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Landscape and vegetation of southern Baltic dune systems [Elektronische Ressource] : diversity, landuse changes and threats / vorgelegt von Jann Peyrat

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139 pages
Landscape and vegetation of southern Baltic dune systems: diversity, landuse changes and threats Jann Peyrat University of Kiel Cover: Dune landscape at the Nagliai Strict Nature Reserve, Curonian Spit, LT (Photo: Peyrat 2008). Aus dem Institut für Natur- und Ressourcenschutz der Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel Landscape and vegetation of southern Baltic dune systems: diversity, landuse changes and threats Dissertation zur Erlangung des Doktorgrades der Agrar- und Ernährungswissenschaftlichen Fakultät der Christain-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel vorgelegt von Dipl. Landschaftsökologe J a n n P e y r a t aus Wilhelmshaven Kiel, den 17. März 2011 Dekan: Prof. Dr. Karin Schwarz 1. Berichtserstatter: Prof. Dr. Hartmut Roweck 2. Berrstatter: PD Dr. Maike Isermann Tag der mündlichen Prüfung: 12. Mai 2011 Die Druckreife der vorliegenden Arbeit ist vorhanden. Contents Chapter 1 Introduction ..................................................................................................................... 9 Chapter 2 Plant communities of the Sundic Baltic Sand Dune ....... 35 Vegetation Complex on dry coastal dunes along the southern Baltic coast. Peyrat J. 2010.
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Landscape and vegetation of
southern Baltic dune systems:
diversity, landuse changes
and threats





































Jann Peyrat
University of Kiel
















































Cover: Dune landscape at the Nagliai Strict Nature Reserve, Curonian Spit, LT (Photo: Peyrat 2008). Aus dem Institut für Natur- und Ressourcenschutz
der Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel






Landscape and vegetation of
southern Baltic dune systems:
diversity, landuse changes and
threats






Dissertation
zur Erlangung des Doktorgrades
der Agrar- und Ernährungswissenschaftlichen Fakultät
der Christain-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel



vorgelegt von

Dipl. Landschaftsökologe J a n n P e y r a t

aus Wilhelmshaven



Kiel, den 17. März 2011



Dekan: Prof. Dr. Karin Schwarz
1. Berichtserstatter: Prof. Dr. Hartmut Roweck
2. Berrstatter: PD Dr. Maike Isermann
Tag der mündlichen Prüfung: 12. Mai 2011

Die Druckreife der vorliegenden Arbeit ist vorhanden.




















Contents

Chapter 1 Introduction ..................................................................................................................... 9
Chapter 2 Plant communities of the Sundic Baltic Sand Dune ....... 35
Vegetation Complex on dry coastal dunes along the
southern Baltic coast.
Peyrat J. 2010. Botanica Lithuanica 16 (4): 149–167.
Chapter 3 Neophytic Corispermum pallasii (Stev.) (Chenopodiaceae) ...................... 59
invading migrating dunes of the southern coast of the Baltic Sea.
Dolnik C., J. Peyrat, A. Volodina and A. Sokolov. 2011.
Polish Journal of Ecology 59 (2): 17-25.
Chapter 4 Plant species diversity in dry coastal dunes of the Southern .................... 73
Baltic coast.
Peyrat J. and A. Fichtner. submitted. Community Ecology.
Chapter 5 Vegetation dynamics on the Łeba Bar/Poland: a comparison .................. 90
of the vegetation in 1932 and 2006 with special regard to
endangered habitats.
Peyrat J., M. Braun, C. Dolnik, M. Isermann and H. Roweck. 2009.
Journal of Coastal Conservation 13 (4): 235–246.
Chapter 6 Synthesis ..................................................................................................................... 111
Summary .......................................... 127
Zusammenfassung ................................................................................................ 130
Краткий обзор (Russian summary) ............................. 133
Danksagung .......................................................................................................................................... 136
Curriculum vitae .... 138
Erklärungen .......................................................................................................................................... 139











































The articles that are or will be published in the journals Botanica Lithuanica, Journal
of Coastal Conservation and Polish Journal of Ecology are reproduced with the kind
permission of the Institute of Botany/Vilnius, Lithuania, Springer Science and Busi-
ness Media/Netherlands and the Polish Academy of Sciences, respectively.
I carried out the field work and I was responsible for data analyses and writing of the
manuscripts of the publications from chapter 2, 4 and 5. A. Fichtner helped me with
the statistical data analyses of the publication from chapter 4. C. Braun. C. Dolnik, M.
Isermann and H. Roweck contributed to ideas and discussion for the publication of
chapter 5. The publication of chapter 3 was written together with C. Dolnik, A. Volo-
dina and A. Sokolov. I provided data material and contributed to ideas and discussion.






















































The migrating dune ‘Roterwald Berg’ on the Curonian Spit, RU/LT (Photo: Peyrat 2008).














Chapter 1


Introduction

































Chapter 1
Introduction

Coastal sand dunes form a narrow ecocline between two extremely contrasting bio-
chores, sea and land (Westhoff 1985). In North-West Europe, they form extensive
dune systems along the exposed coasts from Portugal through France and the Nether-
lands to North Denmark and along the southern Baltic Sea with large barrier islands
and spits. Although covering less than 1 % of the land surface of Europe, a length of
80,000 km is estimated for coastal dunes (Klijin 1994). Coastal dunes are of high eco-
logical value: Their spatial and temporal dynamics support a wealth of habitats with
many endangered or endemic plant and animal species. More than 50 % of all indi-
genous species in Western Europe (van der Meulen and de Haes 1996) and 20 % of
all European endemics (van der Maarel and van der Maarel-Versluys 1997) are found
in the coastal zones. Although the contribution by these rare and endangered species
to ecosystem function may be small, they form the pillars of many conservation pro-
grams promoted by the EU Directive 92/43 (Acosta et al. 2009). The high species-
richness and diversity in coastal dunes is the result of environmental heterogeneity
and variability of species composition (van der Maarel 2003). Thus, coastal dunes are
among the most valuable still extant elements of natural environment and natural
thresources in Europe (Isermann in press). Since the 19 century they have been sub-
jected to important ecological research resulting with theories about vegetation suc-
cession and ecological system functions in these coastal dunes.
Despite their high ecological value, many coastal dune systems in Europe and world-
wide have been heavily degraded over the last centuries following exploitation of
their natural resources, demographic expansion and industrial growth (Martinez et
al. 2004). A huge expanse of previously well preserved coastal ecosystems has been
deteriorated or is in advanced stages of degradation, both resulting in a loss of biodi-
versity (Van der Meulen and de Haes 1996). It is estimated that 25 % of European
coastal dunes have been lost since 1900 (Heslenfeld et al. 2004). At the Convention of
Biological Diversity in Rio de Janeiro (1992), it was esablished that human interven-
tion was responsible for the decline in biodiversity. In order to protect coastal ecosys-
tems along the European coastlines, national parks or nature reserves were estab-
lished; for example the Waddensea Nationalpark of the North Sea, Nationalpark Vor-
pommersche Boddenlandschaft Slowinski Nationalpark and Curonian Spit National-
park in the Baltic. Furthermore, a number of coastal habitats are protected under the
European Habitats Directive (Council Directive 92/43/EEC of 21 May 1992, Council
of the European Commission 1992). The principal aim of this directive is for the pre-
servation and restoration of the biological diversity as well as the creation of a favor-
able conservation status of the natural habitats and their associated fauna and flora.
Ten coastal dune habitats of the “Sea Dunes of the Atlantic, North Sea and Baltic
coasts”, are considered as priority habitats, such as “Shifting dunes along the shore-
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