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Optimum house for Rasht peoples
(Based on their behaviors and influence needs)
With special reference to mediocre families

Vorgelegt von
Arash Mehrgani

Von der Fakultat VI
Planen Bauen Umwelt
Der Technischen Universitat Berlin
Zur Erlangung des akademischen Grades
Doktor der Ingenieurwissenschaften

Genehmigte Dissertation

Vorsitzender: Prof.Dr.Ing.Klaus Ruckert
Gutachter: Prof. Dipl. Ing. Peter Berten
Gutachter: Prof. Dr. Jahanshah Pakzad(shahid beheshti university-Tehran
Tag der wissenschaftlichen Aussprache: 29-Juli-2010

Berlin 2011


Since Iran's revolution, the population of cities has been growing
dramatically due to several reasons which are not discussed in this thesis.
As a result of this growth, there have been 2chief problems in making
sufficient number of buildings for Iranian citizens.

The first problem is with the shortcomings which exist in house
construction and the second one is new houses which are inappropriate
for Iranian families.
These problems can be specifically felt more in other provinces than in

As I came to Rasht in 1997and started my career in house designing
section, I encountered a number of problems.
Most people here, have their house plans modified before or after the
construction,payalot of money for this remodeling and try to adjust them
according to their own needs.

Most of these houses are designed by civil engineers or architects based
on the theories which are being taught at universities in Iran and they are
also monitored and accepted by some organizations.

This thesis tries to know more about behaviors and identify the needs of
people who live in Rasht.
It also attempts to present a guide line for house designers to do their
duties better than before, along with some designed samples for people to
use as models.
During the research, we realized that the policies might change during a
short period of time,thus,we cant apply the guide line for the future.
That’s why we try to show a model to make out the current situation and
update our information effectively on house designing and the needs of
society regarding this model.
Multiple methods-both quantitative and qualitative-were considered to
approach the basic data, which were adopted to examine the objectives of
this research.
In addition 800 samples were applied in order to figure out the influence
of residential behaviors and peoples favored models.
These samples were processed under municipality license and were
chosen randomly. These houses are designed based on the land lords' orders who want to
sell their houses as soon as possible and are according to peoples likes
and needs.
Both a questionnaire and the observation method along with taking
notes and photography, which was done by architecture students, were
employed for data gathering during the work field.

There has always been a big problem using the questionnaires to gather
data here in Iran and that is the lack of trust on the questioners.

Mostly there is not accurate information about the salary or the price of
houses because people assume that the questioners are related to the
governmental tax and ministration, hence in this project, observation was
used more than questionnaires.

Meanwhile quantitative data have been analyzed through statistical
methods. (spss)

The sample of this thesis consists of mediocre families which is the
representative family type in Rasht.

Accordingly approaching this criterion, the samples were chosen from
locations such as Golsar and Manzarrieh, in which most residents are

Arash Mehrgani
December 15, 2009


I should like to thank the individuals who have contributed ideas,
inspiration and support for this study. First and foremost, I would like to
acknowledge and appreciate my wife for her invaluable motivation and

I am also grateful to her veracious assistance in taking care of our son all
on her own while I was away on trips a long time.
In particular, my special appreciation to my mother and father for
providing a stimulating and convenient environment which has played the
main role in my achievement, specifically during the war( Iran-Iraq War)
and other crises in my life.

I have been incredibly fortunate to have the companion and guide lines of
two supervisors, prof. Peter Berten and prof. Dr.Pakzad.

This study would not be successfully done without my colleagues and
specially the deans.

Cooperation in faculty of art and architecture in Guilan University.

I would like to express my deepest gratitude to them for their intellectual

At last but not least, my special thanks to all students of mine that have
helped me trough out the research for filling the questionnaire and
collecting information.

To all these people I offer my profound gratitude. I only hope that they
will like the way it has turned out.

Table of contents
Table of contents
List of Figures
List of Table
1- Introduction 1-9
1.1 The reason for selecting the topic 2
1.2. The purpose of the study 3
1.3. Basic topics: 3
1-4: special question regarding the basic topic: 4
1-5: Background and limitations of the study 5
1-5-1: Limitations of the study 5
1-5-2: Background of the study 6
1-6: Methodology 6
1-6-1: Description of the research model 6
1-6-2: Method 7
1-7: Structure of the thesis 8
1-8: Chapters of thesis 9
2 - Chapter 2: 10-22
Studying and recognizing peoples (Rasht) special needs and
behaviors (differences and reasons)
2-1: Geographical factors 12
2-2: Historical factors 13
2-3: Ecological conditions 15
2-4: Cultural factors 18
3-Chapter 3 23-49
Settlement activities in Rasht people's family

3-1: Study of Activities 26
3-1-1: Behaviors: 26
3-2: Hygienic behaviors 32
3-3: Worshipping Matters: 33
3-3-1: Group behaviors: 33
3-3-2: Public and Private Spaces: 34
3-4: Dwelling spaces 36
3-4-1: Entrance spaces 37
3-4-2: Lavatory and washbasin 37
3-4-3: Living room 37
3-4-4: Living room and guest room 37
3-4-5: Bathroom 38
3-4-6: Bedrooms 38
3-4-7: Kitchen 39
3-5: The desired performers 41
3-6: The time of the activity 41
3-6-1. Fridays 42
3-6-2: The mourning days 43
3-6-3: The celebration days 43

Chapter 4: 50-66
Islam Precepts Regarding House
4-1: Soundness of the house 55
4-2: Reverence and privacy of the house 56
4-3: Hygiene of the house 58
4-4: Building the house 58
4-5: Spaces of the House 60
4-5-1: the Entrance 60
4-5-2: the courtyard 60
4-5-3: Living room spaces 61
4-5-4: Sleeping Space 62
4-5-5: Worshipping Space 63
4-5-7: Service Spaces: bathroom and restroom 63
4-5-8: Decorations and Furniture of the house 64
Chapter 5: 67-82
The impact of social relations on houses
5-1: Social relations 68
5-2: inside the family relations 73
5-2-1: The relation between father and mother 73
5-2-2: The between parents and children 73
5-2-3: The relation among children 74
5-3: The relation of the individual with the outside 75
5-3-1: Children below the age of 4 75
5-3-2: Children between 4 and 12 75
5-3-3: Children beyond 12 76
5-4: The relation between parents and the society 77
5-5: The relation between family and society 78
5-5-1: Relation with neighbors 78
5-5-2: Relation with relatives 79
5-5-3: Relation with friends and colleagues 80

Chapter 6: 83-96
Metamorphosis in present society
6-1: Cultural factors 86
6-2: Social conditions and factors 88
6-3: The development of technology 91

Chapter 7: 97-112
Studying and determining traditional cause of space

7-1: System of elements in the society 97
7-1-1: Traditional model 97
7-1-2: Foreign model 97
7-1-3: Compound model 98
7-2: The family’s life style 108
7-3: The society economical security 110
7-4: The space of the warehouses 110

Chapter 8: 112-137
Studying the amount of changes in residential houses

8-1: Governmental projects 114
8-1-1: Change in needs of society 117
8-1-2: Change in target dwellers 119
8-1-3: Changing the details and finishing touches 123
8-2:Non-governmental projects 124
8-2-1: Changes in the inner part of the house and in the architecture of the
plan 125
8-2-2: Change in floor area and number of floors 128

Chapter 9: Results 138-164
Studying and recognizing housing plans in today society

9-1: Inconformity of common residential needs with small
9-2: Establishment of Private Banks 140
9-3: Increase in the number of rich people in townships 141
9-3-1: Hidden Kitchen 141
9-3-2: Second Bathroom 141
9-3-3: Cloakroom 142
9-3-4: North Balconies 142
9-3-5: Entrance 143
9-4: The common spaces in today's houses 144
9-4-1: Entrance 144
9-4-2: Living room and Guest room 147
9-4-3: Bedrooms 150
9-4-4: Kitchen 153
9-4-5: Bathroom 158
9-4-6: Restroom 160
9-5: Ideal plan for normal families in Rasht 163

9-6: Summery 164-168
Picture1: Guilan Mountain 12
Picture2: Mirza koochak khan hero of Rasht 14
Picture3: Municipality of Rasht Building 15
Picture4: The intensity of rain in Rasht 16
Picture5: Roads and forests of Guilan 16
Picture6: Sample of region architecture in Guilan 17
Picture7: Sample of common architecture in the central plateau of Iran 17
Picture8: Local entertainments in Guilan (cow fighting) varza jang 20
Picture9: Local show (rope walking) excerpted from Russia 21
Picture10: Multicolored life and cloths 21
Picture11: Women are full of colors 22
Picture12: A sample of keeping beds at the corner of the room 28
Picture13: Sample of eating (in living room) 29
Picture14: Sample of eating (in Kitchen) 30
Picture15: figure of house and society effected 34
Picture16: Levels of privacy from bedroom to downtown 36
Picture17: sample of separate living room 37
Picture18: Sample of living and guest room mix together 38
Picture19: Private corridor between bedrooms 38
Picture20: Tree kind of mills in one kitchen 40
Picture21: Sample of kitchen spaces 41
Picture22: Usual position of furniture 72
Picture23: Rate of change in families during life 73
Picture24: Sample of an adolescent's private room 77
Picture25: A space that illustrates feminine 77
Picture26: Muzif out door guest room in south of Iran 79

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