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Modelling university research management the context of transformation process ; Universitetinių mokslinių tyrimų valdymo modeliavimas transformacinių procesų kontekste

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175 pages
ISM UNIVERSITY OF MANAGEMENT AND ECONOMICS MARIUS LANSKORONSKIS MODELLING UNIVERSITY RESEARCH MANAGEMENT IN THE CONTEXT OF TRANSFORMATION PROCESS Doctoral Dissertation Social Sciences, Management and Administration (03S) Kaunas, 2009 The dissertation was prepared in 2004-2009 at ISM University of Management and Economics. Scientific supervisor: Prof. dr. habil. Petras Baršauskas (ISM University of Management and Economics, Social Sciences, Management and Administration – 03S). ISBN 978-9955-752-12-3 © Marius Lanskoronskis TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES......................................................................................................................4 LIST OF PICTURES .................................................................................................................5 KEY DEFINITIONS...................................................................................................................6 INTRODUCTION8 1. MODELLING OF UNIVERSITY RESEARCH MANAGEMENT..........................................14 1.1. Applicability of Change Management Theory for University Research.......................14 1.2. The Modern Science Concept and Its Influence on Research Management .............27 1.3. Priorities of International Initiatives and Documents and Their Relevance to the Modern Science Concept .....
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ISM UNIVERSITY OF MANAGEMENT AND ECONOMICS






MARIUS LANSKORONSKIS

MODELLING UNIVERSITY RESEARCH MANAGEMENT
IN THE CONTEXT OF TRANSFORMATION PROCESS




Doctoral Dissertation
Social Sciences, Management and Administration (03S)
















Kaunas, 2009

The dissertation was prepared in 2004-2009 at ISM University of Management and
Economics.

Scientific supervisor:
Prof. dr. habil. Petras Baršauskas (ISM University of Management and Economics, Social
Sciences, Management and Administration – 03S).
























ISBN 978-9955-752-12-3 © Marius Lanskoronskis
TABLE OF CONTENTS

LIST OF TABLES......................................................................................................................4
LIST OF PICTURES .................................................................................................................5
KEY DEFINITIONS...................................................................................................................6
INTRODUCTION8
1. MODELLING OF UNIVERSITY RESEARCH MANAGEMENT..........................................14
1.1. Applicability of Change Management Theory for University Research.......................14
1.2. The Modern Science Concept and Its Influence on Research Management .............27
1.3. Priorities of International Initiatives and Documents and Their Relevance to the
Modern Science Concept ...................................................................................................36
1.4. Directions for Further Development of Trends in Research Management..................55
1.5. Theoretical Model for University Research Management ...........................................78
2. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ..........................................................................................82
2.1. Research Strategy.......................................................................................................82
2.2. Selecting Cases...........................................................................................................84
2.3. Data Collection and Trustworthiness of the Research................................................86
3. CASE STUDIES PRACTICES IN RESEARCH MANAGEMENT.......................................88
3.1. Belgium (Flanders) ......................................................................................................88
3.2. Czech Republic95
3.3. Denmark....................................................................................................................103
3.4. Finland.......................................................................................................................112
3.5. Germany120
3.6. The Netherlands........................................................................................................128
3.7. Summary of the Case Study Results ........................................................................134
4. RESEARCH DISCUSSION ..............................................................................................144
4.1. Discussion of University Research Management Model...........................................144
4.2. Applicability of the Research Management Model in Lithuania ................................151
CONCLUSIONS....................................................................................................................156
REFERENCES .....................................................................................................................160
APPENDICIES......................................................................................................................170

3 LIST OF TABLES

Table 1. “Good Practice” Initiatives to Develop Research Capacity.......................................38
Table 2. Structure and Organisation of Teaching and Research ...........................................40
Table 3. Example and Rationale for Priority Research Domain .............................................59
Table 4. Analysis of Themes for Fundamental Change in the Belgian Universities...............90
Table 5. Analndaange in the Czech Universities ................97
Table 6. Analysis of Themes for Fundamental Change in the Danish Universities .............106
Table 7. Analndamange in the Finnish Universities115
Table 8. Analysis of Themes for Fundamental Change in the German Universities............123
Table 9. Analndaange in the Dutch Universities ...............129
Table 10. Common Trends of Research Management in European Universities ................146

4 LIST OF PICTURES

Figure 1. Places of Research Conduction ........................................................................ 61
Figure 2. URI-Industry Model in Beijing............................................................................ 66
Figure 3. URI-Industry Model in Shenzhen ...................................................................... 66
Figure 4. Chain of Research Commercialisation.............................................................. 69
Figure 5. Model for University Research Management .................................................... 81
Figure 6. Expanded Model for University Research Management ……………………... 150

5 KEY DEFINITIONS

CHANGE - the continuous adoption of corporate strategies and structures to
changing external conditions (Recklies, 2007).
CHANGE MANAGEMENT - an organised, systematic application of the knowledge,
tools, and resources of change that provides organizations with a key process to achieve
their business strategy (Lamarsh, 2008).
FUNDAMENTAL CHANGE – change influencing organisational mission, identity,
culture, way of work and partnerships (Beckhard and Pritchard, 1992).
KNOWLEDGE AND TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER - the process of developing
practical applications derived from the results of scientific research.
LINEAR SCIENCE MANAGEMENT – management system having clear boundaries
between science and society (Elzinga, 2003).
MODELLING – characterisation of the system, making some assumptions about
how it works and translating these into equations and a simulation program. After
simulation one of the final steps is the validation; i.e. determining whether the results
produced by the model can be trusted (Silvert, 2001).
MODERN RESEARCH MANAGEMENT – research management based on the
principles of non-linear management, oriented to practical application and having strong
backwards communication with the stakeholders.
NON-LINEAR SYSTEM – system where future states cannot be predicted or
controlled from past states, and where small initial changes generate large variations
(Beeson and Davis, 2000).
QUALITATIVE CHANGE – within Dynamic System Theory refers to the shift that
occurs when a system goes from one attractor state through an instability into a different
attractor state (Spencer and Perone, 2008).
RESEARCH MANAGEMENT - planning, organising, leading and controlling
research activities in an organisation.
STAKEHOLDERS OF HIGHER EDUCATION - specific groups of external actors
that have a direct or indirect interest in higher education and cannot always be covered
6 by the consumer-provider analogy. New stakeholders have penetrated a traditional
monopolistic relationship between the state and public higher education institutions with
two main characteristics. Firstly, the role of the external actors has become more
important in last few decades. Secondly, the influence of these external actors has also
grown with respect to internal affairs of individual higher education institutions (Maassen,
2000).
TRANSFORMATION PROCESS – a change in culture, habits, attitude and often a
change in purpose. It is a reconceiving of the entire paradigm of the organisation and its
circumstance (Taylor, 2005).
UNIVERSITY – institution of higher education having a right to organise bachelor,
master and doctoral studies.

7 INTRODUCTION

During the last two decades the higher education sector across the world has started
and has been undergoing significant changes. As the most significant aspects of this
process can be described the Danish reform of higher education in 1993 and the transfer
of the Western higher education management principles to the former socialist countries.
These changes have a significant difference in their essence and can be described as the
breakpoints of the continuous change process we are facing today. Such changes have
involved not only higher education institutions but also policy makers, business and
industrial sector, society and independent researchers. Processes of change have been
transforming the approach to science and scientific production as well. Science becomes
more open to external environment, thus, its role increases, and it appears to be an
important issue to society and business. In the aftermath of the Second World War, the
growth of science became a recognised policy objective (OECD, 1989). The statement
sets a breakpoint much earlier than the last decade of the 20th century, and the routs of
today’s changes lie in the latter.
Following Scott (2003), several change forces have been bearing down on higher
education in recent years:
• a rapid increase in competition;
• a significant decrease in funding from government sources;
• greater government scrutiny: many countries now have a national quality-
assurance agency for higher education; trend data on performance is now in the public
arena; and popular publications produce league tables on the performance of higher
education institutions;
• a growing consumer rights’ movement;
• the rapid spread of communications and information technology into every aspect
of our lives, including education and training.
Relationship between science, industry and public has become an important topic of
discussion on many policy agendas, and innovative and relevant to the occurring social
and economic challenges research management. Importance of such a discussion in
Lithuania is even more highlighted by the reform of higher education. That is why one of
the major tasks of the thesis is to develop a model ensuring effective and relevant
research management.
8 Earlier policy models, like the linear model of innovation, Don Price’s image of “Truth
speaks to Power”, or Robert Merton’s CUDOS norms-model had clear boundaries
between science and society and were predicated on powerful metaphors that assumed
clear-cut boundaries between science and society (Elzinga, 2003). Forum on University-
based Research (2005) has raised the idea that innovation (and research) can no longer
be usefully described in terms of a linear model involving separated roles for universities
and the rest of society and sets a key challenge for Europe to become better at using
knowledge - the fruit of research - from the researcher to industry and society in general.
According to Nowotny, Scott and Gibbons (2003) the nature of the research process
is being transformed, and this transformation has many separate elements. The
researchers separate three trends generally accepted to be significant like:
• the ‘steering’ of research priorities;
• the commercialisation of research;
• the accountability of science.
The OECD (2004) has also considered these trends to be especially influential on
changes in research management.
As previously mentioned, the policy level is also highly involved in this process of
change. In the year 2000, in Lisbon, the European Union committed itself to achieve a
very ambitious target by 2010: to become a knowledge-based society and be the most
competitive economy in the world, have 70% employment rate and to reach 3%
investment to research and development (R&D) from general domestic product (GDP).
Research was identified as a key factor in achieving this objective. According to the
European Commission, there is appearing an urgent need at all levels for co-ordination,
coherence and visibility, including through leadership, in order to make Europe's
international science and technology (S&T) more effective, maintain the attractiveness of
Europe as a place to do research and to do research with. The emergence of new
research locations and new emphasis to maintain competitiveness, quality of life and
assist developing nations has placed a greater emphasis on international S&T co-
operation (Green Paper Supplement, 2007).
In this context universities perform a crucial role in building a knowledge-based
society and establishing a truly European Research Area (Forum on University-based
Research, 2005). Universities and public research organisations perform more than 35 %
of all research undertaken in Europe. They are the primary source of both fundamental
research and research on issues of public interest, as well as an important provider of
9 applied research that helps to underpin business research and innovation. Strengthening
research institutions is a key to stimulate business R&D investment in Europe (Green
Paper, 2007).
If a knowledge-based economy is mainly characterised by the production,
transmission and dissemination of knowledge, universities are unique in all these
processes, “due to the key role they play in the three fields of research and exploitation of
its results” (European Commission, 2003). These statements once again highlight the
importance of research activities in the European universities and give a clear signal that
university research sector (and management as well) is undergoing significant change.
Such changes mainly may be described as qualitative ones as are linked to managerial
decisions, attitude and organisational values. Banerjee (2003) describes qualitative
changes as shift from one state to another. Such description has clear links to the
changes in research management – shift to non-linear management, competitive
environment, increasing internationalisation, expanding list of stakeholders and other
factors. For that reason in the thesis the major regard is paid to qualitative change as
precisely describing the essence of the occurring trends.
Unless a number of researchers have analysed changes in the research
management few of them have developed links between change management, modern
science approach and empiric institutional analysis. Despite existing findings discussing
the changing approach to science and its impact on management of higher education
institutions, only few of them describe research management in the context of change
management theory. Such approach has much relevance in understanding the essence
of the occurring changes and in developing the university research management model,
especially considering it as a tool for countries not defined as leaders in innovative
research management. Such approach has strong boundaries with the description of the
thesis problem - how under the processes of qualitative change to model university
research management. Such a question raises the aim to develop the university
research mat model.
To meet the defined aim, the following objectives are defined:
1. To analyse the change management theory models and define their applicability
for university research management and construction of the theoretical model;
2. To define the priorities of the international initiatives and documents encouraging
change in the university research management and their relevance to the
characteristics of modern science;
10

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