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Occupational segregation by gender and ethnic group in Great Britain’s Labor market

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35 pages

In this paper we study occupational segregation by gender and ethnic group in England and Wales using data from the 2001 Census. We assess in an integrated framework the relative importance of each source of segregation and whether they combine into a double disadvantage effect or are independent processes. The analysis exploits the decomposability properties of the Mutual Information segregation index. These same properties allow measuring the effect on segregation of the distinctions between (i) Manual vs. Non-manual occupations; (ii) Full- vs. Part-time jobs, and (iii) human capital categories. Finally, we extend the usual notion of occupational segregation among the employed population to include the segregation of the entire non-student population of working age due to differences in the distribution of demographic groups over labor market participation categories. Among the main conclusions, the following three are emphasized. (1) The role of gender is much greater than the role of ethnic group in accounting for occupational segregation, and both constitute independent processes. (2) All the distinctions mentioned above with the exception of human capital have a substantial effect on segregation by gender. However, the Manual vs. Non-manual and the Fullvs. Part-time distinctions have a negligible effect on segregation by ethnic group. (3) The segregation induced by labor market participation decisions in England and Wales is about 20 per cent greater than the usual occupational segregation
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Working Paper 11-40 Departamento de Economía
Economic Series Universidad Carlos III de Madrid
November, 2011 Calle Madrid, 126
28903 Getafe (Spain)
Fax (34) 916249875
Occupational Segregation by Gender and Ethnic Group in Great Britain’s Labor
Market
† ‡ ‡1Daniel Guinea-Martin , Ricardo Mora and Javier Ruiz-Castillo
Abstract
In this paper we study occupational segregation by gender and ethnic group in England and
Wales using data from the 2001 Census. We assess in an integrated framework the relative importance
of each source of segregation and whether they combine into a double disadvantage effect or are
independent processes. The analysis exploits the decomposability properties of the Mutual Information
segregation index. These same properties allow measuring the effect on segregation of the distinctions
between (i) Manual vs. Non-manual occupations; (ii) Full- vs. Part-time jobs, and (iii) human capital
categories. Finally, we extend the usual notion of occupational segregation among the employed
population to include the segregation of the entire non-student population of working age due to
differences in the distribution of demographic groups over labor market participation categories.
Among the main conclusions, the following three are emphasized. (1) The role of gender is much
greater than the role of ethnic group in accounting for occupational segregation, and both constitute
independent processes. (2) All the distinctions mentioned above with the exception of human capital
have a substantial effect on segregation by gender. However, the Manual vs. Non-manual and the Full-
vs. Part-time distinctions have a negligible effect on segregation by ethnic group. (3) The segregation
induced by labor market participation decisions in England and Wales is about 20 per cent greater than
the usual occupational segregation.
Keywords: segregation, ethnic and gender, labor market, occupations, Great Britain
† Department of Sociology I, Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia (UNED)
‡ Department of Economics, Universidad Carlos III Madrid, Spain
‡ Department of Economics, Universidad Carlos III Madrid, Spain
1 UK Census data is Crown Copyright. Guinea-Martin acknowledges ESRC Fellowship RES-163-27-1003 , and from the
Spanish government grants CSO2008-03222 and CSO2011-30179-C02-02. Mora acknowledges financial help from
Spanish DGI ECO2009-11165. Ruiz-Castillo acknowledges financial help from Spanish DGI grant SEJ2007-67436. We
thank the Health & Care and Census divisions of the Office for National Statistics (ONS) at Tichfield for producing the
specially commisioned tables of the 2001 England and Wales Census data and, especially, Kevin Lynch for his kind
assistance in the process.M
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