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Mechanisms, models and tools for flexible protocol development and accurate network experimentation [Elektronische Ressource] / Olaf Landsiedel

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244 pages
Mechanisms, Models, and Tools forFlexible Protocol Development andAccurate Network ExperimentationVon der Fakultat fur Mathematik, Informatik und Naturwissenschaften¨ ¨der RWTH Aachen University zur Erlangung des akademischen Gradeseines Doktors der Naturwissenschaften genehmigte Dissertationvorgelegt vonM.S. Computer Science (USA)Olaf Landsiedelaus MainzBerichter:Prof. Dr.-Ing. Klaus WehrleProf. PhD Anthony D. JosephTag der mundlic¨ hen Prufung:¨ 22. Marz¨ 2010Diese Dissertation ist auf den Internetseiten der Hochschulbibliothek online verfugbar.¨WICHTIG: D 82 überprüfen !!!Reports on Communications and Distributed Systemsedited byProf. Dr.-Ing. Klaus WehrleCommunication and Distributed Systems,RWTH Aachen UniversityVolume 1Olaf LandsiedelMechanisms, Models, and Toolsfor Flexible Protocol Development andAccurate Network ExperimentationShaker VerlagAachen 2010Bibliographic information published by the Deutsche NationalbibliothekThe Deutsche Nationalbibliothek lists this publication in the DeutscheNationalbibliografie; detailed bibliographic data are available in the Internetat http://dnb.d-nb.de.Zugl.: D 82 (Diss. RWTH Aachen University, 2010)Copyright Shaker Verlag 2010All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in aretrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic,mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permissionof the publishers.
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Mechanisms, Models, and Tools for
Flexible Protocol Development and
Accurate Network Experimentation
Von der Fakultat fur Mathematik, Informatik und Naturwissenschaften¨ ¨
der RWTH Aachen University zur Erlangung des akademischen Grades
eines Doktors der Naturwissenschaften genehmigte Dissertation
vorgelegt von
M.S. Computer Science (USA)
Olaf Landsiedel
aus Mainz
Berichter:
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Klaus Wehrle
Prof. PhD Anthony D. Joseph
Tag der mundlic¨ hen Prufung:¨ 22. M¨arz 2010
Diese Dissertation ist auf den Internetseiten der Hochschulbibliothek online verfugbar.¨WICHTIG: D 82 überprüfen !!!
Reports on Communications and Distributed Systems
edited by
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Klaus Wehrle
Communication and Distributed Systems,
RWTH Aachen University
Volume 1
Olaf Landsiedel
Mechanisms, Models, and Tools
for Flexible Protocol Development and
Accurate Network Experimentation
Shaker Verlag
Aachen 2010Bibliographic information published by the Deutsche Nationalbibliothek
The Deutsche Nationalbibliothek lists this publication in the Deutsche
Nationalbibliografie; detailed bibliographic data are available in the Internet
at http://dnb.d-nb.de.
Zugl.: D 82 (Diss. RWTH Aachen University, 2010)
Copyright Shaker Verlag 2010
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a
retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission
of the publishers.
Printed in Germany.
ISBN 978-3-8322-9451-9
ISSN 2191-0863
Shaker Verlag GmbH • P.O. BOX 101818 • D-52018 Aachen
Phone: 0049/2407/9596-0 • Telefax: 0049/2407/9596-9
Internet: www.shaker.de • e-mail: info@shaker.deAcknowledgements
First of all, I want to thank Klaus for hiring me as a young, green PhD student.
Thank you for advising me and giving me the opportunity to work in your group.
Thecreativeatmosphere, trust, andindependenceallowedmetorealizeideas, gather
experience, and to develop as a person. I was allowed to try, to fail, and sometimes
to succeed.
Working with Klaus introduced me to many different areas in computer networking
and I established a wide background and experience. I believe that this wide experi-
ence was a key requirement for this thesis, as my work addresses generic techniques
for protocol development and evaluation. However, doing a PhD is much more than
research: I was introduced to teaching, advising thesis students, paper and proposal
writing, and organization. Yet, I still do not know how to make coffee.
I want to thank all colleagues for making this group such a pleasant environment
for research and for the great years in Aachen and Tubingen. Special thanks go¨
to Hamad, Stefan, Georg, Jo, Tobi, and Raimondas for the long discussions and
joint work on many ideas. Furthermore, I want to thank all my thesis students and
Hiwis: Without you this work would not have been possible. I am happy that many
of you got interested in research and very proud that some of you even became my
colleagues and are now working in the Distributed Systems Group.
Finally, I would like to thank my family and friends for their love, friendship, and
support. Especially, I thank my wife Anna for her love, support, kindness, and
understanding.
Thank you all for many wonderful years as a PhD student.Curriculum Vitae
About Me
Name Landsiedel
Forename Olaf
Date of birth 2nd of March 1979
Place of birth Mainz, Germany
Nationality German
Education
High School
1989 - 1998 Gymnasium Altenholz
Abitur: June 1998
University
10/1999 - 07/2002 Christian-Albrechts-Universit¨at zu Kiel
Major: Computer Science (Minor: Business)
Pre-Diploma: 2001
University
7/2002 - 12/2003 University of Kansas
Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science
Degree: MS Computer Science, with honors
PhD Student
3/2004 - 4/2006 University of Tubingen¨
Protokoll Engineering und Verteilte Systeme
Advisor: Dr.-Ing. Klaus Wehrle
PhD Student
5/2006 - 2/2010 RWTH Aachen University
LuFG Informatik IV - Verteilte Systeme
Advisor: Prof. Dr.-Ing. Klaus WehrleContents
1 Introduction 1
1.1 ProblemStatement............................ 2
1.1.1 Diversity and Customization of Communication Protocols . . 2
1.1.2 Complexity of Protocol Evaluation ............... 3
1.1.3 LackofRealismandAccuracyinNetworkSimulation..... 4
1.2 Objectives and Contributions ...................... 5
1.2.1 RapidProtocolDevelopmentfromMicroProtocols...... 5
1.2.2 Flexible Network Experimentation ............... 6
1.2.3 Accurate Simulation through Fine-Grained Calibration .... 6
1.3 Outline................................... 7
2 Fundamentals and Analysis 9
2.1 TheInternet................................ 9
2.1.1 InternetArchitecture....................... 9
2.1.2 ProtocolsintheEarlyInternet.................10
2.2 IncreasingProtocolDiversityandFunctionality............11
2.2.1 ProtocolDiversityintoday’sInternet..............1
2.2.2 RapidProtocolDevelopmentfromMicroProtocols......14
2.2.3 StateoftheArt..........................15
2.2.4 Discusion.............................15
2.2.5 Summary .............................16
2.3 DiversityofPlatformsandTools.....................17
2.3.1 Vision...............................17
2.3.2 ProtocolDevelopmentCycle...................18
2.3.3 Flexible Network Experimentation through Platform Abstrac-
tion................................22.3.4 StateoftheArt..........................23
2.3.5 Discusion.............................23
2.3.6 Summary .............................24
2.4 InacuracyinNetworkSimulation....................24
2.4.1 ChalengesinNetworkSimulation................24
2.4.2 Accurate Simulation through Fine-Grained Calibration ....25
2.4.3 StateoftheArt..........................25
2.4.4 Discusio26
2.4.5 Summary27
2.5 Conclusion.................................27
3 Micro-Protocols as Substrate for Protocol Composition 29
3.1 ComponentModel............................30
3.1.1 Granularity of Modularization ..................30
3.1.2 MicroProtocols:OuterLayeroftheComponentModel....31
3.1.3 Configurations: The Inner Layer of the Component Model . . 34
3.1.4 Discusion.............................35
3.1.5 Example..............................36
3.1.6 Summary .............................38
3.2 Case Study: Micro Protocols and Configurations in Transport Protocols 38
3.2.1 WidespreadTransportProtocols.................38
3.2.2 DetectionofPacketLos.....................4
3.2.3 Reliable Communication49
3.2.4 RoundTripTimeEstimation..................50
3.2.5 CongestionControl........................52
3.2.6 FlowControl...........................56
3.2.7 Window Management ......................58
3.2.8 Explicit Congestion Notification.................61
3.2.9 FurtherMicro-Protocols.....................63
3.2.10 Summary .............................63
3.3 ComposingTransportProtocols64
3.3.1 Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)..............64
3.3.2 DatagramCongestionControlProtocol.............683.3.3 StreamControlTransmissionProtocol.............72
3.3.4 FurtherTransportProtocols ..................75
3.3.5 Summary .............................76
3.4 Evaluation.................................7
3.4.1 Flexible Composition of Protocol Mechanisms .........7
3.4.2 ProtocolExperimentationandHypotheticalProtocols.....82
3.4.3 InternetProtocolStacks.....................85
3.4.4 EvaluationofReuseinProtocolCompositions.........87
3.4.5 Discusion.............................8
3.5 RelatedWork...............................90
3.5.1 Modular Communication Systems................90
3.5.2 Modular and Configurable Network Protocols .........91
3.5.3 ConfigurableTransportProtocols92
3.5.4 Discusio92
3.6 Conclusion.................................92
3.6.1 FutureDirections.........................93
3.6.2 Summary .............................94
4 Protocol Factory 97
4.1 IntroducingtheProtocolFactory....................97
4.1.1 SoftwareArchitectureforMicroProtocols...........98
4.1.2 VirtualPlatformforExperimentation(VIPE).........9
4.2 SoftwareArchitectureforMicroProtocols...............99
4.2.1 DesignGoals...........................9
4.2.2 AnalysisofDesignChoices....................101
4.2.3 Modules as Functional Building Blocks .............104
4.2.4 ProtocolComposition......................106
4.2.5 DynamicProtocolCompositions.................109
4.2.6 Auxiliary Functionality110
4.2.7 Optimizing Protocol Stacks ...................11
4.2.8 ProFabToolChain........................13
4.2.9 Conclusion.............................14
4.3 AVirtualPlatformforNetworkExperimentation...........154.3.1 Analysis..............................116
4.3.2 OverviewandGoals.......................17
4.3.3 ArchitectureoftheVirtualPlatform..............120
4.3.4 Conclusion.............................126
4.4 Evaluation.................................126
4.4.1 VirtualPlatform.........................127
4.4.2 SoftwareArchitectureforMicroProtocols...........128
4.4.3 OveralPerformanceofProFab.................13
4.4.4 Summary13
4.5 RelatedWork...............................135
4.5.1 Software Architectures for Communication Protocols .....135
4.5.2 VirtualPlatform.........................135
4.5.3 Summary .............................137
4.6 Conclusion.................................137
4.6.1 ProtocolExperimentationwithProFab.............137
4.6.2 Limitations and Lessons Learned ................140
4.6.3 FutureDirections140
4.6.4 Summary141
5 Simulation Calibration 143
5.1 Introduction................................14
5.1.1 ChalengesinNetworkSimulation................14
5.1.2 WirelessSensorNetworks....................145
5.2 Modeling Energy in Wireless Sensor Networks .............146
5.2.1 RelatedWork...........................147
5.2.2 AEON’sEnergyModel......................148
5.2.3 Evaluating TinyOS and Applications ..............151
5.2.4 Energy Profiling..........................15
5.2.5 AEONandPowerTossim.....................156
5.2.6 Conclusion.............................158
5.3 AcurateTimeinNetworkSimulation.................158
5.3.1 Introduction............................159
5.3.2 RelatedWork...........................1595.3.3 Enabling Time Accuracy.....................160
5.3.4 Implementing Time Accuracy in TinyOS ............163
5.3.5 EvaluatingTimeTOSSIM....................168
5.3.6 FutureWork............................173
5.3.7 Conclusions174
5.4 Concluding Simulation Calibration ...................175
6 Conclusion 177
6.1 ResultsAchieved.............................178
6.2 FutureDirections179
6.3 FinalRemarks...............................180
Bibliography 181
A Generic Micro Protocols in Network Protocols 211
A.1MicroProtocols..............................21
A.1.1ProtocolOverview........................21
A.1.2 Forwarding ............................214
A.1.3LoopDetection..........................218
A.1.4 Fragmentation and Reassembly .................219
A.1.5MesageIntegrity.........................24
A.1.6 Multiplexing and Demultiplexing ................25
A.1.7Discussion.............................226
A.2CompositionofNetworkLayerProtocols228
A.2.1GenericNetwork-LayerProtocol.................28
A.2.2IPv4,IPv6andIPX.......................230
A.2.3DiscusiononComposedNetworkProtocols..........232
A.3Conclusion.................................234

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