rossi and P. Smuglevicius’ copies of paintings and “objectivity” of these reproductions. Undoubtedly important are monographs and articles about creation of separate painters. In previously mention ed editions they distinguished individual features of creators, characteristic subjects of the second part of the XIX century and first part of the XX century; the attention is paid to the stylistic, thematic and semantic analysis of the works. This information was referred to when systematizing a nd summing up the features of architectural iconography of the researched period and documentary research was supplemented by it.  Landscape painting features of romanticism periods are presented in William Vaugham bookRomanticism and Art, N. WolfRomanticism, in a set of articles “European Art: Lithuanian Variants” that were published in R. Janonien÷’sArt Features of Lithuanian Romanticism and in articles of Helmutas Sabasevicius “Lithuanian Art plots of the XIX century”. According to the
 
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