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European wind energy conference

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1016 pages
Proceedings of an international conference held at Hamburg (D) on October 22-26, 1984
Energy research
Renewable sources of energy
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Commission of the European Communities
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1984
Proceedings of an International Conference
held at Hamburg, F.R. Germany, 22-26 October 1984
Edited by:
W. Palz, Commission of the European Communities
Published by: H. S. Stephensand Associates Commission of the European Communities
EUROPEAN
WIND ENERGY
CONFERENCE
1964
Proceedings of an International Conference
held at Hamburg, F.R. Germany, 22-26 October 1984
EWEC'84
Edited by:
W. Palz, Commission of the European Communities
Published by: H. S. Stephensand Associates European Wind Energy Conference (1984 : Hamburg) n Windye 1984 : proceedings
of an international conference held at Hamburg,
Federal Republic of Germany, 22 to 26 October 1984.
1. Wind power
I. Title II. Rasmussen, Β. III. Palz, W.
IV. Stephens, H.S.
621.4'5 TK1541
ISBN 0-9510271-0-7
The Conference was sponsored by the Commission of the European
Communities, Directorate General (XII) Science Research and Development,
the Senate of Hamburg, U Ν ESCO and the European Wind Energy Association.
The Conference was organised by Η. S. Stephens and Associates
Publication arrangements by:
Commission of the European Communities,
Directorate-General Information Marketand Innovation, Luxembourg
and
H. S. Stephens and Associates
EUR 9622 CDNA09622ENC
Copyright ©1985, ECSC, EEC, EAEC, Brussels and Luxembourg
LEGAL NOTICE
Neither the Commission of the European Communities nor any person acting
on behalf of then is responsible for the use which might be made of
the following information.
Published by and available from:
H.S. Stephens and Associates
European Commercial and Technical Conferences
Agriculture House
55 Goldington Road
Bedford MK40 3LS England
Printed by Cotswold Press Ltd., Oxford 0X8 1JB EUROPEAN WIND ENERGY CONFERENCE 22­26 October 1984 HAMBURG FRG Sponsored by CEC UNESCO and EWEA
CONTENTS *
Preface by Dr W. Pal ζ xi
Opening AddressbyDrA.Strubxii
Opening AddressbyDrH.Blaskxiv
Conference OrganisingCommitteexvi
List of Exhibitors xvii
SessionChairmenxvii
PhotoMontagexviii
Author Tndex933
Keynote Address: European wind energy in perspective. B. Rasmussen,F.LSAM,Denmark. 1
WIND RESOURCE (A)
Al Development of a method for wind climate analysis for non­mountainous terrain in Europe 6
E.L. Petersen, I. Troen, Risi National Laboratory, Denmark and J. Wieringa, KNMI, Netherlands.
A2 Wind energy potential estimation in rough terrain. D.P. Lalas, I. Troen, C Sacre, G. Dalu, 13
National Observatory of Athens, Greece.
A3 Problems assessing the wind ixiwer potential for large areas. G. Tetzlaff, Institut für 14
Meteorologie und lUimatologie der Universität Hannover, Federal Republic of Germany.
A4 Results of the assessment study of the technical/economic prospects for wind energy in the 18
European countries. H. Selzer, Messerschmitt­Bölkow­Blohm GmbH, Federal Republic of Germany.
A5 Wind energy siting in coastal regions ­ using numerical mesoscale modelling. S. Theunert, 23
Institut fur Meteorologie und Klimatologie der Universität Hannover, FRG.
A6 A handbook for wind energy production estimates in the Netherlands. P.E.J. Vermeulen, 29
J. A. Leene, MTTNO and H. Hoogeveen, Centre for Energy Conservation, The Netherlands.
A7 Wind energy on the Greek islands. R. Tassiou and J. Chad.jivassiliadis, 41
Public Power Corporation, Greece.
Wake Measurement:
A8 Nibe wake measurements project in Denmark. D.T. Swift­Hook, D.N. Mcintosh,D.J. Milborrow 47
and G.J. Taylor, CFGB, UK and J. Hastrup, Risei National Laboratory, Denmark.
A9 Measurement of the tower wake of the Swedish prototype WFCS Maglarp and calculations of it's 56
effect on noise and blade loading. J.A. Dahlberg, K. Barman and S. Meijer, FFA, Sweden.
AIO New Zealand's wind energy resource. N.J. Cherry and G.T. Ward, Lincoln College, New Zealand. 64
All An analysis of the spatial and temporal variations of the wind field over the British Isles. 65
J.P. Palutikof, P.M. Kelly and T.D. Davies, University of Fast Anglia, UK.
A12 Wind potential in Kenya. B. Renner, GTZ­Special Energy Programme and D. Kabugl, 71
Ministry of Energy andRegional Development, Kenya.
A13 Characteristics of wind speed in Kuwait. S. Ayyash, K. Al­Tukhalm, J. ΑΙ­Ammar and 76
M. Al­Jazzaf, Institute for ScientificResearch, Kuwait.
A14 A boundary­layer model for wind flow over hills: comparison of model results with Askervein 81
1982 data. J.L. Walmsley and J.R. Salmon, Atmospheric Environment Service, Canada.
A15 Turbulence analysis of kite wind measurements. A. Daniels, University of Hawaii, USA. SI
The papers are listed by subject and in the order in which they were presented.
Seventy five papers were presented orally, the remainder in special poster sessions.
Discussion was at the end of sessions but is not recorded in these proceedings.
Hi A16 Wind profile stability corrections: their influence on wind energy assessment studies. 96
A.J.M. van Wijk and W.C. Turkenburg, Rijksuniversiteit Utrecht, and
A.A.M. Holtslag, Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute, The Netherlands.
MACHINES I DESIGN & CONSTRUCTION (B)
Bl The DFVLR-25m-wind energy converter. H. Hald, Ch. Kensche and J.-P. Molly, DFVLR, F R G. 102
B2 Design, construction and performance of WPX wind turbine rotor blades. W.E. de Boer, 108
Ventilatoren Stork Hengelo BV, The Netherlands.
B3 Fiat wind energy converters, in the power range 50-100 kW. Models already built, 115
operating experience, further developments. G. Vidossich, Fiat, Italy.
B4 Development, testing and commercialization of DAF Indal's series 6400-500 kW vertical axis 119
wind turbines. V.P. Lacey, DAF Indal Ltd., Canada.
B5 A theoretical investigation of the design of a horizontal axis wind turbine. Ch. Hirsch, 124
R. Derelinckx and M.Q. Islam, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium.
B6 Progress with the UK vertical axis wind turbine programme. 130
I.D. Mays, Sir Robert McAlpine & Sons Ltd and H. Rhodes, NEI Cranes Ltd., UK.
B7 The 15m vertical axis wind turbine Pionier I - description and experiments.8
L.A.H. Machielse, ECN, The Netherlands.
B8 Development of vertical axis wind turbines, Darrieus type, 5m diameter, at Grenoble 145
(France). P. Perroud, G. Bertrand, J.M. Salanon and
G. Terrier, Centre d'Etudes Nucléaires de Grenoble, France.
MACHINES II PERFORMANCE & OPERATING EXPERIENCE (C)
CI Report from WTS-3 Maglarp, one year of operation. M. Agrell, Sydkraft AB, Sweden. 152
C2 Experiences from the commissioning and operation of the Swedish 2 MW WTS prototype,8
Naesudden. G. Svensson, Swedish State Power Board, Sweden.
C3 Operating experience with a 300 kW Aerogenerator designed for remote locations. A. Brown, 165
James Howden & Co. Ltd and W. Stevenson, North of Scotland HydroElectric Board, UK.
C4 Performance and operational data from the Orkney 20m diameter WTG. D. Lindley, 170
D.C. Quarton and A. Garrad, Wind Energy Group, UK.
C5 Evaluation of loads measured at the two Swedish prototypes. H. Ganander,7
Teknikgruppen AB, Sweden.
C6 Transient behaviour of a one-bladed horizontal-axis wind-turbine. R. Wennekers, 183
Messerschmitt-Bölkow-Blohm GmbH, Federal Republic of Germany.
C7 A horizontal axis wind turbine after 8000 hours of operation. J.W.M. Dekker, 190
C.M. de Groot, F. Lekkerkerk, C.J. Looijesteijn, H.C. Rieffe, ECN, The Netherlands.
C8 Growian test program with particular respect to the wind distribution across the rotor area. 197
G. Besel, F. Körber and J. Zeckau, MAN Neue Technologie, Federal Republic of Germany.
09 Inventory and evaluation of experience made with SWECs in Western Germany. W. Stephenson 203
and G. Boehmeke, German Wind Energy Association, Federal Republic of.
CIO The influence of wind direction on HAWT. H. Ganander, Teknikgruppen AB, Sweden. 208
MACHINES- INNOVATIVE SYSTEMS (D) -
Dl Design and construction of innovative flexible rotor systems. L.F. Drost and 212
F.J. Föllings, Holland Windturbine BV, The Netherlands.
D2 The introduction of tip vane augmenters onto a horizontal axis wind turbine. A.J. Garside, 216
Cranfield Institute of Technology, UK.
D3 Floating 'Wagner - Rotor' Concept and first experience. G.A. Wagner, 222
Sea- and Landwind Exploitation Association, Federal Republic of Germany.
IV D4 The Vortex Screw, a new concept for wind power augmentation. I. Rechenberg, 225
Technische Universität Berlin, Germany.
D5 A wind turbine driven boat. N. Bose, University of Glasgow, UK. 226
D6 New results from the solar chimney prototype and conclusionsforlargepowerplants. 231
W. Haaf, W. Lautenschlager and J. Schlaich, Schlaich & Partner,FederalRepublicofGermany.
D7 Research and development for shrouded wind turbines. 0. Igra, Ben­Gurion Univ., Israel. 236
TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT 1(E)
El The effect of stochastic and deterministic loading on fatigue damage in a large horizontal­ 246
axis wind turbine. S.J.R. Powles and M.B. Anderson, Sir Robert McAlpine & Sons Ltd, UK.
E2 ARLIS ­ A program system for aeroelastic analysis of rotating linear systems. 253
B. Kirchgassner, Institut fur Statik und Dynamik der Luft­und Raumfahrtkonstruktionen, F RG.
E3 Dynamic response in horizontal axis wind turbines including instationaryaerodynamic 259
effects in the stream tube. B. Montgomerie, A. Zdunek, FFA, Sweden.
E4 Aeroelastics of wind turbine systems. K. Koenig, Messerschmitt­Bölkow­Blohm GmbH, F R G. 265
E5 Stability and dynamics of a vertical axis variable geometry wind turbine. I.P. Ficenec 271
and A. Saia, NEI Cranes Limited, UK.
E6 Fatigue analysis of wind turbines. A. Raab, Teknikgruppen AB, Sweden. 276
E7 Materials aspects of large aerogenerator blades. D.H. Bowen, C.W.A. Maskell, D.C. Phillips, 281
T.W. Thorpe, G.M. Wells and N.J.M. Wilkins, Atomic Energy Research Establishment, UK.
E8 What is the difference between a large and a small wind turbine? S. Frandsen, P.H. Madsen 287
and J.C. Hansen, Ris£> National Laboratory, Denmark.
E9 Symbolic computing as a tool in wind turbine dynamics. D.C. Quarton and A.D. Garrad, 295
Wind Energy Group, UK.
E10 Description of the control system for WTS 75 Naesudden. T. Henriksen, 302
Boving KMW Turbin AB, Sweden.
Ell The effect of variable rotor speed on the design and operation ofaWEC.G.Huss and 308
R. Pernpeintner, MAN Neue Technologie, Federal Republic of Germany.
E12 A computer controlled wind energy converter. M. Müller, W. Kümmerle and J. RÖer, Institut 314
für Statik und Dynamik der Luft­und Raumfahrtkonstruktionen, Federal Republic of Germany.
E13 Eddy current converter for vertical axis wind turbines. M. de Bennetot, 320
Le. Materiel Magnétique Cie and H. Coudeville, Β. Fabre, University of Brest, France.
E14 A review of calculation methods for the determination of performance characteristics of 324
vertical axis wind energy converters with special reference to the influenceof solidity
and starting characteristics. K. Simhan, Universität Bremen, Federal Republic of Germany.
F.15 Development of web—stiffened glass­fiber foam sandwich wind turbine blades. C.C. Chao, 332
D.H. Ju and W.S. Kuo, National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan.
OPERATIONAL QUESTIONS (F)
Fl Requirements for wind turbine safety systems. W. J. Stam, ECN, The Netherlands. 333
F2 Detection of inadmissible states of operation ­ a basic safety concept. H.G.Matthiesand 336
C. Nath, Germanischer Lloyd, Federal Republic of Germany.
F3 The views of politicians and decision­makers on planning for the use of wind power in 339
Sweden. I. Carlman, University of Lund, Sweden.
F4 Prediction of site risk levels associated with failures of wind turbine blades. 344
J.N. Sørensen, Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
F5 Physical planning and wind energy in The Netherlands. L.A.C. Arkesteijn,350
Ministry of Housing, The Netherlands. F6 Shadow hindrance by wind turbines. E. Verkuijlen and C.A. Westra, University of Amsterdam, 355
The Netherlands.
TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT II (G)
Gl Aerodynamic research efforts at SERI Wind Energy Research Center at Rocky Flats. 362
J.L. Tangier, Rockwell International Windyh Center, USA.
G2 Blade and tower forces on vertical axis wind turbines: field measurements compared with 369
theoretical predictions. G. Stacey and P. Musgrove, Reading University, UK.
G3 Part 1: Experiences with FLAIR 8- and 4- rotors. F.X. Wortmann, Universität Stuttgart, 376
Federal Republic of Germany.
Part 2: The design of the Flair 20- rotor. S. Mickeler and K. Schultes, 380
Universität Stuttgart, Federal Republic of Germany.
G4 Nastran-based software for the structural dynamic analysis of vertical and horizontal axis 385
wind turbines. D.W. Lobitz, Sandia National Laboratories, USA.
G5 A comparison of analytic prediction methods for vertical axis wind turbines. G.W. Amos and 3S4
G.M. Bragg, University of Waterloo, Canada.
G6 Application of an aerodynamic calculation to the Magdalen Islands vertical axis prototype. 400
P. Fraunie and C Beguier, Institut de Mécanique Statistique de la Turbulence, France and
I. Paraschivoiu and R. Reid,t de Recherche d'Hydro-Québec, Canada.
G7 Flow curvature effect on vertical axis darrieus wind turbine having high chord-radius ratio. 405
C. Hirsch and A.C. Mandal, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium.
G8 Optimization of the performance of the variable pitch vertical axis wind turbine. 411
A. Zervos, S. Dessipris, N. Athanassiadis, National Technical University of Athens, Greece.
G9 Tailoring airfoils for vertical axis wind turbines. P.C. Klimas, Sandia National Labs, USA. 417
G10 Theoretical determination of blade number for an axial wind turbine as a function of its 418
specific rapidity. R. Rey, R. Comolet, F. Massouh and R. Noguera, Ecole Nationale
Superieure d'Arts et Metiers, France.
Gil Aerodynamic optimisation of the horizontal axis wind turbines. R. Leblanc, C. Egozcue, 419
J.L. Guicheteau and R. Goethals, Ecole Nationale Superieure de Mécanique et d'Aérotechnique,
France.
G12 Suggested model for computing the wind turbine aerodynamics. A.F. Abdel-Azim and 424
F.F. Mahmoud, Zagazig University, Egypt.
G13 Aerodynamic performance of a new LM 17.2 m rotor. F. Rasmussen, Risei National Laboratory, 430
Denmark.
G14 A study of straight blade VAWT and its application. K. Seki, Y. Shimizu and T. Matsumoto, 436
Tokai University, Japan.
G15 Atmospheric turbulence inputs for horizontal axis wind turbines. W.E. Holley, 443
R.W. Thresher and S-R. Lin, Oregon State University, USA.
G16 The spectra of wind speed fluctuations met by a rotating blade and resulting load 45
fluctuations. J.B. Dragt, ECN, The Netherlands.
G17 Unsteady aerodynamics of wind turbines. R.L. Hales, Cranfield Institute of Technology, UK. 459
018 Horizontal axis wind turbine gyroscopic behaviour. J. Driviere, J.F. Deshayes, A. Laborie 465
and L. Traonvouez, ENSAM, France.
G19 Design and analysis program for wind energy conversion systems. Influence of transmission 475
and generator characteristics on design of wind energy conversion systems. D. van Aerschot,
J. Muyshondt, and Ch. Hirsch, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium.
WINDTUNNEL STUDIES (H)
Hl A wind tunnel study of the tornado wind energy system. F. Haers and E. Dick, 481
State University of Ghent, Belgium.
H2 Improved performance analysis from tests or. model wind turbines. B.R. Clayton and7
P. Filby, University College London, UK.
vi