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Tutorial Assignments F05 R.cwk

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Thinkwell Biology Tutorial AssignmentsFall 2005Exam IQuiz #1Lecture 11.1 Unity and Diversity of Life on Earth1.1.1 Properties of Life (Disc 1, 11:47)1.2 Early Perspectives in Science1.2.1 An Introduction to Biology (Disc 1, 3:56)Lecture 22.1 An Introduction to Atoms2.1.1 Atomic Structure: SPONCH and the Atom (Disc 1, 8:34)2.1.2 Electrons, Orbitals, and Electron Shells (Disc 1)2.1.3 Ions, Ionization, and Isotopes (Disc 1, 10:25)2.1.4 Isotopes: Unraveling Photosynthesis (Disc 1, 11:05)2.2 Atoms and Bonding2.2.1 Bonding and Electronegativity (Disc 1, 10:35)2.2.2 Ionic and Covalent Bonds (Disc 1, 10:44)2.2.3 Polar Covalent Bonds, Hydrogen Bonds, and Van der Waals Interactions (Disc 1, 11:33)2.3 Properties of Water2.3.1 Water: Hydrogen Bonding, Solubility, and Specific Heat (Disc 1, 11:11)2.3.2 Water: Adhesion, Cohesion, and a Solid That Floats (Disc 1, 11:50)2.3.3 Water: Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Substances (Disc 1, 13:40)2.3.4 Dissociation of Water and the pH Scale (Disc 1, 12:41)2.3.5 Hemoglobin as a Buffer (Disc 1, 8:54)Quiz #2Lecture 33.1 Carbon Chemistry3.1.1 Carbon Chemistry and Isomers (Disc 1, 12:26)3.1.2 Functional Side Groups (Disc 1, 11:11)3.2 Carbohydrates3.2.1 Carbohydrates: Monosaccharides (Disc 1, 10:23)3.2.2 Dehydration Synthesis and Hydrolysis: Disaccharides (Disc 1, 9:38)3.2.3 Polysaccharides: Energy Storage Molecules (Disc 1, 10:10)3.2.4 Polysaccharides: Structural Molecules (Disc 1, 13:02)3.3 Lipids and Nucleic Acids3 ...
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Thinkwell Biology Tutorial Assignments
Fall 2005
Exam I
Quiz #1
Lecture 1
1.1 Unity and Diversity of Life on Earth
1.1.1 Properties of Life (Disc 1, 11:47)
1.2 Early Perspectives in Science
1.2.1 An Introduction to Biology (Disc 1, 3:56)
Lecture 2
2.1 An Introduction to Atoms
2.1.1 Atomic Structure: SPONCH and the Atom (Disc 1, 8:34)
2.1.2 Electrons, Orbitals, and Electron Shells (Disc 1)
2.1.3 Ions, Ionization, and Isotopes (Disc 1, 10:25)
2.1.4 Isotopes: Unraveling Photosynthesis (Disc 1, 11:05)
2.2 Atoms and Bonding
2.2.1 Bonding and Electronegativity (Disc 1, 10:35)
2.2.2 Ionic and Covalent Bonds (Disc 1, 10:44)
2.2.3 Polar Covalent Bonds, Hydrogen Bonds, and Van der Waals Interactions (Disc 1, 11:33)
2.3 Properties of Water
2.3.1 Water: Hydrogen Bonding, Solubility, and Specific Heat (Disc 1, 11:11)
2.3.2 Water: Adhesion, Cohesion, and a Solid That Floats (Disc 1, 11:50)
2.3.3 Water: Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Substances (Disc 1, 13:40)
2.3.4 Dissociation of Water and the pH Scale (Disc 1, 12:41)
2.3.5 Hemoglobin as a Buffer (Disc 1, 8:54)
Quiz #2
Lecture 3
3.1 Carbon Chemistry
3.1.1 Carbon Chemistry and Isomers (Disc 1, 12:26)
3.1.2 Functional Side Groups (Disc 1, 11:11)
3.2 Carbohydrates
3.2.1 Carbohydrates: Monosaccharides (Disc 1, 10:23)
3.2.2 Dehydration Synthesis and Hydrolysis: Disaccharides (Disc 1, 9:38)
3.2.3 Polysaccharides: Energy Storage Molecules (Disc 1, 10:10)
3.2.4 Polysaccharides: Structural Molecules (Disc 1, 13:02)
3.3 Lipids and Nucleic Acids
3.3.1 Lipids: An Introduction (Disc 1, 8:29)
3.3.2 Saturated vs. Unsaturated Fats (Disc 1, 9:28)
3.3.3 Phospholipids, Waxes, and Steroids (Disc 1, 10:13)
3.4 Proteins
3.4.1 Proteins: Amino Acids and the Peptide Bond (Disc 2, 9:34)
3.4.2 Amino Acids: The R Groups (Disc 2, 10:51)
3.4.3 Primary and Secondary Structure (Disc 2, 9:50)
Lecture 4
4.1 Proteins
4.1.1 Tertiary Structure (Disc 2, 9:40)
4.1.2 Quaternary Structure (Disc 2, 8:36)
4.1.3 Protein Structure: A Summary (Disc 2, 6:36)
4.2 Lipids and Nucleic Acids
4.2.1 Nucleic Acids: An Introduction to Genetic Material (Disc 1, 10:49)
Quiz #3
Lecture 5
5.1 An Introduction to Cell Biology
5.1.1 The History of Cytology (Disc 2, 11:23)
5.1.2 Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes (Disc 2, 10:32)
5.1.3 Plant and Animal Cell Overview: The Basics (Disc 2, 9:03)
5.1.4 Membranes: Basic Structure (Disc 2, 10:24)
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5.1.5 The Nuclear Envelope: The Initial Tour (Disc 2, 9:17)
5.1.6 Nuclear Function: Who's in Charge? (Disc 2, 8:48)
5.2 Membrane-Bound Organelles
5.2.1 Cellular Function: Endoplasmic Reticulum (Disc 2, 12:15)
5.2.2 Cell Function: Golgi Apparatus (Disc 2, 10:03)
5.2.3 Food Vacuole Formation: The Role of the Lysosome (Disc 2, 11:37)
5.2.4 Still More Vacuoles and Peroxisomes (Disc 2, 10:32)
5.2.5 Mitochondria: Welcome Guests (Disc 2, 11:22)
5.2.6 The Origin of Mitochondria and Chloroplasts (Disc 2, 12:21)
5.3 The Cytoskeleton
5.3.1 The Cytoskeleton: Basic Components (Disc 2, 12:27)
5.3.2 Centrioles, Flagella, and Cilia (Disc 2, 12:52)
5.3.3 Cell Walls (Disc 2, 10:45)
5.4 Tools for Cell Biology
5.4.1 Tools of the Cytologist: Light and Fluorescent Microscopy (Disc 2, 8:15)
5.4.2 Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopes (Disc 2, 8:48)
Lecture 6
6.1 Tools for Cell Biology
6.1.1 Freeze Fracture and Differential Centrifugation (Disc 2, 9:40)
6.2 The Plasma Membrane
6.2.1 Plasma Membrane: The Extracellular Matrix (Disc 2, 8:16)
6.2.2 The Plasma Membrane: The Fluid-Mosaic Model (Disc 2, 8:16)
6.2.3 Proteins as the Mosaic of the Cell Membrane (Disc 2, 12:18)
6.2.4 Animal Cell Junctions (Disc 2, 8:59)
6.3 Cell Transport
6.3.1 Simple and Facilitated Diffusion (Disc 2, 10:42)
6.3.2 Passive Transport: Osmosis (Disc 2, 11:44)
6.3.3 Active Transport: Ion Pumps and Cotransport (Disc 2, 9:49)
6.3.4 Active Transport: The Sodium-Potassium Pump (Disc 2, 10:14)
6.3.5 Energy-Requiring Transport: Endocytosis and Exocytosis (Disc 2, 9:19)
End of Material for Exam I
Exam II
Quiz #4
Lecture 7
7.1 Enzymes
7.1.1 Bioenergetics: The Laws of Thermodynamics (Disc 2, 13:30)
7.1.2 Activation Energy (Disc 2, 8:25)
7.1.3 Enzyme Characteristics (Disc 2, 8:19)
7.2 Enzyme Action
7.2.1 Enzyme Action: The Induced-Fit Model (Disc 2, 12:12)
7.2.2 Enzyme Regulation: Allosteric Regulation (Disc 2, 9:48)
7.2.3 Feedback Inhibition and Cooperativity (Disc 2, 9:20)
7.3 An Introduction to Respiration
7.3.1 ATP Structure and Function (Disc 2, 11:08)
7.3.2 Phosphorylated Intermediates (Disc 2, 9:49)
7.3.3 Respiration: An Overview (Disc 2, 13:09)
7.3.4 Redox: A Brief Review (Disc 2, 10:46)
7.3.5 Coenzymes: The Role of NAD+ (Disc 2, 11:50)
Lecture 8
8.1 The Evolution of Metabolic Functions
8.1.1 Major Modes of Nutrition Among Organisms (Disc 2, 12:01)
8.2 Discovering Photosynthesis
8.2.1 The Unraveling of Photosynthesis: A Historical Perspective (Disc 2, 9:24)
8.2.2 Photosynthesis: Twentieth-Century Breakthroughs (Disc 2, 7:47)
8.2.3 Photosynthesis: The Final Picture (Disc 3, 9:49)
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8.3 Adaptations for Photosynthesis
8.3.1 The Leaf: Adaptations for Photosynthesis (Disc 3, 8:43)
8.3.2 The Structure of a Chloroplast (Disc 3, 9:13)
8.3.3 Photosynthetic Pigments (Disc 3, 10:31)
8.3.4 The Nature of Light (Disc 3, 8:13)
8.3.5 Photoexcitation and Electron Transfer (Disc 3, 8:04)
8.4 The Light Reactions
8.4.1 The Light Reactions: An Introduction (Disc 3, 8:26)
8.4.2 Photosystem 1 (Disc 3, 9:47)
8.4.3 Photosystem 2 (Disc 3, 9:05)
8.4.4 The Light Reactions: A Summary (Disc 3, 9:53)
8.5 The Dark Reactions
8.5.1 The Calvin Cycle (Disc 3, 12:17)
8.5.2 The Calvin Cycle: RuBP Regeneration (Disc 3, 7:10)
8.5.3 A Review of Photosynthesis (Disc 3, 9:39)
8.6 Photorespiration
8.6.1 Photorespiration (Disc 3, 8:06)
8.6.2 C4 Plants and CAM Plants (Disc 3, 10:47)
8.6.3 The Evolution of Photosynthesis (Disc 3, 10:57)
Quiz #5
Lecture 9
9.1 An Introduction to Respiration
9.1.1 Energy Release from Sugar: A Demo (Disc 2, 2:29)
9.2 Glycolysis and Fermentation
9.2.1 Glycolysis: The Initial Steps: Energy Input (Disc 2, 13:50)
9.2.2 Glycolysis: The Energy Payoff (Disc 2, 12:11)
9.2.3 Anaerobic Respiration: The Fermentation of Pyruvate (Disc 2, 10:28)
9.3 Aerobic Respiration
9.3.1 Aerobic Respiration: The Acetyl CoA Step (Disc 2, 9:25)
9.3.2 Aerobic Respiration: The Krebs Cycle (Disc 2, 15:23)
9.3.3 Glycolysis and the Krebs Cycle (Disc 2, 7:40)
Lecture 10
10.1 The Electron Transport Chain and Oxidative Phosphorylation
10.1.1 The Electron Transport Chain (Disc 2, 11:57)
10.1.2 Oxidative Phosphorylation (Disc 2, 9:50)
10.1.3 ATP Yield from Aerobic Respiration (Disc 2, 8:27)
10.1.4 Other Fuels in Respiration (Disc 2, 11:14)
10.1.5 The Evolution of Glycolysis (Disc 2, 13:24)
Quiz #6
Lecture 11
11.1 An Introduction to the Cell Cycle and Mitosis
11.1.1 The Eukaryotic Cell Cycle (Disc 3, 9:13)
11.1.2 Mitosis: An Overview (Disc 3, 10:27)
11.1.3 Mitosis: The Phases (Disc 3, 14:02)
11.1.4 Cytokinesis (Disc 3, 9:00)
11.2 Regulating Mitosis
11.2.1 Cell-Cycle Regulation: Protein Kinases (Disc 3, 10:39)
11.2.2 Cell-Cycle Regulation: Other Mechanisms (Disc 3, 9:08)
Lecture 12
12.1 Meiosis
12.1.1 Sexual Reproduction and the Role of Meiosis (Disc 4, 10:31)
12.1.2 Homologous Chromosomes: Thanks, Mom and Dad! (Disc 4, 7:48)
12.1.3 Meiosis: Prophase I (Disc 4, 9:58)
12.1.4 Disjunction and Meiosis II (Disc 4, 10:57)
12.1.5 Mitosis vs. Meiosis (Disc 4, 9:24)
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12.2 Understanding Meiosis
12.2.1 Independent Assortment (Disc 4, 10:21)
12.2.2 Spermatogenesis: Meiosis in Males (Disc 4, 9:40)
12.2.3 Oogenesis: Meiosis in Females (Disc 4, 10:34)
End of Material for Exam II
ExamIII
Quiz #7
Lecture 13
13.1 Gregor Mendel
13.1.1 Heredity: The Story of Gregor Mendel (Disc 4, 3:31)
13.1.2 Mendel's Findings: A First Look at Phenotypic Ratios (Disc 4, 10:21)
13.2 Laws of Probability
13.2.1 Laws of Probability: Rule of Multiplication (Disc 4, 10:44)
13.2.2 The Multiplicative Law: Some Extensions (Disc 4, 11:22)
13.2.3 Laws of Probability: The Additive Rule (Disc 4, 12:02)
13.3 Gregor Mendel
13.3.1 Mendel's Conclusions: Alternate Alleles and Dominance (Disc 4, 9:02)
13.3.2 Mendel's Conclusions: Segregation and Recombination (Disc 4, 7:49)
13.4 The Laws of Mendelian Inheritance
13.4.1 Determining Heterozygosity: Test Crosses and Back Crosses (Disc 4, 6:58)
13.4.2 Mendelian Inheritance (Disc 4, 9:00)
13.5 Segregation and Independent Assortment
13.5.1 Segregation and Independent Assortment (Disc 4, 10:35)
13.5.2 Independent Assortment: An Explanation (Disc 4, 10:47)
13.6 Laws of Probability
13.6.1 Using the Laws of Probability in Dihybrid Crosses (Disc 4, 12:36)
Lecture 14
14.1 Genetic Dominance
14.1.1 What Is a Dominant Gene? Intermediate Inheritance (Disc 4, 10:04)
14.1.2 Codominance and Multiple Alleles: ABO Blood Genes (Disc 4, 11:29)
14.1.3 ABO Blood Groups: Inheritance Patterns and Pedigree Charts (Disc 4, 9:04)
14.2 Epistasis
14.2.1 Epistasis: One Gene Affecting Another (Disc 4, 11:33)
14.2.2 The Bombay Phenotype: Infidelity or Epistasis? (Disc 4, 9:47)
14.3 Inheritance Patterns
14.3.1 Polygenic Inheritance (Disc 4, 9:55)
14.3.2 Pleiotropy: Multiple Phenotypic Effects (Disc 4, 12:56)
14.3.3 Sickle Cell Anemia: The Case against Dominant and Recessive (Disc 4, 9:35)
Quiz #8
Lecture 15
15.1 Linked Genes and Genetic Mapping
15.1.1 Linked Genes (Disc 4, 9:27)
15.1.2 Crossing Over and Recombination: A Tool for Mapping Genes (Disc 4, 11:05)
15.1.3 Gene Mapping Using Recombination Frequencies (Disc 4, 11:18)
15.1.4 Linking Genes to Chromosomes: The Work of Morgan (Disc 4, 9:54)
15.1.5 Morgan's Conclusions (Disc 4, 9:08)
Lecture 16
16.1 Sex Linkage and Pedigree Charts
16.1.1 Sex-Linked Traits in Humans (Disc 4, 9:40)
16.1.2 X Inactivation in Humans (Disc 4, 12:06)
16.1.3 The Use of Pedigree Charts to Determine Possible Genotypes (Disc 4, 9:54)
16.1.4 Pedigree Chart: Problem Review (Disc 4, 7:50)
16.2 Problems in Heredity
16.2.1 Problems in Heredity (Disc 4, 13:19)
16.2.2 Problems in Heredity: Chromosomal Aberrations (Disc 4, 9:25)
16.2.3 Translocations: 14/21 Downs (Disc 4, 8:19)
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Quiz #9
Lecture 17
17.1 Discovering DNA
17.1.1 Molecular Genetics: The Protein vs. DNA Debate (Disc 3, 9:23)
17.1.2 Continuing to Link Genes to Chemicals: Muller, Beadle, and Tatum (Disc 3, 9:29)
17.1.3 Griffith and Transformation (Disc 3, 10:26)
17.1.4 Avery, MacLeod and McCarty/Hershey and Chase: DNA Wins! (Disc 3, 11:04)
17.1.5 Chargaff and Franklin and Wilkins: The DNA Story Begins (Disc 3, 10:40)
17.2 DNA Structure Revealed
17.2.1 Watson and Crick: The Clues (Disc 3, 8:50)
17.2.2 Watson and Crick: The Double Helix (Disc 3, 13:23)
17.3 Introduction to DNA Replication
17.3.1 Replication: Meselson and Stahl (Disc 3, 14:54)
17.3.2 DNA: Polymerization with Triphosphate Nucleotides (Disc 3, 11:44)
17.4 Events of DNA Replication
17.4.1 Events at the Replication Fork: The Leading Strand (Disc 3, 12:33)
17.4.2 Events at the Leading Strand, Part 2 (Disc 3, 10:31)
17.4.3 Events at the Replication Fork: The Lagging Strand (Disc 3, 8:53)
17.4.4 Proofreading, End Replication, and Telomeres (Disc 3, 12:40)
17.4.5 DNA Replication: A Summary (Disc 3, 11:15)
Lecture 18
18.1 Transcription
18.1.1 Transcription and Translation: An Overview (Disc 3, 10:32)
18.1.2 Transcription: RNA Formation from the DNA Template (Disc 3, 11:15)
18.1.3 Transcription: Termination and RNA Protection (Disc 4, 9:55)
18.1.4 Posttranscriptional Modification/RNA Splicing (Disc 3, 9:56)
18.2 Translation
18.2.1 Translation: Ribosomal and Transfer RNA (Disc 3, 10:49)
18.2.2 The Role of Transfer RNA: Charging a tRNA Molecule (Disc 3, 9:25)
18.2.3 Translation: Initiation Events (Disc 3, 11:14)
18.2.4 Translation/Elongation: The Initiation of Elongation (Disc 3, 11:24)
18.2.5 Elongation Continued and Termination (Disc 3, 10:17)
18.3 Protein Synthesis Review
18.3.1 Polypeptide Destinations: Signal Peptides and ER Ribosomes (Disc 3, 7:10)
18.3.2 Protein Synthesis: An Overview (Disc 3, 7:14)
18.4 Genetic Mutation
18.4.1 Genetic Mutation (Disc 4, 9:56)
18.4.2 Genetic Mutation: Different Forms of Point Mutations (Disc 4, 11:36)
18.4.3 Genetic Mutation: Insertion and Deletion (Disc 4, 4:37)
18.4.4 Genetic Screening (Disc 4, 11:12)
Lecture 19
19.1 The lac Operon
19.1.2 Jacob and Monod's Model: The lac Operon (Disc 3, 11:13)
19.1.3 lac Operon: The Summary (Disc 3, 6:45)
19.2 Eukaryotic Genomic Organization
19.2.1 The Eukaryotic Genome: DNA Packing (Disc 3, 14:02)
19.2.2 Eukaryotic Genomic Organization: Repetitive DNA (Disc 3, 9:02)
19.2.3 Eukaryotic Genomic Organization: Gene Families (Disc 3, 11:57)
19.2.4 Eukaryotic Genomic Organization: Transposons and Amplified Genes (Disc 3, 12:53)
19.3 Controlling Protein Synthesis in Eukaryotes
19.3.1 Eukaryotic Gene Control: Transcriptional Controls (Disc 3, 16:55)
19.3.2 Eukaryotic Control Mechanisms: Posttranscriptional and Posttranslational Controls (Disc 3, 9:31)
19.3.3 Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes: Protein-Making Machinery (Disc 3, 10:49)
19.4 Regulating Mitosis
19.4.1 Cancer: When Mitosis Goes Unchecked (Disc 3, 11:24)
19.4.2 The ras Gene and the p53 Gene (Disc 3, 12:19)
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19.5 Plasmids and Gene Cloning
19.5.1 Biotechnology: Plasmids in Prokaryotes (Disc 4, 9:08)
19.5.2 Using a Restriction Enzyme to Create a Vector (Disc 4, 9:25)
19.5.3 Biotechnology: Gene Cloning (Disc 4, 10:41)
19.5.4 Biotechnology: Detection of Cell Clones (Disc 4, 8:59)
19.6 Techniques in Biotechnology
19.6.1 Biotechnology: Reverse Transcriptase: A Tool Taken from Viruses (Disc 4, 8:12)
19.6.2 Using Reverse Transcriptase to Make cDNA (Disc 3, 9:54)
19.6.3 Electrophoresis: Separating DNA (Disc 4)
19.6.4 Sequencing DNA: The Sanger Method (Disc 4, 12:25)
19.7 More Techniques in Biotechnology
19.7.1 Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms: Genetic Markers (Disc 4, 11:15)
19.7.2 Polymerase Chain Reaction: DNA Amplification (Disc 4, 10:19)
19.7.3 DNA Fingerprinting (Disc 4)
19.7.4 Southern Blotting (Disc 4, 8:39)
19.7.5 Detecting DNA Homology: A Biotechnology Summary (Disc 4, 11:52)
19.8 Human Genome Project
19.8.1 The Human Gene Pool (Disc 3, 12:07)
19.8.2 The Human Genome Project: Recent Findings (Disc 4, 15:23)
End of Material for Exam III
Final Exam
Quiz #10
Lecture 20
20.1 Early Perspectives in Science
20.1.1 The Nature of Science: The Story of Darwin (Disc 1, 11:35)
20.1.2 Early Scientific Thought (Disc 1, 10:31)
20.1.3 The Emerging Science of Geology (Disc 1, 9:16)
20.2 An Introduction to Evolution
20.2.1 Linnaeus, Buffon, and Lamarck (Disc 1, 11:49)
20.2.2 Darwin: The Voyage Continues (Disc 1, 9:45)
20.2.3 Darwin: More Observations (Disc 1, 9:35)
20.3 Evolution: The Theory of Natural Selection
20.3.1 Darwin: The Theory of Natural Selection (Disc 1, 10:12)
20.3.2 The Theory of Natural Selection (Disc 1, 8:32)
20.3.3 Contrasting Lamarck and Darwin (Disc 1, 7:46)
20.3.4 Contrasting Lamarck and Darwin, Part 2 (Disc 1, 8:40)
20.4 Examples of Artificial and Natural Selection
20.4.1 Artificial Selection in Action (Disc 1, 10:16)
20.4.2 Natural Selection in Action (Disc 1, 7:13)
20.5 The Hardy-Weinberg Theory
20.5.1 Population Genetics: Darwin Meets Mendel (Disc 4, 9:24)
20.5.2 An Introduction to Hardy-Weinberg Theory (Disc 4, 9:31)
20.5.3 The Hardy-Weinberg Equation (Disc 5, 8:19)
20.5.4 Using the Hardy-Weinberg Theory (Disc 5, 7:03)
20.5.5 Using the Hardy-Weinberg Theory II (Disc 5, 8:08)
20.5.6 Hardy-Weinberg: What Does This Have to Do with Evolution? (Disc 5, 10:06)
20.6 Departing From Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
20.6.1 Microevolution by Genetic Drift (Disc 5, 10:28)
20.6.2 Microevolution: Continued (Disc 5, 10:04)
20.7 Variations in Populations and Modes of Selection
20.7.1 Variations within and between Populations (Disc 5, 10:06)
20.7.2 Modes of Selection (Disc 5, 11:45)
20.7.3 The Perfect Organism (Disc 5, 7:14)
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Lecture 21
21.1 Evidence for Evolution
21.1.1 Evidence for Evolution: Biochemical Similarities (Disc 1, 10:21)
21.1.2 Evidence for Evolution: Vestigial Structures (Disc 1, 10:03)
21.1.3 Homologous Structures (Disc 1, 7:29)
21.2 Species Concepts
21.2.1 Species Concepts (Disc 1, 10:03)
21.2.2 Speciation (Disc 1, 9:25)
21.2.3 Prezygotic Reproductive Isolation (Disc 1, 11:38)
21.2.4 Postzygotic Reproductive Isolation (Disc 1, 8:14)
21.3 Speciation
21.3.1 Speciation: What Is a Species? (Disc 5, 11:43)
21.3.2 Allopatric Speciation (Disc 5, 10:46)
21.3.3 Sympatric Speciation (Disc 5, 10:55)
21.4 Evolution
21.4.1 Time Frame for Evolution: Gradualism versus Punctuated Equilibrium (Disc 5, 8:47)
21.5 Fossils and Evolution
21.5.1 Fossil Formation, Dating, and Indexing (Disc 1, 10:50)
21.5.2 The Fossil Record (Disc 1, 12:17)
21.5.3 Some Fossil Surprises (Disc 1, 9:01)
21.5.4 The Coevolution of Horses and Plants (Disc 1, 8:27)
21.5.5 Mass Extinctions: An Asteroid Can Ruin Your Day (Disc 1, 14:21)
21.6 Classifying Life
21.6.1 The Linnaean System (Disc 1, 11:21)
21.6.2 The Linnaean System: Still Changing (Disc 1, 7:37)
21.7 Classifying Earth's Organisms
21.7.1 Classifying the Products of Evolution: Taxonomy (Disc 5, 10:12)
21.7.2 Building a Cladogram (Disc 5, 12:29)
21.7.3 Molecular Methods for Classifying Organisms (Disc 4, 15:08)
21.7.4 A Phylogenetic Tree of Organisms: A Three-Domain System (Disc 5, 12:26)
Quiz #11
Lecture 22
22.1 The Origin of Life
22.1.1 History of Life: The Heterotroph Hypothesis: An Overview (Disc 1, 8:09)
22.1.2 The Heterotroph Hypothesis: An Introduction (Disc 1, 7:56)
22.1.3 The Origin of Life: Life from Nonlife (Disc 1, 9:26)
22.1.4 The Heterotroph Hypothesis: Protobionts (Disc 1, 8:43)
22.1.5 The Heterotroph Hypothesis: The First Genetic Material (Disc 1, 11:53)
22.1.6 The Origin of Life: The Rest of the Story (Disc 1, 7:54)
22.2 Evolution of the Animal Kingdom
22.2.1 Constructing a Phylogenetic Tree of Animals: Animal Development (Disc 5, 10:38)
22.2.2 Developmental Data for the Phylogenetic Tree of Animals (Disc 5, 7:14)
22.2.3 The Formation of Body Cavities (Disc 5)
22.2.4 Protostomes and Deuterostomes (Disc 5, 12:23)
Lecture 23
23.1 Evolution of the Animal Kingdom
23.1.1 Animal Diversity: The Cambrian Explosion and the Move to Land (Disc 5, 12:08)
23.2 Invertebrates
23.2.1 Introduction to Animals: Parazoa and Radiata (Disc 5, 14:13)
23.2.2 Animals: Acoelomates, Pseudocoelomates, and Coelomates (Disc 5, 13:08)
23.2.3 Diversity of Protostome Species (Disc 5, 14:05)
Quiz #12
Lecture 24
24.1 Deuterostomes
24.1.1 Diversity of Deuterostome Species (Disc 5, 14:41)
24.1.2 Diversity of Vertebrate Species (Disc 5, 15:28)
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Lecture 25
25.1 Human Evolution
25.1.1 Human Evolution: What Is a Primate? (Disc 1, 12:38)
25.1.2 Human Evolution: The Family Tree (Disc 1, 8:03)
25.1.3 Human Evolution: The Fossil Record (Disc 1, 14:02)
End of Material for Final Exam
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