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ECSC SYMPOSIUM ON STEEL: Physical metallurgy: The service properties of steel: The utilization of steel

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Scientific and technical research
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COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES
ECSC SYMPOSIUM
ON STEEL
Physical metallurgy
The service properties of steel
The utilization of steel
Luxembourg, 18-21 November 1975
Part 1 LEGAL NOTICE
The Commission of the European Communities
is not responsible for the use which could be
made of the information presented in this docu­
ment. COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES
ECSC SYMPOSIUM
ON STEEL
Physical metallurgy
The service properties of steel
The utilization of steel
(Luxembourg, 18 to 21 November 1975)
Directorate General "Industrial and Technological Affairs"
Edited by the Directorate General
'Scientific and technical information and information management'
Luxembourg — September 1975
EUR 5401 d. e, f
Part 1 CONTENTS
FIRST TECHNICAL SESSION
"Microstructure and properties of steel"
Microstructure and properties of steels
Prof. Fr. W. PITSCH, Centre de Recherches Métallurgiques — Liège 7
SECOND TECHNICAL SESSION
"Weldability — Brittle fracture"
1. "WELDABILITY"
Weldability of steel
Mr. CONSTANT, Institut de Recherches de la Sidérurgie Française — Saint-Ger-
main-en-Laye 41
presented by
Mr. PRUDHOMME, Institut de Recherches de la Sidérurgie Française — Saint-Ger-
main-en-Laye
2. "BRITTLE FRACTURE"
Investigations into the sensitivity of steel to brittle fracture and into tests for this
characteristic
Direktor Dr. rer. nat. W. SCHLÜTER, Verein Deutscher Eisenhüttenleute, Düsseldorf 79
presented by
Dr. Ing. W. ROHDE, Verein Deutscher Eisenhüttenleute, Düsseldorf
THIRD TECHNICAL SESSION
"Fatigue — Creep"
1. "FATIGUE"
Community research on metal fatigue and standard structures from 1966-1974
A. BRAGARD, Ingénieur-Chef de service au Centre de Recherches Métallurgiques
— Liège 109
2. "CREEP"
ECSC Research activities 1966-1974 on high temperature steels
Dr. ing. F. RINALDI, Capo laboratorio di ricerca Dalmine, S.pA, Milano 153 FOURTH TECHNICAL SESSION
"Corrosion"
Research under the first, second and third joint ECSC programmes on corrosion
Prof. Dr. T. SONGA, V. Direttore Generale, Istituto di Ricerche Breda, S.pA, Milano,
Bari 199
FIFTH TECHNICAL SESSION
1. "DRAWABILITY"
The cold formabilities of sheet
M. BROZZO, Centro Sperimentale Metallurgico — Roma 237
2. "COLD-ROLLED SECTIONS"
Cold-formed steel sections
Mr. DESCUDÉ, Directeur du Comité Technique Européen de profilage à froid des
produits plats en acier — Paris 269
3. "SAFETY OF STRUCTURES" — (resistance to fire)
Steel structures and fire
Prof. Ir. J. WITTEVEEN, Deputy Director Institute TNO for Building Materials and
Building Structures, Delft, The Netherlands
L TWILT, Research Engineer Institute TNO for Building Materials and Building
Structures, Delft, The Netherlands 29
SIXTH TECHNICAL SESSION
"Industrialized building"
1. "TECHNICAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE OBSTACLES"
Technical and administrative obstacles to the use of industrialized housing
H. HERBIET, Président du Comité de Direction du Centre Belgo-Luxembourgeois
d'Information de l'Acier — Bruxelles 335
2. "RESEARCH ON INDUSTRIALIZATION"
Industrialized building — research on industrialized prototypes and building com­
ponents
Mr. BOURGUIGNON, Sous-Directeur du Centre Belgo-Luxembourgeois d'Informa­
tion de l'Acier — Bruxelles 363 FIRST TECHNICAL SESSION
"Microstructure and properties of steel"
Chairman: Mr. HABRAKEN, Centre de Recherches Métallurgiques — Liège
General rapporteur: Prof. Dr. W. PITSCH, Direktor am Max-Plank-Institut für Eisenforschung
GmbH, Düsseldorf
"Microstructure and properties of steels"
Group Discussion leader: Dr. T. GLADMAN, Head of Structure Studies Section, Physical Me­
tallurgy, British Steel Corporation — London — 7-
MICROSTRUCTPRE AKD PROPERTIES OF STEELS
by
W. PITSCH
Max-Planck-Institut flir Eisenforschung GmbH, Düsseldorf
The projects dealt with in this report are:
1) Objective and comprehensive analysis of steel structures by
means of quantitative metallography and chemical analyses with
the electron beam or ion beam microprobe and Auger electron
spectroscopy. Presentation of these and other modern methods
of structural analysis in an Atlas Metallographicus with
special reference to the structures in welds and fractures .
2) Improvement in the mechanical service properties by structura
refinement with the help of thermomechanical treatment and
finely dispersed precipitations.
3) Order reactions in iron mixed crystals.
The properties of metals depend directly on their structures,
and thus production of materials with specific properties requires:
a) comprehensive and objective analysis of the structure,
b) knowledge of how certain structures can be produced by means
of specific heat and/or mechanical treatment, and
c) knowledge of how certain, mostly mechanical, properties of
the material are the result of specific structures.
These three topics have been included in the basic metallographi-
cal research projects promoted by the ECSC in recent years as part of
a 6tudy on steel products. The following is a report on this research
although, in view of the required brevity, only certain individual
s'ections can be illustrated. -8 —
1. uality control methods
1.1 Quantitative metallography
The basic premise in assessing the structural state of a steel
must be that certain fluctuations in this state are unavoidable.
Nevertheless, taking the average from a number of observations,
structural analysis shows in quantitative terms whether a material
has been produced to a certain quality by means of composition or
production process. It must therefore be established to what extent
rapid and objective quality control can be achieved by automated,
quantitative structure measurement. This problem was examined under
a Community contract by the CRM (contract 6210-61-2/220), CSM (con­
tract 6210-61-^/2^0), IRSID (contract 621O-61-3/230) and MPI (con­
tract 62IO-61-I/21O), the method of observation shown in Fig. 1.1.a.
being used: the sample observed (= object), the television camera
(= receiver), the screen (= detector) and the computer for automatic
evaluation of the micrographs.
The problem as a whole was tackled in two stages:
1) Uhich structure parameters can in fact be measured? And
are these parameters adequate indicators of the character­
istics of the structure with regard to the properties re­
quired? Initially work was concentrated on the first part
of the question during which two-phase structures were ex­
amined to see how well the structural parameters, quantity,
size, shape and distance from a second phase can be deter­
mined and whether these parameters clearly play any part in
obtaining the property in question. Various examples were
tested; Fig. 1.1.b: a certain connection between hardness
and average distance between the carbide lamellae was estab­
lished on a eutectoid steel with pearlitic structure.
Fig 1.1.C.: The effect of spheroidicity of non-metallic in­
clusions, especially sulphides, on the toughness was deter­
mined; the effect of spheroidicity cause by alloying addi­
tions such as rare earths and zirconium was also analysed.