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Kinematically complete study on electron impact ionisation of aligned hydrogen molecules [Elektronische Ressource] / presented by Arne Senftleben

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153 pages
DissertationHildesheimsubmittedArnetothethepresenComysbinedexamination:FofacultiesNaturalforbtheen,NaturalornSciencesofandforfordegreeMathematicsDoofoftheSciencesRuptederto-CarolayUnivSenftlebersitMPhybofinHeidelbDateerg,oralGerman28.10.2009yhimReferees:Dr.studyDr.onhelectronWProf.ionisationJoacofUllricalignedProf.hAndreasydrogenolf200eV+22200eV+22tetentheWpas-derserstomolek?lenimexistingSto?uclearmitSeite.hexpofonevedhhionisationtialElektronentheexpauferimenhere,tellelectronsunatersucprohderivt.oZumionisa-erstenereMalemittedkexponnwn.tetinctbargumeneiwdieserElektronenst??enReaktionMolek?leneinwumfassenderspatiallySatzdieservinollst?ndigordierenoftiellerasWir-uclearhnittefragmen(FDCS)ofausgericgemessenawanalysis.erden.theDabforei,bdistributionsestimmetenofwireredieAusricrandomhttungthederobtained,hseobservanhanddervEmissionsricAheinentungderderWithinFpresenragmenionisationtehdesyImhendenasIonst.hrstdemeeigendierentlic(FDCS)henforSto?.
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Dissertation
Hildesheim
submitted
Arne
to
the
the
presen
Com
ys
bined
examination:
F
of
aculties
Natural
for
b
the
en,
Natural
orn
Sciences
of
and
for
for
degree
Mathematics
Do
of
of
the
Sciences
Rup
ted
erto-Carola
y
Univ
Senftleb
ersit
MPh
y
b
of
in
Heidelb
Date
erg,
oral
German
28.10.2009
yhim

Referees:

Dr.
study
Dr.
on
h
electron
W

Prof.
ionisation
Joac
of
Ullric
aligned
Prof.
h
Andreas
ydrogen
olf
200eV
+
2
2
200eV
+
2
2

teten
the
W
p
as-
der
serstomolek?len

im
existing
Sto?
uclear
mit
Seite.
h
exp

of
on
e
v
ed
h
hionisation
tial
Elektronen
the
exp
auf
erimen
here,
tell
electrons
un
a
tersuc
pro
h
deriv
t.
o
Zum
ionisa-
ersten
ere
Mal
emitted
k
exp
onn
wn.
te
tinct
b
argumen
ei
w
dieser
Elektronenst??en
Reaktion
Molek?len
ein
w
umfassender
spatially
Satz
dieser
v
in
ollst?ndig
or
dieren
of
tieller
as
Wir-


uclear
hnitte
fragmen
(FDCS)
of
ausgeric
gemessen
a
w
analysis.
erden.
the
Dab
for
ei
,
b
distributions
estimm
e
ten
of
wir
ere
die

Ausric
random
h
t
tung
the
der
obtained,


hse
observ
anhand

der
v
Emissionsric
A
h
einen
tung
der
der
Within
F
presen
ragmen
ionisation
te
h
des
y

Im
henden
as
Ions


t.
h
rst
dem
e
eigen
dieren
tlic
(FDCS)
hen
for
Sto?.
on
Das
The
hierb
in
ei
w
en
from
tstehende
emission
Proton
disso
wurde
residual
k
t
oinziden
electrons
t
reaction
mit

den
or
b
in
eiden
ground
freien

Elektronen

des
A
Endzustandes
e
detektiert.
frame
Dazu
Auger
v
disso
erw
of
endeten
Earlier
wir

ein
ts
eigens

mo
rev
di-
far
ziertes
urthermore,
Reaktionsmikrosk
t,
op

und
o
ausgefeilte
alues
Ausw
in
ertungsmetho
w
den.
viding
Bei
in
der
discussion
direkten
of
Ionisation
b
in
atomic
den
in
Grundzustand
Dynamik
v
on
on
mit
H
tomen
Einfac
der
die
und
k
auf
onn
anderen
ten

b
the
estehende
ork
Mo
ted

single
hn
of
ungen
aligned
?b
ydrogen
er-
b
pr?ft
Arb
w
Rahmen
erden.
Zusammenfassung

w
h
studied
wurde
a
die

Wink
erimen
elv
F
erteilung
the
v
time,
on

Auger-Elektronen,
set
die
fully
durc
tial
h

dissoziativ
w
e
obtained
Autoionisation
this
v

on
a
H
target.
wurde

en
the
tstehen,
tern
gemessen.
axis
F
as
r?here
ed
Ergebnisse
the
eit
t
ion.
of
fore,

protonic

t
the
as
H
in
with
kinematisc
There-
h
a
un
fragmen
v
w
ollst?ndiger

Exp

erimen
the
te
w
wurden
nal-state
b
using
est?tigt,

ab

er
and
die
data
FDCS
F
zeigen

Strukturen,
tion
die
to
bisher

un
state,
b

ek

ann
aligned
t
w
w
tested.
aren.
dditionally
Dar?b
w
er
observ
hinaus

wurden
angular
dieren
of
tielle
electrons
Wirkungsquersc
through
hnitte

f?r
autoionisation
zuf?llige
H
Ausric
.
h
ndings
tung
kine-
b

ei
erimen
zw
w
ei
repro
v
but
ersc
FDCS
hiedenen
eal
W
so
erten
unkno
des
F
mittleren
for
Kernabstandes
alignmen
ermit-
dieren
telt.

Diese
at
Ergebnisse
w
liefern
dis-

v
h
of
tige
mean
Argumen
tern
te

f?r
ere
die
pro
aktuelle
new
Diskussion
ts
?b
the
er
t
den
on
Grund
nature
b
discrepancies

ed
h
et
teter
een
Un
and


hiede.
Con
.
ten
aligned
ts
.
1
.
Contents
.
1
.
Intro
.

.
3
.
2
data
Electron
en

.
ionisation
.
of
dieren

.
7
.
2.1
.
In
5
tro
.

.
in
.
to
.
electron-molecule
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
Obtaining
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
7
.
2.2
analysis
Group
.

.
description
.

43
symmetry

.
.
.
.
.
Momen
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
4.4
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
57
.
.
11
.
2.3
.

.
and
.
ionisation
.

4.7
hanisms
.
of
.
the
.
h
.
ydrogen
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
83
.
.
12
.
2.4
.
Brief
.
o
5.2
v
.
erview
.
on
86
(
4.1
e

,
.
2
.
e
.
)
.
theory
.
.
.
.
Reading
.
from
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
45
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
tum
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
17
.
2.5
.
Aligned
Obtaining


.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
60
.
alignmen
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
4.8
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
25
and
3
Ov
The
.
reaction
.

.
e
.
31
.
3.1
.
Electron
.
b
.
eam
.
.
of
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
Data
.
43
.
Automated
.
pro
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
4.2
.
ev
.
ts
.
the
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
31
.
3.2
.

.
target
.
.
.
.
.
.
4.3
.
tum
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
52
.
Momen
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
32
.
3.3
.
Sp
.
ectrometer
.
.
4.5
.
fully
.
tial
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
4.6
.

.
t
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
62
.
A
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
35
.
3.4
.
P
.
osition
.
sensitiv
.
e
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
63
.
Resolution
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
36
67
3.5
Results
Data
discussion
acquisition
5.1
.
erview
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
83
.
Ionisation
.
randomly
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
40
4.
2
.
Con
.
ten
groups
ts
129
5.3
.
Alignmen
A.2
t-dep
.
endence
fo
of
.
ground-state
.
ionisation
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
B
.
longitudinal
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
95
.
5.4
tables

oin
autoionisation
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
metho
.

.
125
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
123
.
Character
.
of
.
p
.
t
106
.
6
.
Conclusion
.
and
.
Outlo
.
ok
.
119
.
A
.
T
.
ables
123
123
Newton's
A.1
d
A
r

of
units
momentum
.
Bibliography
.
.(e,2e)
(e,2e)

fundamen

tal
with
reactions
Collisions
imp
b
ortan
in
t

in

man
to
y
electrons
natural
to
phenomena
v
and
(1997

problems
hnical
eliev
applications.
initial
Here,
sucien

ts
in
y

this
where
set-up
the
momen
in
no
ternal
d
energy
Naja
of
few-b
particles
ery
is
analytically

b
hanged
the
are
one
of
are

o
t
determine
relev
ation.

on
Man
al.
y
w
o


erimen
manifest
of
in
energy
plasmas,
ely
among
(see
these
(1994
are
atomic
glo
studied
w
a
disc
et
harges,
);
northern
delling
ligh

ts
to
or
ecause
in
dinger
terstellar
for
nebulae.
3
In
ed

er
t
problem
y
electrons
ears,
If
addiditional
momen
in
ell-dened,
terest
t
has
ts
arisen
to
from

the
tum
elds
h
of
ere
bioph
atomic
ysics
Ehrhardt
and
).

the
where
nal

measured
harged
st
particle
of

as
on
harged
living
The
matter
angle
has
e
b
electrons
een
a
studied
v
moti-
v
v
et
ated
Up
b
v
y
ecies
the
b
dev
this
elopmen
v
t
range
of
(
new
(2009
treatmen
al.
ts
et


h
fundamen
as
dy
hea
as
vy-ion
turns

e
therap
hallenging,
y

(
Sc
Kraft
is
(2000
able.
)).
simplest
Here,
Intro
electron-induced
v

dev
pro
are

to
pla
solutions
y
o
an
lo
imp
o
ortan
and
t
ion.
role
the
in
state
the
ta
e-
w

the
t
of

w
of
fragmen
tumor
is
DNA
t
(
fully
Boud
the
aiff
due
a
momen
et

al.

(2000
measuremen
)).
w
Most
pioneered
of
an
the
target
applications
y
and
et
natural
(1969
o
Thereb

,
ha
t
v
o
e
state
in
are

in
that

a
yling
large
kind
n
exp
um-
t
b

er
particles
of

reactions
.
tak
traditional
e
uses
place
and
at
sensitiv
the
analysers
same

time.

In
with
order
dened
to
tum

ector
the
o
underlying
erview
ph
Coplan
ysics
al.

)).
,
to
kno
w,
wledge
arious
of
sp
the
ha
single
e

een

with
is
metho
indisp
o
ensable.
er
The
wide

of
information
energies
of
Kheifets
an
al.
y
);
sp
et

(2008
reaction
R?der
is
al.

)).
tained
mo
in
of
fully
tal
dieren
o
tial


h

electron
tions
ionisation,
(FDCS)
out
that
b

v
b

e
b
obtained
for
in
h

the

hr?
exp
equation
erimen
not
ts
solv
are
Only
on
the
h
reaction,
metho

exploiting
1
e

where
atomic
all
ydrogen,
nal
ds
state
massiv
momen
parallel
ta
ha
are
e
kno
een
wn.
elop
In
that
electron
b

ed
single
deliv
ionisation
exact
there
of
are
three-b
usually
dy
three
at
particles,
w
t
energies
w(e,2e)
(e,2e)
(e,2e)
(e,2e)
,
ha
as
v
a
e
ha
to
an
b
are
e
(see
made.

This
y
led
on
to
ered
the
a
dev
usually
elopmen
state
t
e
of
rates
a
w
v
olving
ast
een
n

um
test
b
all
er
ac
of
b

Larsen
mo
etition
dels
esides
that
applicable
fo
y

ta
on

sp
y
ecial
tro
targets,
of

an
energies
neutral
and
of

last
geometries.

As
o
no
fundamen
general
only
predictions
erimen


b

e
t
made,

exp
electric
erimen
y
ts
)).
ha
ery
v
);
e
ts.
alw
erturbation
a
laser,
ys
of
b
highly
een
h
imp
t
ortan
if
t
ak
to
hiev
v
the
erify
e
and
measure
guide
fragmen
these
of

is

ydrogen,
from
for
simple
one
diatomics
has
(e.g.
role
Hussey
and
and
in
Murra
Early
y
ectrum
(2002
it
);
)
Murra
al.
y
The
(2005
and
))
theory
to
e
larger
y
systems
FDCS,
(e.g.
v
Kaiser
alignmen
et
wn.
al.
e
(2007
ed
);
o
Li
First,
et
e
al.
a
(2009

);
ered
V
laser
os
al.
et
metho
al.
from
(1997
w
))
unsuitable
ha
y
v

e
urthermore,
also
ossible
b
the
een
y
widely
is
in
a
v
ecies
estigated
e
using
p
traditional
Another
appro
to

inital
general
the
more
fragmen
y

an
the
set-ups.
of
Ho
the
w

ev
end
er,
e
unlik
disso
e
A
atoms,
order

dieren

1
tain
and
in
electrons.
ternal
b
degrees

of
p
freedom.
study
Most
h
imp
test
ortan
in
t,

they
the

h
rotate
y
in
ortan
space
the
and,
ph
hence,
therefore,

v
hange
during
the
tury
relativ
fo
e

p
the
osition
wn
of
out
the


references
t
et
n
(2005
uclei
)).
with
most
resp
tal
ect
precise
to
of
the


b
b
deliv
eam.
b
Ob
exp
viously
tal
,
where
this


ariables
ha
the
v
t
e
kno
an
This
eect
b
on
generally
the
hiev

in
of
w
the
w

ys:
In

traditional
b
In
aligned
)).
y
(2004
strong
al.
eld,
et
h
y
deliv
exp
b
erimen
a
ts,
(
this
et
information
(1999
is
This
lost,
d
b
suers
ecause
v
only
lo
electrons
rep
are
rate
de-
to

(2002
and
Bra
they

op
measuremen
erate
F
with
b
a
p
gas
p
target,
of
where
initial
the
b

the
are
it
randomly
only
aligned.
to
On
handful
the
sp

that
side,
v
obtaining
a
FDCS

for
olarisabilit
aligned
.


is
is
the
deriv
in
the
tuitiv
alignmen
e
from
w
momen
a
of
y
ts
in
the
man
disso
y
in
mo
w
dels
e
(
the
Colgan
Here,
et
ac
al.
able
(2008
t
)).
dep
Hence,
on
to
relativ
McCurd
probabilit
ximations
of
a



reaction.
t,
dditionally
has
in

to
or
fully
particles
tial

In
at
4
one


with
with
a
alignmen
v
one
ailable
to
exp
three
erimen
more
tal
in

namely

least
the


t
results
t
ha
o
v
One
e
the
to
enets
b
this
e
h
a
the
v
ossibilit
eraged
to
o
h
v
whic
er
is
all
ideal
p

ossible
theories
alignmen
v
ts.

A
Being
ddi-
of
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