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Margo Russell
Religion as a Social Possession. Afrikaner Reaction to the
Conversion of Bushmen to their Church / La Religion comme
possession sociale. Les réactions des Afrikaanders à la
conversion des Bochimans à leur Eglise
In: Archives des sciences sociales des religions. N. 44/1, 1977. pp. 59-73.
Citer ce document / Cite this document :
Russell Margo. Religion as a Social Possession. Afrikaner Reaction to the Conversion of Bushmen to their Church / La Religion
comme possession sociale. Les réactions des Afrikaanders à la conversion des Bochimans à leur Eglise. In: Archives des
sciences sociales des religions. N. 44/1, 1977. pp. 59-73.
doi : 10.3406/assr.1977.2124
http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/article/assr_0335-5985_1977_num_44_1_2124Arch Sc soc des Rel. 1976 44/1 juillet-septembre) 59 73
Margo RUSSELL
RELIGION AS SOCIAL POSSESSION
Afrikaner Reaction to the Conversion of Bushmen
to their Church
Chrétienne et protestante et donc en théorie universaliste
et individualiste la religion des Afrikaanders du Kalahari pré
sente en fait nombre de traits de ce que Bellah appelle la
religion archaïque caractéristique de Afrique tribale Une
telle évolution qui se retrouve dans bien autres aspects de la
vie sociale des Afrikaanders est sans doute le résultat de la
confrontation permanente avec les religions proprement tribales
Cependant le dilemme vécu par tout colon quand il agit de
partager sa religion avec les indigènes est pas pour autant
supprimé cette étude de 1973 sur opposition un groupe
éleveurs blancs la conversion des Bochimans leur Eglise
illustre de fa on frappante universalisme théorique du
christianisme oppose au niveau de la vie locale la réalité des
pratiques discriminatoires
In 1973 small Gereformeerde Congregation of 25 members at Kar
in the Kalahari was formally dissolved Three pastors representing the
Gereformeerde Synod presided over the dissolution They had travelled
by car from Namibia to the Botswana border and there truck driven
by one of the congregation had met them to bring them the last two
hundred sandy miles to the church farm at Kar In the elementary
concrete church farmhouse they met with the men of the congregation
There had been less than 21 families when the congregation had been
established in 1948 and no anticipation then of any startling increase in
numbers The Gereformeerdes do not go by strength of numbers
but by strength of faith the Dominie said In this we are unlike our
sister church the Nederduitse Gereformeerdes.
The fieldwork upon which this article is based was made possible by the Social
Science Research Council U.K. and the British Academy 1973
Numbers did increase however Peak membership was reached in 1961 when
there were 168 members By 1965 numbers had fallen to 91 Information kindly supplied
by church officers 1973.
59 ARCHIVES DE SCIENCES SOCIALES DES RELIGIONS
The cause for dissolution was more significant directive from the
Botswana government that the existence of the White Afrikaner
congregation alongside mission to the Bushmen by the self same
denomination was contrary to the government policy of non-racialism
and that the White congregation should in future amalgamate with the
Bushman mission
This is case study of the Kar settler response to
the establishment of the mission and an exploration of their attitudes to
attempts to convert Bushmen to Christianity It suggests that these
settlers exemplify the dilemmas conflicts and tensions which characterize
all confrontations between settlers and missionaries the isolation of the
Kalahari context merely serves to throw into peculiarly sharp relief
inherent problems for settlers of the universalist impulse of Christianity
The analysis finally raises anew old questions about the nature of religion
Christianity like Islam and Buddhism is universal religion in the
sense that its membership is potentially open to everybody The
proselytizing injunction was early enshrined and legitimated in its sacred
text though the impulse to act upon it has waxed and waned
superflcially it would seem in proportion to the imperialist expansionist
inclinations of its bearers though whether this is construed as cause
or consequence is debatable Clearly colonies represented an opportunity
for the religiously fervid to seize but on occasion they preceded colonial
powers and frequently acted for them in negotiation and administra
tion The impulse to proselytise and the impulse to colonise are
bedfellows the indigenous peoples had frequent difficulty in distinguishing
them Certainly in the long run the kinds of changes initiated by
missionaries went far towards creating demand for the commodities
which has irrevocably brought the post-colonial territories into permanent
inter-dependence if not dependence on the colonising powers which
originally spawned the missionaries
Proselytisation is curious phenomenon It is the deliberate and
selfconscious attempt to change the world view of people to substitute
for some existing world view new sacred cosmos and endowing that
new world view with such legitimacy that it seems uniquely realistic
The task is formidable and the conspicuous lack of success of many
This is the decisive characteristic distinguishing historic from archaic reli
gions typology See BELLAH Religious Evolution American Sociological
Review 29 1964
Go forth therefore and make all nations my disciples baptise men everywhere
in the name of the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit and teach them to observe all
that have commanded you The New English Bible 1961 Matthew 28 19-20
The ûfteenth and sixteenth century catholic missionary activity was Spanish and
Portuguese The next great wave of Christian missionary fervours was nineteenh century
protestant predominantly concern of colonial powers See NEILL History of
Christian Missions Penguin Books 1964
See MEHL The Sociology of Protestantism Philadelphia Westminster Press
1970 pp 163-188 for concise discussion
It is popularly said in South Africa that the missionaries taught people to pray
so that while their eyes were closed they could appropriate their land
GEERTZ Religion as Cultural System in BANTON ed. Anthropological
Approaches to the Study of Religion London Tavlstock 1966
60 RELIGION AS SOCIAL POSSESSION
missionaries in many places is hardly surprising Equally understandable
are the continuing missionary doubts as to the validity of the religious
experience of those who capitulated Intuitively the missionaries were
grappling with the problem which received explicit sociological articulation
in the sixties how much else besides theology besides what Berger so
aptly characterises as sacred cosmos must be changed if the new world
view is to receive that daily social affirmation without which it is unlikely
to be maintained The problem is one of the relative autonomy of the
parts of the social fabric Bellah in his evolutionary schema of different
religions has suggested that autonomy is central criterion of evolution
the more highly evolved religion is precisely the one which can be
transferred adopted without repercussion in or implication for other
areas of social life The socially constructed and socially constraining
permeation of medieval Christianity in the medieval European social fabric
is contrasted with the freewheeling privatised nature of many contemporary
American beliefs about their relationship with the ultimate conditions of
their existence 9)
The struggle of contemporary Christian missionary effort to free itself
of specific cultural constraints may be interpreted as evolutionary advance
in terms in so far as it reduces the scope and implication of the
religious to narrow concern with particular solutions to philosophical
problems of meaning salvation or the ultimate It might be argued that
it is the very process of universalism that pares down the religious function
and thus promotes its evolution
In these terms the Christianity of the nineteenth century protestant
missionaries must be seen as less evolved The establishment of Christian
villages in India and Christian reserves in Africa show that change of
world view was seen to carry very specific social consequences Special
arrangements had to be made to enable converts to maintain their new
ideology whose ethic frequently insisted inter alia on entry into paid wage
labour in the classic protestant mode described by Weber Tawney
Thompson and others 10 Universalism also carried very specific social
consequences for its bearers the Christians but not for all of them equally
The universalist nature of Christianity is remote consideration for
most Christians since their local organisation into congregations is usually
In accordance with local social distinctions The denominations are
Missionary records abound in agonizing doubts about the validity of the conver
sions they were effecting See for example Proceedings of South India Missionary Confe
rence held at Ootacamund April lOth-May 5th 1858 Madras 1858
BELLAH 1964 defines religion as set of symbolic forms and acts which relate
man to the ultimate conditions of his existence op cit. 263)
10 PHILIP Researches South Africa London 1828 Vol describes the missio
naries task as locating the savages among whom they labour teaching them industrious
habits creating demand for British manufactures and increasing their dependence on
the Colony He concludes that missionary stations are the most efficient agents which
can be employed to promote the internal strength of our colonies and the cheapest and
best military posts government can employ 227)
61 DE SCIENCES SOCIALES DES RELIGIONS ARCHIVES
themselves as much form of social as doctrinal differentiation 11
Neighbourhood location has also ensured homogeneity and where this
has not been so as in parish churches serving entire villages there was
in the past careful congregational reinforcement of local social distinctions
for example in the allocation of family pews In contemporary times
people with cars travel that distance necessary to ensure their worship
with agreeable others to the distress of church authorities 12)
Thus in Britain the Christian experience is of the relatively homo
geneous congregation their confrontation with universalism is usually
restricted to the singing of sentimental songs about benighted men on
golden sand 13 It is shock when in fulfilment of their
expressed wishes the benighted are delivered from chain and arrive
from golden sand via Jamaica on their church steps expecting
brotherly welcome separatist segregationist outcome is usual 14)
The relative ease with which most Christians have been insulated
from the awkward social implications of universalism contrasts with stark
dilemmas which faced settler congregations in the colonies On the whole
they behaved with phenomenal indifférence to the spiritual fate of the
natives Yet any condemnation of them for lack of proselytising zeal
must be seen as somewhat hypocritical so long as it comes from home
congregations secure in their homogeneous enclaves
The proselytising zealots were the missionaries themselves group
so distinctive that they invariably operated outside the existing framework
of Christian organization constituting themselves into purposive Societies
Their peculiar role placed them outside both home congregations and
settler congregations Whereas home congregations regarded them with
tolerant indulgence seeing them as possibly heroic settler
regarded them with suspicion and hostility seeing them as agents of
agitation and disturbance creators of new social problems with which
settlers would have to contend
Settler congregations may be seen as facing four alternatives vis-a-vis
the religious world views of the native population they could convert
and integrate them they could convert them but organise them into
segregated they could do nothing out of indifference to
the universalist injunctions finally they could reject the universalist
doctrine The alternative selected depended on host of factors demo
graphic economic cultural political It also depended on religious factors
themselves factors of organization whether the church was hierarchic
or democratic whether religious functionaries were recruited locally or by
immigration were celibate or married Theology was another variable
though one which proved flexible depending on organisation and power
to systematise the sacred world view
11 H.R NIEBTTHR The Social Sources of Denominationalism New York Meridian
Books 1957
12 The Churchman O.K.. January 1975 This consumer choice can lead to embar
rassing imbalances of congregation for affected clergymen
13 From the hymn From Icy Moutains by Bishop HEBER 1783-
1826) The English Hymnal 1933) no 547
14 C.S HILL West Indian Migrants and the London Churches Oxford Univ Press
1963
62 AS SOCI POSSESSION RELIGION
Although the first option is the theologically expected choice socio
logically we would expect it to be rare since it would be exercised only
so long as the number of converts remained few enough not to threaten
the social fabric of settler society Since however the number of converts
would be likely to rise precisely in proportion to the inducements offered
amongst which access into powerful settler networks must be rated high
it is not an option which would remain viable for long
The second option was typical of settler situations though usually
deplored by the missionaries Its frequency might be explained by
combination of settler indifference and missionary zeal ensuring that
though proselytisation occurred social segregation inevitably resulted The
missionaries embodied universalism and the constant clashes between
missionary and settlers may be taken as an index of settler rejection of
its practice
Sociological analysis suggests that the missionary preference for the
first option rests on the same sort of concern that led settlers to
third missionaries were anxious to establish enclaves of like-minded people
of which they could feel part The settlers already had such enclaves
While the missionaries maximised the rewards of proselytisation to
encourage its occurrence the settlers consolidated their privileged ranks
if not by actively discouraging proselytisation then by ensuring that it
did not entail social integration Settler behaviour constantly undermined
the credibility of missionaries whose universalistic doctrine was couched
in the imagery of brotherhood The relative success and popularity of
independent missionary societies reflects the strategic advantage of severing
organisational ties with established settler denominations
The fourth option explicit rejection of universalism is apparently
theologically incompatible with Christianity yet we find theological
predisposition to exclusiveness in the doctrines of election and predestina
tion fostered by Calvinism It is not surprising to find these arch Calvinist
doctrines and arguments being resurrected in the theological legitimation
of an exclusive concept of Christianity that has more in common with
religions of the archaic tribal type than with universalizing historic or
modern type 15 Whatever else may attach to this option it is likely to
be exercised by the religiously fervid It is rejection of social integration
but it is also rejection of the indifference and compromise that
characterise the third and second options
II
The religion which the Afrikaners brought with them into the Kalahari
the late 19th century was Dutch and reformed in origin though in two
centuries of adaptation to local conditions it had undergone certain
changes despite continuing link with Europe which remained until the
mid-19th century the sole source of its trained pastors In 1857 major
schism over the liberalising influence of Arminianism had resulted in the
15 BELLAH 1964) op cit
63 DE SCIENCES SOCIALES DES RELIGIONS ARCHIVES
establishment of the pietistic Gereformeerde Kerk in the Orangje Vrijstaat
while in the Transvaal determination to be free of the Cape establish
ment had resulted 1860 in the Hervormde Kerk as the official state
church of the northernmost republic Hinchliff characterises the religion
of these Trekker republics as embodying type of piety which was simple
and direct based upon the most literal application of biblical texts to the
business of daily life ... their Christianity was religion of the household
It was patriarchal rather than sacerdotal 16)
more hostile contemporary observer in the Free State in 1858
reported Most have no more than kind of feeling or religious intuition
not based upon word because nine out of ten understand nothing
of it but base their beliefs upon all kinds of dreams and visions ... Some
hold that the State Bible was made by the Apostles and prophets exactly
as it stood border illustrations and all ... Others call it the work of
Pharisees if an unordained person leads prayer or conducts service Some
think themselves reincarnated and think therefore that they can sin no
more because their sins have been forgiven them before they were born ...
Many cannot read or write 17 The parallels between these White
sectarians and the independent Black African churches of the next half
century are striking
These were the people nicknamed doppers The present dopper
Dominie of Ghanzi confessed uncertainty as to the derivation of the
word Perhaps because they cut their hair as they had dop egg
shell over it perhaps from drompel meaning threshhold because they
were beginners He had however no uncertainty as to the meaning of
the word
To say dopper is like to say kaffir an insult The doppers were
despised It meant that people were behind the times ... they want
to go along with new directions Doppers were cattle people They needed
to know how to go after cattle in the veld and to do what was necessary in
the house The only reason they wanted to learn to read to read the
Bible and to count ... In those days if somebody started teaching geogra
phy or something about the stars he was chased away 18)
The earliest Ghanzi settlers were from the Northern Cape and thus
nominally at least were members of the Nederduitse Gereformeerde Church
Their links with the formal structure of the Cape church were very
tenuous We find evidence in family bible of the simultaneous baptism
of five children in one family in 1916 19) suggesting long periods of
separation from ordained clergy
16 P.B HINCHLIFF The Church in South Africa London S.P.C.K. 1968
17 From de Zuid Afrikan April 1859 quoted by A.D PONT Ontleding van
die teologies dogmatiese agtergrond van Ds S.D Venter se afskeiding van die Gerefor
meerde Kerd in die O.V.S. Hervormde Teologiese Studies Vol 16 Septembre 1959 89
18 This quotation like those that follow unacknowledged is from an interview
recorded in the Kalahari in 1973
19 In 1916 J.P Joubert of Mafeking baptised simultaneously uve children in the
Maurice family as recorded in their family bible
64 AS SOCIAL POSSESSION RELIGION
In 1920 however there trekked into Ghanzi after four years in Lehututu
in the Southern Kalahari certain blacksmith Theunis Kotze sometime
elder of the Nederduitse Gereformeerde Church in the dry flat sheep
rearing area of Calvinia the Northern Cape who had gone over to
the Gereformeerde Church man of intense conviction piety and fecun
dity who was to establish the congregation in Kar the
name given to the area thirty miles east of Ghanzi Camp His fecundity
alone would probably have assured the perpetuation of the denomination
he came with seven unmarried sons and three unmarried daughters
Kotze drew people after him mainly through marriage Through marriage
the Gereformeerdes became strong
Within two years he had acquired for 8d an acre on deferred terms
twelve thousand acre farm which had been abandoned by the earliest
trekkers He called it Eersterus the first resting place It was the
first farm we owned in our lives recalled his son now weathered cattle
drover nearing retirement It was so cheap we paid it off quickly There
he set about establishing the dopper congregation In 1947 he gave two
morgen of Eersterus for building church which in 1948 was dedicated
the congregation formally established as parochial district Wyk of
Gobabis Within five years Kotze had been buried in the small fenced
family burial ground beside the church Having overlooked the formal
transfer of title deeds of the two morgen to the Gereformeerdes he failed
to leave behind any lasting symbol of his thirty years endeavour The
church together with the rest of his divided estate was sold to
Herero cattle farmer in 1972 and now stands derelict close to the family
graves few hundred yards from the new grass and mud huts of the new
owners beside the empty farmhouse where once his prospective sons-and
daughters-in-law gathered for residential catechism courses
This change of ownership of the church is accepted phlegmatically
and unsentimentally by his descendants In this intensely congregational
religion church buildings are of little importance
Confirmations used to take place at the annual visit of the predikant
Old Theunis Kotze used to ride with ox and wagon to the Republic to
get predikant and later he got one from Gobabis 20 These clerical
visits were described as private The expenses were met by congrega
tional collection but never in the church All the years Kotze was alive
there were no collections in the It allowed Since cash
was rare this ruling however principled was also pre-eminently practical
and may have been designed to protect the members of the congregation
from embarrassment
Kotze is recollected as strict man very learned about the
Christian life and about the stars with very big bookshelf full of
his books who always had bible in his hand
Clerical visits were an important but minor part of the Kalahari
doppers religious life Weekly on Sundays they would meet in one
houses to sing psalms accompanied on occasion on pedal
organ To these household services the Bushmen service to the
household were expected to come son said My father never
had special services for the Bushmen but he tried to explain the thing
20 The Republic colloquially refers to South Africa
65 ARCHIVES DE SCIENCES SOCIALES DES RELIGIONS
to them He always gave our people ons volk place where they could
hear somewhere on the side The present Dominie confirms It is
the policy of the Afrikaner that when houseprayers are said the servants
must sit in kitchen and listen Bushmen in service were also
expected likewise to attend the bible reading after every evening meal
to which on Sundays all neighbours would come However Kotze
was absolutely opposed to missionary work amongst Bushmen
The passive settler attitude to the religious fate of the Bushmen
exemplified in these social arrangements whereby Bushmen were exposed
to Christianity but not encouraged into it was not out of line with official
central Gereformeerde Church policy on the issue of the conversion of
the heathen an issue which had taxed the church from its earliest days
and upon which every church member could be expected to have strong
attitudes since in the frontier context it directly impinged upon each of
them This policy had been forged in bitter dispute with the first
Gereformeerde pastor to have received his training by apprenticeship
within Southern Africa rather than abroad Dominie Venter who in 1869
seceded from the church than abandon his doctrine that Blacks
bore the outward and visible sign of damnation and that to attempt to
convert them was contrary to Will and Word racial
exclusiveness found fairly ready theological legitimation in the election
doctrines of the arch-Calvinist divines of 17th century Holland from
whom the 19th century reform movement Holland and South Africa
drew much inspiration 21 However the gentler doctrines of Arminianism
prevailed and Venter failed to attract any substantial following Most
doppers adhered to the more liberal Gereformeerde orthodoxy that
concerning the converted Coloureds we confess one holy general church
and holy community and thus the converted Coloureds we regard as part
thereof as with any other converted nation ... But so far we do not see
from the Word of the Lord that we must therefore let them share in the
same social privileges ... By our present circumstances and insight we
think they should have separate services and should be cared for and led
in their spiritual life in manner It is our longing that this
should be done by the Church itself not by Societies or by so-called
missionaries 22)
contemporary church member echoes this nineteenth century policy
Now the Lord made us different and the Lord said to his disciples
Go out and spread the Gospel to other nations He say Unify them
Each nation must be separately served and everybody must have services
in his own language
However the exclusiveness which Venter defended which is the
antithesis of universalism probably remained more popular with the rank
and file doppers than their faithfulness to the church establishment
suggests The Ghanzi community to this day exhibit deep ambivalance
21 See A-D PONT 1959) op cit
22 Letter from the Church Board and congregation O.V.S 14th January 1860 to
de Cock Cited by PONT 1959) op cit
66 RELIGION AS SOCIAL POSSESSION
to the issue of conversion of Bushmen unwilling to condemn the principle
but unprepared to assist the practice Meanwhile the establishment has
moved cautiously toward racial integration talking of the Christian duty
of churches to educate their members for and in the practice of healthy
Christian Communion of Believers ... neither race nor colour should
exclude anyone from corporate worship 23)
The practice of mission in Ghanzi started in 1963 when the part-time
predikant Dominie Kruger whose other calling was as Gereformeerde
missioner to Bushmen in Gobabis acquired morgen of land from the
Ngamiland Trading Company at Kar to start local mission station for
Bushmen Dominie Kruger may well have been influenced in this direction
by the dramatic reduction in his White congregation at this time Between
1961 and 1964 the White Gereformeerde shrank by more
than third to 26 families Within few months Kruger had acquired
from an emigrating farmer and on behalf of the Church several thousand
acres at Kar as mission farmland in exchange for land at Ara os in
South West Africa
The White settlers watched the establishment of the mission with
scepticism White Afrikaans students from the University of Potchefstroom
came in vacation and built the mission church white English speaking
students from the University of Witwatersrand came in their vacations
and built the mission school Yet It went badly We had difficulties
The work proceeded slowly because our people here like the idea
of mission among the Bushmen They want to be bothered by
the more than that they actually hindered it lot
Local Afrikaner criticism of the mission was made at various levels
People deplored the fact that the missionary was part-time absentee
overseer unable to speak local Bushmen languages and that the full-time
Black evangelist manning the station slowly acquired but halting
command of one dialect
They ought to go about the mission more thoroughly more reasonably
They come to us and ask us to interpret for them There are lots
of Bushmen words that we ourselves know and the Bible is very
difficult to translate
Interpretation never works properly It goes from Afrikaans to
SeTswana and from SeTswana to Bushman then quite altered no
longer what the predikant said know because know all three languages
and my wife also
few that can talk Bushman language so well that they can
really explain the things of the Lord to him
Of their own fluency in local languages Afrikaners said not
surprising we grew up with them But the missionaries because they
could not speak the languages did not really communicate with the
Bushmen They neither understood the Bushmen nor perceived how little
the understood them
23 HoRRELL Survey of Race Relations in South Africa 1956-1957 South African
Institute of Race Relations 21
67

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