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On frequency synchronization in OFDM-based systems [Elektronische Ressource] / von Wei Zhang

147 pages
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9
System
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.

.
Concepts
.
11
.
2.1
.
Chapter
.
Ov
deling
erview
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
T
.
.
.
ector-v
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
erview
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
ransmission
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
5
.
.
.
.
.
v
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
25
.
Mo
.
.
.
.
11
ector
2.2
.
The
.
Wireless
.
Radio
2.7
Channel
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
29
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
29
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
V
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
and
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
11
.
2.2.1
2.6
T
tional
w
hniques
o
.
Imp
.
ortan
.
t
.
F
.
eatures
.
.
The
.
T
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
2.6.2
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
3
12
OFDM-based
2.2.2
Chapter
Mathematical
.
Description
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
Pure
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
30
.
alued
.
del
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
3.2.2
.
OFDM
13
.
2.2.3
.
Channel
.
Mo
.
del
.
for
3.2.3
Sim
Co
ulation
terlea
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
23
.
Con
.
en
.

.
ec
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
14
.
2.3
.
Multiplexing
.
and
.
Multiple
.
A
.

.
.
.
.
2.6.1
.
V
.
alued
.
ransmission
.
del
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
25
.
V
.
Equalization
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
15
.
2.4
.
Multicarrier
.
Mo
.
dulation
.
and
.
OFDM
26
.
Summary
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
27
.
Mo
.
of
.
Systems
17
3.1
2.5
Ov
Sync
.
hronization
.
Errors
.
in
.
OFDM
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
3.2
.
OFDM
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
21
.
2.5.1
.
Carrier
.
Phase
.
Errors
.
.
.
.
3.2.1
.
ector-v
.
T
.
Mo
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
30
.
Data
.
in
.
Systems
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
21
.
2.5.2
34
Timing
OFDM
Errors
Channel
.
ding
.
In
.
ving
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
35
.
.ransmission
3.3
of
Multiuser
.
OFDM
.
Systems
4.4
.
Summary
.
.
.
.
.
T
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
56
.
.
.
Errors
.
of
.
.
.
.
.
72
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
of
.
.
.
.
.
66
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
36
.
3.3.1
of
Do
.
wnlink
.
T
CDM-OFDMA
ransmission
.
Mo
.
del
.
of
.
OFDMA
.
.
.
.
81
.
Systems
.
Oset
.
.
.
Mo
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
56
.
Oset
.
.
.
The
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
Systems
37
Oset
3.3.2
4.3.1
Uplink
.
T
.
ransmission
.
Mo
.
del
.
of
.
OFDMA
.
.
.
.
ectrum
.
Oset
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
39
.
3.3.3
.
Comparison
.
of
.
Con
4.2
v
the
en
F
tional
.
and
.
In
.
terlea
T
v
.
ed
.
OFDMA
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
The
.
F
.
OFDM
.
.
.
.
.
59
39
of
3.3.4
.
A
.
daptiv
.
e
.
Sub
.

.
Assignmen
Multiuser
t
the
.
F
.
.
.
.
.
wnlink
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
4.3.2
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
Spread
.
the
.
F
42
.
3.4
MC-CDM
Com
.
bination
.
of
.
OFDM
.
and
.
Spread
.
Sp
.
ectrum
.
.
72
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
4.4.3
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
80
43
.
3.4.1
.
MC-CDM
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
55
.
OFDM
.
in
.

.
Carrier
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
4.2.1
.
ransmission
.
del
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
43
.
3.4.2
.
CDM-OFDMA
.
.
.
.
4.2.2
.

.
Carrier
.

.
on
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
4.2.3
.

.
Timing
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
4.3
.
OFDM
.
in
.

.
Carrier
49

3.4.3
.
MC-CDMA
.
.
.
.
67
.
Do
.
T
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
67
.
Uplink
.
ransmission
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
51
.
3.5
68
Summary

.
Sp
.
in
.

.
Carrier
.

.
.
.
.
.
4.4.1
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
4.4.2
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
53
.
4
.

.
of
.
F
79

MC-CDMA
Osets
.
on
.
OFDM-based
.
Systems
.
55
.
4.1
.
Chapter
.
Ov
.
erview
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
4.5
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
..
5
.
F
.


Oset
.
Comp
Estimation
ensation
olicy
83
Using
5.1
and
Chapter
A.2.1
Ov
.
erview
.
.
OFDMA
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
Error
.
.
.
.
.
C
.
.
.

.
F
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
6.3.3
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
127
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
Notation
.
Data-Aided
.
.
.
.
.
6.2.2
83
.
5.2
.
F
for

.
Oset
6.3.1
Comp
.
ensation
.
b
.
y
.
Matrix
the
In
.
v
.
ersion

.
.
.
.
.
6.4
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
Linear
.
Least
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
Minim
.
.
.
.
84
.
5.3
.
F
.

.
Oset
The
Comp
.
ensation
.
b
.
y
.
ZF
Sym

139
h

and
.
LMMSE
.

.
h
.
.
.
.
(Blind)
.
Estimation
.
.
87
.
5.4
111
Sim
Oset
ulation
Uplink
Results
.
.
.
.
.
.
hronization
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
6.3.2
.
Estimation
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
b
.
Sub
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
89
7
5.4.1
123
F
ector

The
Oset

Comp
.
ensation
.
in
.
OFDM
.
Using
.
F
.

A.2
Al-
Mean
gorithms

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
Scalar
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
128
.
ector
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
B
.
List
.
ols
.
of
.
6.2.1
.
F
.
Oset
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
89
102
5.4.2
Non-Data-Aided
F
F

Oset
Oset
.
Comp
.
ensation
.
in
.
OFDMA
.
Uplink
.
.
6.3
.

.
Estimation
.
the
.
of
.
Systems
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
113
.
Sync
90
P
5.4.3
.
Comparison
.
of
.
CDM-OFDMA
.
and
.
MC-CDMA
.
in
.
the
.
Uplink
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
113
.
F
93
Oset
5.5
in
Summary
Uplink
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
115
.
F
.
T
.
king
.
y
.
Pilot
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
118
.
Summary
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
98
.
6
.
F
.

.
Oset
120
Estimation
Summary
in
Conclusions
Multiuser
A
OFDM
V
Systems
Equalization
101
A.1
6.1
Linear
Chapter
Squares
Ov
h
erview
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
127
.
Linear
.
um
.
Square
.
(LMMSE)
.
hes
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
128
.
The
.
LMMSE
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
101
.
6.2
.
F
.

.
Oset
.
Estimation
A.2.2
in
V
OFDM
LMMSE
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
129
.
Mathematical
.
and
.
of
.
b
.
133
.
List
.
Abbreviations
.
10282%
en
In
MC-CDM,
tro
impro

in
Wireless
solutions,

sym
unication
(MC-CDMA)
with
and
mobile
Based
phones
impro
and
F
wireless
div
lo
ac

o
area
spacing
net
b
w
hronization
orks
on
has
sp
b

ecome
b
a
de
part

of
scenarios,
the
or-
h

uman
k
life.
sensitivit
Equipp
less
ed
k
with
30dB.
a
y
wireless
tially

atten
a

laptop
v
allo
arrier
ws
are
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bandwidth
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the
to
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CDM)
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in
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More
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and
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wireless
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m
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services
BPSK,
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exp
required,
ected
to
for
(SINR)
the
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future.
osets
This
among

hannel
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deals
ev
and
er-increasing
to
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On
w
the
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hand,
e
frequency

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osed
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e
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v
Th
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e
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hniques
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tly
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required.

Ortho
e
gonal
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m
e
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ts
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metho
b
d
dra
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b
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to
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t
frequency
data
Chapter
transmission
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with
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lo
order
w
the
implemen

tation
r

less
y
the
.

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the
fortunately
y
,
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users,
ded
the
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suer
frequency
from
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the
uc
frequency
is

uplink
e
the
b

eha
fr
vior
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of
and
radio
describ

alued
hannels,
9
whic
lik
h
multic
ma
spr
y
ad
giv
e
e
(MC-SS),
rise
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to
to
deep
v
fading
the
on

some
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sub
o


Error
deep

and
trol
v

the
ding


OFDM
b
y
e
of
used
ersit
to
.

or
e
multic
with
-
this
o
problem.
division
The
(MC-
resulting
spreads

transmit
o
b
de
o
d
er
OFDM
fully
(COFDM)
sub
has
to
b
hiev
een
a
adopted
ersit
b
gain.
y
or
some
ultiuser
stan-
t
dards
o
as
arian
a
of

i.e.,
hnique
o
in
division
the
-
ph
tho
ysical
fr
la

y
multiple
er,

e.g.,
(CDM-OFDMA)
digital
multic
audio
-
br
o
o
division

ac
asting
ess
(D

AB),
e
digital
One
vide
wbac
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of
br
whic
o


e
asting
v
-
b
terr
MC-CDM
estrial
its
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y
VB-T),
frequency
and
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wir

eless
the
lo
of

a
al
oset
ar
than
1
of
e
the
a

network

(WLAN).
in
F
is
urthermore,
in
for
to
a
eep
m
signal
ultiuser
interfer
scenario,
e
ortho
noise
gonal
atio
fr
not
e
than

In
division
uplink
multiple
in
ac


y
ess
frequency
(OFDMA)
ma
has
destro
b
the
een
y
adopted
the
in
ev
IEEE
if
standard

802.11.16
is
as
Essen
a
,
m
thesis
ultiple
with

sync

in
hnique.
systems,
Ho
m
w
h
ev
tion
er,
paid
the
the

transmission.
in
on
tro
study

the
b
of
y
arrier

e-
ding
oset
in
O)
turn
OFDM

MC-CDM,
the
e
bandwidth
e

ector-v
.
transmission
There-
dels
fore,
otherw
1

In
P
tro
realized

impro
for
del
the
w
uplink
CF
of
e
OFDMA,
estimators
CDM-OFDMA,

and
us
MC-CDMA
a
in
a
the
mo


of
of
CF
estimation
Os.
b
F
with
urther-

more,
A
w
in
e

prop

ose
for
an
is
uplink

frequency

sync
5
hronization
ulations
sc
t
heme
for
b
for
y
likeliho
using
oid
in
estimator

should

b

the
hniques,
e
along
CF
with
b
a
v
mo
deriv
died
CF
frequency
based
oset
the
estimator
systems.
suited
a
for
is
the
er.
uplink
in
of
oset
OFDMA
hannel,
and
ensation
CDM-OFDMA.
of
The
the
outline
p
of
that
this

thesis
to
is
MC-CDMA
as
,
follo
the
ws:
broad
Chapter
estimators
2
en
describ
mo
es
estimator
the
T



estimation
required
y
for
is
a
that
b
for
etter
CDM-OFDMA.
understanding
a
of
for
this
w
w
in
ork.

A
on
description
e
of
a
the
,
wireless
alued
radio
b

for
hannel

is
and
giv
other
en
it.
rst.
hronization
Then,
is
traditional
for
m
tradi-
ultiplexing
with
and
frequency
the



onding
uplink
m

ultiple
prop

w
metho
the
ds
part
are
osite
in
as
tro
oset

b
The
y


of
Based
multic
osed
arrier
this
mo
in
d-
the
ulation
estimates
(MCM)
are
and
wn.
OFDM
also
are
the
explained
CDM-OFDMA
afterw
some
ards.
Subsequen
W
Chapter
e
deal
also
O
giv
systems.
e
v
a
CF
brief
elop
o
is
v
Then,
erview
elop
of
data-aided
the
d
sync
CF
hronization
the
errors
a
in
multiuser
OFDM.
(MUI)
The
e

,
hapter
the
ends
the
with
the
an
erformed.
in
e
tro
frequency

elop
to

t
used
w
thesis
o
summary

discussion
v
and
en

tional
of
v
ha
ector
een
equalizers:
[91],
zer
and
o-for
a

O
(ZF)
OFDM
equalizer
b
and
expressed
line
y
ar
matrix.
minimum

me
a
an
ector-v
squar
mo
e

err
e
or
ed
(LMMSE)
OFDM
equalizer,
the
based
of
on
O,
a
th
linear
for
transmission
systems
mo
on
del.
F
Chapter
sync
3
in
starts
uplink
with
a
a
hallenge
particular
OFDM-based
description
The
of
tional
the
hnique
mo
adjusting
deling
master
pro
of

lo
of

OFDM
not
o
suitable
v
an
er

a
The
time-
idea
in
e
v
osed
arian
this
t
ork

treating
hannel
frequency
with
as
a
of
limited

dela

y
and
spread.
a
This
frequency
mo

del

has
e
b
b
een
means
in
in
tro


hniques.
e.g.,
on
in
prop
[22
transmission

dels,
Nev
is
ertheless,
erformed
w
Chapter
e
under
explain
assumption
it
all
here
of
again
Os
b
p
ecause
kno
it
Sim
is
are
of
made
particular

imp
p
ortance
of
for
and
the
in
deriv
dieren
a-
scenarios.
tion
tly
of
in
the
6
transmission
e
mo
with
del
CF

estimation
the
OFDMA

A
of
o
frequency
erview
oset
the
in
O
the
dev
next
ed

OFDM
hapter.
giv
F
rst.
urthermore,
w
the
dev
denitions,
a
features,
died
and
maximum
v
o
ector-v
(ML)
alued
for
mathematical
O
descriptions
in
are
uplink.
in
o
v
v
esti-
the
gated
interfer
for
e

and
h
v
OFDM-based
the
transmission

sc
this
heme.
restores
Simplied
orthogonalit
mo
among
dels
users,
are
efore
deriv
estimation
ed
p
for
It
the
b
uplink
noted
transmission
the
of
oset
pure
dev
OFDMA
ed
and
OFDMA
CDM-OFDMA.
also
The
e
eects
for
of
The

ends
frequency
a
oset
,
on
nal
OFDM-based
of
systems
results,
are
suggestions
studied
future
in
h.
Chapter
arts
4.
this
Basi-
ork

v
,
b
in
published
frequency
[90],
domain
[92
the
[93],
main
[94

10
of