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Memory accuracy [Elektronische Ressource] : A 7-Tesla fMRI approach to memory accuracy ; retrieval, monitoring and control processes / Uda-Mareke Risius. Fakultät für Psychologie und Sportwissenschaft - Arbeitseinheit 14 - Physiologische Psychologie

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Ajouté le : 01 janvier 2011
Lecture(s) : 20
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I

Memory Accuracy

A 7-Tesla fMRI Approach to Memory Accuracy
– Retrieval, Monitoring and Control Processes –


Dissertation to Achieve a Doctoral Grade
of Natural Sciences (Dr. rer. nat.) in Psychology
Department of Psychology and Sports Science
University of Bielefeld






by
Uda-Mareke Risius

First Examiner: Prof. Dr. Hans J. Markowitsch
Second Examiner: PD Dr. Martina Piefke


Bielefeld, October 2010 II



















If the human mind was simple enough to understand, we'd be too simple
to understand it

(Emerson M. Pugh) III




to Heiner Jaspers
















IV
Acknowledgments

The current thesis is based on part of my work as doctoral student in the research
project “The assessment of eyewitness memory: a multi-componential,
correspondence-oriented approach” that was funded by the European Union.

I wish to express my sincere gratitude to Prof. Dr. Hans J. Markowitsch, my first
supervisor who made the current work possible, and who gave me the opportunity to
learn analyzing fMRI data.
In particular, I wish to thank PD Dr. Martina Piefke, my second supervisor, who
provided me with experienced and valuable supervision during all stages of the
study.
I want to thank both supervisors for precious suggestions and the enabling of
independence and self-reliance, and for always being reachable, even on Sundays
and even when on travel.
Thanks to Prof. Dr. Matthias Brand who once sparked my interest in research and
who supplied the neuroimaging study with a 7 Tesla fMRI Scanner. For their help and
technical as well as emotional support during the scanning process in Erwin L. Hahn
Institute, I wish to thank Lena Schäfer, Dipl.-Ing. Stephan Orzada, and Dr. rer. medic.
Stefan Maderwald. I’m very thankful to Dr. rer. nat. Frank Schulte, and Dr. rer. nat.
Kirsten Labudda as well as Dipl.-Mat. Dipl.-Phys. Markus Thürling, who supported
the fMRI evaluation.
I wish to thank all subjects, who participated in this study. Without your patience and
courage during the fMRI scanning this study would have gone a different way.
It was a privilege to have friends, who provided emotional support and motivation.
The list is long and space is limited, however, special thanks go to Dipl.-Psych.
Wiebke Dohemann, Dipl.-Psych. Hannah Mohr, and Dipl.-Psych. Nicole Werner for
all the small and big times when they came to my aid.
V
Especially, I wish to express my deep gratitude to my family, my mother, Edeltraud
Risius, and my grandmother, Gertrud Bensing, without whom this thesis would
probably never have happened and who supported me in many different ways.
Thank you for your patience and the many times when I needed your encouragement
and emotional support.
I want to thank my sister, Okka Risius for her active encouragement without any
reservation and Dr. rer. nat. Bernhard Rohde for reading this work critically.
Moreover, I wish to thank Marianne and Wilhelm Jaspers, who accompanied me in
this phase of life.
Finally, I am especially indebted to Heiner Jaspers, who marvellously supported me
during all stages of this study technologically and above all with optimism, patience,
and motive force. I wish to dedicate this work to him.

















Bielefeld, 2010 VI
Table of Contents
List of Figures......................................................................................................... IX

List of Tables ........................................................................................................ XIII

Abbreviations........................................................................................................XIV

1 Preface ...............................................................................................................2

2 Theoretical background....................................................................................5
2.1 Memory............................................................................................................5
2.1.1 Memory processes.......................................................................................5
2.1.2 Time dependent memory .............................................................................8
2.1.3 Content dependent memory.......................................................................14
2.1.4 Episodic memory........................................................................................18
2.1.5 Neural correlates of episodic memory........................................................19
2.2 False memories .............................................................................................24
2.2.1 Forms of false memories............................................................................26
2.2.2 Neural correlates of false memories...........................................................28
2.3 Executive functions........................................................................................32
2.3.1 Different approaches to executive functions...............................................32
2.3.2 Neural correlates of executive functions.....................................................35
2.4 Memory accuracy...........................................................................................38
2.4.1 Quantity-oriented approach........................................................................38
2.4.2 Accuracy-oriented approach ......................................................................39
2.4.3 Quantity and accuracy................................................................................40
2.4.4 Metamemory ..............................................................................................43
2.4.5 Memory paradigm according to Koriat and Goldsmith................................45
2.4.6 Neural correlates of memory accuracy.......................................................47

3 The present study – questions and hypotheses ..........................................49
3.1 Questions.......................................................................................................49
3.2 Hypotheses....................................................................................................50

VII
4 Method..............................................................................................................57
4.1 Participants ....................................................................................................57
4.2 Neuropsychological data................................................................................59
4.2.1 Neuropsychological testing battery.............................................................59
4.3 Materials ........................................................................................................67
4.3.1 Videotape ...................................................................................................67
4.3.2 Statements .................................................................................................68
4.4 Pre-Scanning Procedure................................................................................68
4.5 Experimental task – fMRI...............................................................................69
4.6 Post-Scanning Questionnaire ........................................................................72
4.7 Fundamentals of functional magnetic resonance imaging .............................73
4.7.1 Physiological background...........................................................................73
4.7.2 Image acquisition and MR Technical Parameters ......................................82
4.7.3 Image processing and data analysis ..........................................................83
4.7.4 Localization of Activations ..........................................................................87

5 Results .............................................................................................................88
5.1 Presentation of the results .............................................................................88
5.1.1 Neuropsychological Tests ..........................................................................88
5.1.2 Post-Scanning Questionnaire.....................................................................91
5.1.3 Behavioral data ..........................................................................................92
5.1.4 Neuroimaging data.....................................................................................94
5.2 Verification of the hypotheses......................................................................113

6 Discussion .....................................................................................................118
6.1 Discussion of the different contrasts ............................................................118
6.1.1 Retrieval process (correct versus incorrect responding) ..........................118
6.1.2 Monitoring process (high confidence versus low confidence) ..................121
6.1.3 Control process (volunteering versus withholding)...................................125
6.1.4 Monitoring versus retrieval process..........................................................128
6.1.5 Control versus retrieval process...............................................................131
6.1.6 Memory accuracy.....................................................................................132
6.2 General discussion ......................................................................................136

7 Conclusion.....................................................................................................144 VIII
References ............................................................................................................147

Appendix A – Clarification and information.......................................................182

Appendix B – Pre-scanning procedure ..............................................................186

Appendix C – Experimental design.....................................................................192

Appendix D – fMRI data........................................................................................198

Appendix E – Post-Scanning Questionnaire......................................................200

Appendix G – Brodmann areas ...........................................................................204

Declaration............................................................................................................205


IX
List of Figures
Figure 1: Illustration of the main processes from registration of new information to
retrieval (modified from Markowitsch, 2003b)...................................................... 6
Figure 2: Processing of information through the memory system as devised by
Atkinson and Shiffrin (1967) ................................................................................ 8
Figure 3: The current model of working memory (modified from Baddeley, 2003) ... 11
Figure 4: Classification of retrograde and anterograde amnesia (modified from
Brand & Markowitsch, 2003) ............................................................................. 13
Figure 5: Declarative and non-declarative memory (modified from Squire et al.,
2004) ................................................................................................................. 15
Figure 6: The five memory systems with examples (modified from Reinhold
& Markowitsch, 2007)........................................................................................ 15
Figure 7: Serial-parallel-independent (SPI) model among three large memory
systems (modified from Tulving, 2001).............................................................. 17
Figure 8a: Memory processes and neural correlates (modified from Markowitsch,
2003b) ............................................................................................................... 20
Figure 8b: Main structures of the Papez circuit......................................................... 21
Figure 9: Three main forms of false memories with examples for the main
research areas (modified from Kühnel et al., 2008)........................................... 27
Figure 10: Hierarchical organization of metamemory with meta-level, object-level
and flow of information (modified from Nelson & Narens, 1990) ....................... 44
Figure 11: A schematic model of the strategic regulation of memory accuracy and
memory quantity performance (modified from Koriat & Goldsmith, 1996c) ....... 45
Figure 12: Six exemplary screenshots of the film “The New Cat”............................. 68
Figure 13: Experimental design................................................................................ 71
Figure 14: Memory accuracy and inaccuracy according to the memory paradigm... 70
Figure 15: Illustration of the lumitouch...................................................................... 72
Figure 16: T1 and T2-weighted signals .................................................................... 75
Figure 17: An exemplary view of the three coordinate axes ..................................... 76
Figure 18: The BOLD fMRI signal against time (BOLD response)............................ 78
Figure 19: Schematic illustration of a block design................................................... 79
Figure 20: Schematic illustration of a fixed interval event related design ................. 80 X
Figure 21: Schematic illustration of a rapid event related design with variable ISI
(latency jitter)..................................................................................................... 80
Figure 22: The different steps of data analyses with those highlighted in yellow
that were performed in this study ...................................................................... 83
Figure 23: The different qualities of fMRI data according to the different analyses
steps.................................................................................................................. 85
Figure 24: Comparison of mean ratings (+ SD) concerning correct (correct
rejection versus hit) and incorrect (false alarm versus miss) retrieval. .............. 92
Figure 25: Comparison of mean ratings (+ SD) given by the subjects on items
during scanning procedure for the different experimental conditions, retrieval
phase, control phase, and memory accuracy.................................................... 93
Figure 26a: Retrieval phase: relative increases in neural activity associated with
correct > incorrect retrieval. Areas of significant relative increase in neural
activity are shown as through-projection onto representations of standard
stereotaxic space (“glass brains”)...................................................................... 96
Figure 26b: Relative increases in neural activity associated with correct >
incorrect retrieval superimposed on MRI sections to depict the functional
anatomy of the activations and their relationship to the underlying structural
anatomy. Increased neural activity was seen amongst others in left
hippocampus..................................................................................................... 97
Figure 27a: Monitoring phase: relative increases in neural activity associated with
confidence rating. Areas of significant relative increase in neural activity are
shown as through-projection onto representations of standard stereotaxic
space (“glass brains”)...................................................................................... 101
Figure 27b: Relative increases in neural activity associated with high > low
confidence superimposed on MRI sections to depict the functional anatomy
of the activations and their relationship to the underlying structural anatomy.
Increased neural activity was seen amongst others in left parahippocampal
area ................................................................................................................. 102
Figure 27c: Relative increases in neural activity associated with low > high
confidence superimposed on MRI sections to depict the functional anatomy
of the activations and their relationship to the underlying structural anatomy.
Increased neural activity was seen amongst others in left supramarginal
gyrus ............................................................................................................... 102