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208 pages
Composite steel-concrete joints in braced frames for buildings
Industrial research and development
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ISSN 1018-5593
European Cooperation
in the Field of Scientific
and Technical Research European Commission
Semi-rigid behaviour of civil engineering structural
Composite steel-concrete joints
in braced frames for buildings European Commission
Semi-rigid behaviour of civil engineering structural
Composite steel-concrete joints
in braced frames for buildings
Edited by
David Anderson
University of Warwick
Brussels · Luxembourg 1996 Published by the
European Commission
European Cooperation in the Field of
Scientific and Technical Research
No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system,
or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying,
recording or otherwise, whithout indicating the above mentioned references
Neither the Commission of the European Communities nor any person
acting on behalf of the Commission is responsible for the use which might
be made of the following information.
A great deal of additional information on the European Union is available on the Internet. It can be
accessed through the Europa server (http://europa.eu.int)
Cataloguing data can be found at the end of this publication
Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 1997
ISBN 92-827-9573-X
©European Communities, Brussels · Luxembourg, 1997
Reproduction is authorized, except for commercial purposes, provided the source is acknowledged
Printed in Italy Preface
In the context of this document, composite construction means the composite action of a
steel frame with a concrete floor slab and possibly concrete encasement to increase the
resistance and stiffness of the frame. Most joints between members in such frames are
commonly treated as "nominally pinned", mainly because of a lack of guidance on
alternative approaches to design.
This document concerns the design of moment-resisting "composite" joints. They are
beam-to-column or beam-to-beam joints that are designed so that reinforcement in the
slab contributes to the resistance and the stiffness of the joint. The action of the
reinforcement permits the frame to be designed as a "semi-continuous" or even
"continuous", even though the steel connection within the joint may be of a nominally-
pinned form.
Although Eurocode 4 as published as an ENV recognised the possible use of composite
joints, methods to predict the structural properties were judged not sufficiently well-
established to justify their inclusion in the code. Since then significant additional research
has been carried out, and interim guidance on design has been published in a number of
It is envisaged that the EN version of Eurocode 4 for buildings will include both
Principles and Rules for Application for composite joints. This present document provides
the background to the intended code provisions, and shows comparisons with test results
to justify the methods adopted.
Eurocode 4 should be consistent with other Eurocodes. Eurocode 3 already gives
provisions for steel joints. In the revised Annex J to the ENV, a "component" approach is
adopted. Each component comprises an element subject to a specific structural action.
Once the contribution of a component to the overall joint response is understood and
evaluated, the components are assembled to provide the calculation model for the joint.
Chapter 1 of this document provides an introduction to composite construction for
building frames and to the classification of joint behaviour; this in terms of the influence of
the joint on the response of the other elements of the frame. Chapter 2 describes the
flexura! behaviour of composite joints, with reference to tests on full-size configurations;
m the influence of various components on the response is observed. A formal statement of
the components relevant to composite joints is given in Chapter 3, followed by an
explanation of the procedures for assembly. The evaluation of component characteristics
is described in Chapter 4, including transformations needed to permit nodal
representation of joints in frame analysis. The document concludes with comparisons
against some test results to demonstrate the suitability of the methods already described.
The document was prepared by the Composite Sub-Group of Working Group 2 of the
COST-C1 Project. This project concerns European Cooperation in the Field of Scientific
and Technical Research in the area of Semi-rigid Behaviour of Civil Engineering
Connections. The Chairman of Working Group 2 was J.-P. Jaspart. The Convenor of the
Sub-Group was D. Anderson, who also edited the document. Individual chapters were
contributed by the following:
Chapter 1 Introduction D. Anderson
Chapter 2 Moment-resisting composite joints H. Bode and H.-J. Kronenberger
Chapter 3 Modelling of composite joints and assembly of components J.-P. Jaspart
Chapter 4 Component characteristics G. Huber and F. Tschemmernegg
The calculation examples were prepared by. Huber and D. Anderson
Other members of the Group were :
J.-M. Aribert, F. Benussi, J.W.B. Stark, K. Weynand and Y. Xiao.
Grateful acknowlegement is made of technical papers and other contributions by these
colleagues, and to further contributions by N.D. Brown, C. Muller and A.A. Saim.
November 1996
IV Notation
1. Roman symbols
A Cross-sectional area
a Throat thickness of weld
Β Resistance of a bolt
b Width
Width of column profile bc
Linear stiffness C
Compression resistance of diagonal strut D
d Distance; thickness
E Modulus of elasticity
ΕΙ Flexural rigidity
e Horizontal distance from column profile to slab reinforcement
F Force
f Parameter; function of; strength
Dead load per unit length g
H Length of column
h Height
Depth of column profile h.
Κ Stiffness factor
k Stiffness coefficient
L Length of beam
t Length of beam in hogging bending
Length 1
M Moment
Ν Axial force; number of shear connectors in the length of beam in hogging
Load per unit length; imposed load per unit length q
Rotational stiffness s
s Stip
t Thickness
V Shear force ζ Lever arm
2. Greek symbols
α Transformation factor; parameter n factor β
Partial safety factor γ
Δ Displacement
δ Angle
Strain ε
Rotation Φ
σ Stress
area of slab Ratio of reinforcement area to cross-sectional Ρ
Parameter related to unbalanced loading μ
Parameter ν
Common subscripts 3.
a Structural steel
b Beam
Centre of joint C
Concrete; column; compression; capacity c
ek Cylinder strength
CO Composite
col Column
cp Contact plate
Design d
Effective value eff
eq Equivalent
f Flange
Counter i
ini Initial value
Counter; joint j
L Longitudinal; value related to point L
Li+conn Load introduction and connection
VI m Mean value
p¿ Plastic
R Resistance
S Value related to point S
Reinforcement s
Shear connection se
Τ Transverse
t Tension
u Ultimate value
Shear area V
Web w
Web panel wp
Yield value y

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