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Commission of the European Communities
f UROPfAN COMMUNITY
WIND f Nf RGY
CONffRfNCf
Proceedings of an International Conference held at
Herning Congress Centre, Denmark 6-10 June 1988
Published by: H. S. Stephens & Associates Commission of the European Communities
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY
WIND f Nf RGY
CONFERENCE
Proceedings of an International Conference held at
Herning Congress Centre, Denmark 6­10 June 1988
Edited by: W. Palz, Commission of the European Communities
PARI, EÜRGP. Blblioth.
Ν
Published by: H. S. Stephens & Associates
CL The Congress was sponsored by the Commission of the European Communities,
Directorate General (XII) Science Research and Development.
The Congress was organised by H.S. Stephens and Associates.
LEGAL NOTICE
Neither the Commission of the European Communities nor any person acting on behalf of the
Commission is responsible for the use which might be made of the following information.
Publication arrangements by:
Commission of the European Communities,
Directorate - General (XIII) Information Market and Innovation,
Luxembourg
and H.S. Stephens and Associates
Copyright © 1988, ECSC, EEC, EAEC, Brussels and Luxembourg
IsJìrJBritish Library Cataloguing in Publication Data
European Community Wind Energy Conference
(1988: Herning, Denmark)
1. Wind Power
I. Title
621.4'5
ISBN 0-9510271-7-4
EUR 11885
Published by and available from:
H.S. Stephens and Associates
Agriculture House
55 Goldington Road
Bedford MK30 3LS, England
Printed by Cotswold Press Ltd, Oxford 0X8 1JB
II CONTENTS
Conference Sponsors and Committees VIII
Opening Address by Dr Wolfgang Palz IX
List of Exhibitors X
KeynotePaperbyMrBentRasmussenXI
Author Index673
WINDFARMS
Al Power regulation optionsforwindturbines. 1
P.H. Madsen, Risø NationalLaboratories,Denmark.
A2 Experiences in planning and erectionofwindparksfor electric utilities ­ 8
illustrated by examples of severalimplementedprojects.
W. Maier and C. Ettischer, FICHTNERDevelopmentEngineering, F.R. Germany.
A3 IJsselmiJ has realised a large windfarm(7,5MW)onthe dike of the 12
Noordoostpolder.
H.F.M. Paes and Y. Nauta, EnergiebedrijfIJsselmiJην, The Netherlands.
A4 Utility windfarms in Eastern Denmark.17
F. Hasted, ELKRAFT Power Company Limited,Denmark.
A5 Utility windfarms in Western Denmark. 22
J.K. Vesterdal, ELSAM,Denmark.
A6 Windfarm measurementsinWesternDenmark.25
CC. Hilger, ELSAM, Denmark.
A7 Operational data froma5MWwindfarm.28
D. Lindley, C. GambleandR.Lord,WindEnergy Group Limited, UK.
A8 Grid connected operation of a wind power plant with flap­hinge rotor. 33
A. Weidner and Th. Spehr, Sudwind GbR, F.?. Germany.
A9 This paper has been withdrawn.
PROTOTYPE DEVELOPMENT AND EXPERIMENTATION
Bl Hydromechanical development and test of the rotor structure and control 36
systems for the WEG 60m W.T.G.
J.E. Turner, British Aerospace PLC. A.W.D., UK.
B2' Esbjerg 1: A 2 MW windturbine from planning to the first results. 41
P. Kristensen, ELSAMPROJEKT A/S, Denmark.
B3 Preliminary test results from the Esbjerg 1­60 m/2 MW windturbine.45
K.S. Hansen and B. Maribo Pedersen, Technical University ofDenmarkand
P. Christiansen, P. Friis and J. Kristgeirsson, ELSAMPROJEKT A/S,Denmark.
B4 Commissioning of the 2 MW wind turbine, Esbjerg 1. 49
P. Friis, ELSAMPROJEKT A/S, Denmark.
B5 Development of an advanced grid connectedWECinthe 1 MW class (AWEC­60). 53
A. Cano, ASINEL in cooperation withUNIONELECTRICAFENOSA S.A., IER­JEN,
Spain and MAN Technologie, F.R. Germany.
B6 Analysis of results from the UK verticalaxiswindturbine test programme. 55
S.J.R. Powles, M.B. Anderson, A. Harris and K.M. Groechel,
Sir Robert McAlplne & Sons Ltd, UK.
B7 Development of an advanced low­cost 1 MW wind turbine for general utility 60
application.
D.J. Milborrow, CEGB, L.A.W. Bedford, AERE Harwell and
D.J. Passey, James Howden & Co Ltd, UK.
B8 Analysis of fatigue relevant operation data from the DFVLR 100KW turbine. 66
H. Böhnisch and H. Seifert, DFVLR, F.R. Germany.
B9 The development of ZFD13­20KW wind turbine generator. 71
Wu Yundong, Zhejiang Research Institute ofMechanicalScience,P.R. China.
IllBIO Long term energy performances of two small wind turbines. 78
G. Botta, A. Visco Gllardi and C. Casale, ENEL,Italy.
Bil This paper has been withdrawn.
B12 Status of M30 single­bladed WECS. 85
E. Dalpane, Riva Calzoni SpA, Italy and
H. Dütting, Messerschmitt­Bölkow­Blohm,F.R. Germany.
B13 The design and developmentofa1MWwindturbine.90
P. Jamieson and P. Agius,JamesHowden&Co Ltd, UK.
B14 Design optimisation andfullscaleconstruction of a MW HAWT rotorblade. 96
V. Croes, HMZ­Windmaster,Belgium.
RESOURCE ASSESSMENT
CI European wind atlas.103
E.L. Petersen and I. Troen, Risii National Laboratory, Denmark.
C2 Comparison of the performance of some numerical wind energy siting codes 110
in rough terrain.
D.P. Lalas, Lamda Technical Ltd; M. Tombrou, Public Power Corporation
and M. Petrakis, National Observatory of Athens, Greece.
C3 A practical comparison of various resource prediction techniques. 115
S.M. Barton and R.S. Hunter, National Engineering Laboratory,UK.
C4 Siting of wind turbines. 124
I. Troen andE.L.Petersen,Risii National Laboratory, Denmark.
C5 A methodologyfortheprediction of wind speeds at potential wind generator 135
sites.
Ξ. MacmillanandG.S.Saluja,Robert Gordon's Institute of Technology, UK.
C6 A parametricstudyofgusteffects on the dynamic response of an horizontal 141
axis windturbine.D.Delaunay, CSTB and J.L. Guicheteau, CR2A, France.
C7 This paper has been withdrawn.
C8 This paper has been .
C9 Wind turbulence analysis in the Alta Nurra Wind Power Station area. 145
G. Botta and R. Castagna, ENEL, Italy.
CIO CEC experimental project, EN3W­0007­DK (B). 151
P. Christiansen, ELSAMPROJEKT A/S,Denmark.
Cll Data acquisition systems for windsiteevaluation.152
H. Fachada, Α. de Almeida and L.deSâ,Universidade de Coimbra and
C. Casimiro, Institute NacionaldeMeteorlogiaeGeofisica, Portugal.
C12 Some aspects of wind speed statisticanddigitalcomputation of fuel 155
saving in dlesel­wind power system.
J. Jiangow, S. Pengsheng and L. Li,TsinghuaUniversity, P.R.China.
C13 Estimation methods for characteristics of a small wind turbine, operating 160
in fluctuating winds.
K. Okuda, H. Sugiyama and H. Yamagishi, Muroran Inst, of Technology, Japan.
C14 One year of Danish wind. 166
M.S. Courtney,RisoNationalLaboratory, Denmark.
C15 Wind measurementsinthewakeof obstacles.170
T. Bürger,J.FrankeandG.Tetzlaff, Universität Hannovsr, F.R. Germany.
C16 The modellingofwindspeedprofiles over sea.177
A.J.M. vanWijkandW.C.Turkenburg, State University Utrecht;
A.CM. BeljaarsandA.A.M.Holtslag, Royal Netherlands Meteorological
Institute,TheNetherlands.
C17 GISWA: Geographicalinformation system wind resource: The wind resource 181
map as anaidtowindenergyplanning.
B.J.CM. RuttenandV.vanden Haspel, Centre for Energy Conservationand
Environmental Technology, The Netherlands.
C18 Analysis of wind speed data from Kuwait for 1986. 187
K. Al­Tukhaim, Kuwait Institute forScientificResearch, Kuwait.
IVAERODYNAMICS
Dl Dynamic and aeroelastic response of wind energy converter to aerodynamic 191
loads. Ch. Sch'dttl and S. Wagner, WIP-CONSULT, F.R. Germany.
D2 Visualization measurements and calculations of dynamic stall for a similar7
motion of VAWT.
I. Paraschivoiu, Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, Canada and
C. Béguier, Inst, de Mécanique Statistique de la Turbulence, France.
D3 Aerodynamics of a full-scale HAWT blade. 202
H.A. Madsen, F. Rasmussen and T.F. Pedersen, Risø National Lab., Denmark.
D4 A complete inverse calculation procedure for the optimization of horizontal- 208
axis wind turbine airfoils.
E. Boletis, P. Chaviaropoulos, E. Bonataki, B. Bouras and K.D. Papailiou,
National Technical University of Athens, Greece.
D5 Evaluation of measured extreme gust time histories. 222
J.P. Molly, WISA Energiesysteme GmbH, F.R. Germany.
D6 Gust modelling for wind turbines - a handbook for wind turbine design. 226
A.E. Pfeiffer, Holland Windturbine B.V. and E. Luken, MT-TNO, The Netherlands.
D7 New aerofoil sections for wind turbines.9
C.J. Satchwell, University of Southampton, UK.
D8 Wind tunnel testing of low Reynolds number aerofoils for wind turbine blades. 235
A.H. Rodrigues, F.T. Pinho and A. Restivo, Faculty of Engineering, Portugal.
D9 Wind tunnel measurements of aerodynamic coefficients of asymmetrical airfoil 241
sections for wind turbine blades, extended to high angles of attack.
G. Massini and E. Rossi, ENEA; S. D'Angelo and
P. Gili, Politecnico di Torino, Italy.
DIO Stall-induced vibrations of wind turbine blades. 246
J.T. Petersen, S. Frandsen and M.S. Courtney, Risø National Lab., Denmark.
Dil Modelling of dynamic stall effects on the performance of horizontal axis 252
wind generators. G. Bergeies, F. Mouzakis and N. Athanassiadis,
National Technical University of Athens, Greece.
D12 A full potential prediction of a HAWT rotor performance. 258
P. Chaviaropoulos and K.D. Papailiou,
National Technical University of Athens, Greece.
D13 A laser-doppler anemometer for the measurement of wind velocities. 265
F. Durst and J. Völklein, Universität Erlangen-Nurnberg, F.R. Germany.
D14 The development of a small HAWT for aerodynamic measurements. 270
R.L. Hales and J.M. Bellia, Cranfield Institute of Technology, U.K.
D15 Dynamic behaviour of medium and large W.E.C.S. 276
C. Notin and E. Szêchényi, O.N.E.R.A.; J. Lerbet, C.E.R.M.A., France.
MODELLING AND FATIGUE
El An integrated dynamic model of a flexible wind turbine. 281
W.A.A.M. Bierbooms and P.M.M. Bongers,
Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands.
E2 Wind turbine benchmark exercise on mechanical loads.7
H.J. van Grol, H. Snel and J.G. Schepers, ECN, The Netherlands.
E3 A comprehensive finite element method for the dynamic analysis of wind 293
turbine rotor-tower systems.
A.D. Garrad and M.H. Patel, Garrad Hassan and Partners, UK.
E4 Steady elastic twist of composite horizontal axis wind turbine blades.7
V.C. Nelson and F.S. Stoddard, West Texas State University, USA.
E5 Research programme for fatigue-critical structures of wind turbines. 303
Ch.W. Kensche, DFVLR, F.R. Germany.
E6 Fatigue considerations in the analysis and design of the rotor hub of a9
large wind energy converter (WEC).
U.H. Clormann and M. Dogigli, MAN Technologie GmbH, F.R. Germany. E7 Dynamic responses of an upside yawing wind turbine to wind direction changes. 314
T. Kawamoto and T. Sakakibara, Toyohashi University of Technology, Japan.
ΕΘ A filter­controller for a flexible wind turbine in partial load. 320
P.M.M. Bongers and S. Dijkstra, Delft Univ. of Technology,TheNetherlands.
E9 Design basis for wind turbine structures. 324
S. Frandsen, M. Courtney and P.Sørensen,RiserNational Lab.,Denmark.
E10 Calculation of cross section propertiesofwindturbine blades. 332
S. Krenk, Techncial University ofDenmarkand
B. Jeppesen, Risø National Laboratory,Denmark.
Ell High cycle fatigue investigationofwindturbinematerials.337
P.W. Bach, ECN, The Netherlands.
E12 Fatigue of glass/polyester compositematerialsforwingblades. 342
S.I. Andersen and H. Lilholt, RiserNationalLaboratory,Denmark.
E13 This paper has been withdrawn.
E14 Investigation of the fatigue properties of aero­generatorstructural347
materials. W. Sys and A. Vinckler, Laboratory Soete
for Strength of Materials and Welding Technology, Belgium.
E15 Experimental modelling a 20 M HAT. 350
T.G. van Engelen andF.Haafkens,DelftUniv. of Technology, The Netherlands.
DECENTRALISED WIND ENERGYSYSTEMS:System Development
Fl This paper has been withdrawn.
F2 Autonomous decentralelectricalpowersupply systems.356
G. Cramer, SMA­RegelsystemeGmbH,F.R.Germany.
F3 Operating experiencewithaHybridwinddiesel system. 361
M. Wrona, G. Glocksin and R. Lemoine, WUSELTRONICK,F.R.Germany.
F4 Development and field tests of an autonomouswind/dieselsystem.363
F. Crescimbini and 0. Honorati, UniversityofRome;
S. Avolio and C. Palmari, AERITALIA, Italy.
F5 A wind/diesel system operating with flywheel storage.367
D.G. Infield, J.H. Bass, J.T. White and N.H. Lipman,Rutherford Appleton
Laboratory; J.A.M. Bleijs, A. Coonick and L.L. Frerls, Imperial College of
Science and Technology, UK; M.J. Harrap, University College, UNSW, Australia.
F6 The 55/30 KW experimental wind/diesel system at Riso National Laboratory. 373
P. Lundsager and P. Nørgård, Risø National Laboratory, Denmark.
F7 Induction generator operated at variable speed by Darrieus wind turbine. 380
D. Sadhu and S. Dias, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
F8 Modelling, stability analysis and control of a wind diesel system. 384
M. Bordier and E. Nogaret, E.N.S.M.P., France.
F9 This paper has been withdrawn.
FIO This paper has been .
Fll This paper has been withdrawn.
F12 The development of a control system for a fixed pitch wind turbine operating 389
in stand alone mode. R. Watson, University College Dublin, Eire.
DECENTRALISED WIND ENERGY SYSTEMS: Special Applications
Gl Wind and diesel power system for supplying electricity to a fishermen village. 394
A. Gonzalez and E. Soria, IER­CIEMAT, Spain.
G2 Combination of a modern fast running one­bladed WEC with a deep well pump. 398
K. Schultes and M. Mayer, Aero­Dynamik­Consult Ingenieurges. mbH, F.R. Germany.
G3 This paper has been withdrawn.
G4 This paper has been .
VI G5 Wind powered water elevating - application for developing countries. 403
M. Ben Amar, L. Bchir, R. Comolet, Universitaire Orsay, France.
G6 Irrigation by Darrieus turbines in Brazil. 405
D. Sadhu and G.C. Ocacia, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
G7 Activities in the compressed air water pumping at the Federal University of 410
Pernambuco - Brazil.
J.S. Rohatgi, A.M.C. Soares Jr. and A.L.R. de Medeiros,
Federal University of Pernambuco, Brazil.
G8 Theoretical analysis of the starting behaviour of the windmills for water 415
pumping. A.L.R. de Medeiros, J.S. Rohatgi
Federal University of Pernambuco, Brazil.
G9 A basis for an autonomous windpump irrigation-drainage system in the coastal 420
belt of West Bengal in India. G. Sengupta, Council of Development Research,
J. Boldt, Danish Energy Agency, Denmark; S. Basu, Jadavpur University, India.
G10 Integrated wind-refrigeration systems. 424
A.H. Elgammal, Paisley College of Technology, UK.
Gil Wind energy converters at weak grids. 429
S. Heier, W. Kleinkauf and J. Sachau, Universität Gh-Kassel, F.R. Germany.
G12 This paper has been withdrawn.
G13 Household heating by a 10 kW wind turbine on Orkney. 434
J.W. Twidell, K. Woodbridge, A. Stepek, I. Robertson, D. Barbour and
A. Scott, University of Strathclyde, UK.
TESTING AND CERTIFICATION
HI Certification and quality standards; a must for the development of markets 440
for wind turbines. H.J.M. Beurskens, ECN, The Netherlands.
H2n of wind turbines in The Netherlands: State of art. 445
W.J. Stam, ECN, The Netherlands.
H3 WISPER: A standardized fatigue load sequence for HAWT blades.8
A.A. ten Have, National Aerospace Laboratory, The Netherlands.
H4 Evaluation of power performance testing procedures by means of measurements 453
on a 90 KW wind turbine.
T.F. Pedersen, S.M. Petersen, Risø National Laboratory, Denmark.
H5 Development of standards for performance comparison of wind energy converters. 460
M. Nebel, WISA Energiesysteme GmbH, F.R. Germany.
H6 Results and experiences of measurements on the DFVLR test site "Ulrich Hutter". 464
H. Seifert and R. Thiesen, DFVLR, F.R. Germany.
H7 This paper has been withdrawn.
ECONOMICS. MARKETS AND PUBLIC ACCEPTANCE
Jl The aesthetics of wind energy in the United States: Case studies in public 470
perception. R.L. Thayer Jr., University of California, USA.
J2 Research program concerning the social and environmental aspects related7
to the windfarm project of the Dutch Electricity Generating Board.
F. Lubbers, N.V. Sep, The Netherlands.
J3 Cost modelling of large horizontal axis wind turbines. 483
G. Jenkins and R. Harrison, Sunderland Polytechnic, UK.
J4 This paper has been withdrawn.
J5 How wind statistics affect the economic development of wind power.9
D.T. Swift-Hook, Swift-Hook Associates, UK.
J6 Prospects for windfarms in Kansas. 495
G.L. Johnson, Kansas State University, USA.
J7 Macroeconomic impact of wind energy. 500
O.H. Hohmeyer, Fraunhofer Institute, F.R. Germany.
VII PENETRATION MODELLING
Kl Wind power penetration in the European generating system. 504
J. Miller, DEFU, Denmark.
K2 High penetration, no storage wind/diesel coupling:Activitiesat Hydro­Quebec. 507
M. Lavallée, R. Reid, B. Saulnier, V.­B. QuachandA.Drolet,
Hydro­Quebec, Canada.
K3 Penetration of wind turbines in islands with diesel powerstations. 512
M Papadopoulos, B. Papadias and P. Malatestas,
National Technical University of Athens, Greece.
K4 Simulation of wind integration for the Shetland medium­scale dieselgrid. 518
J.A. Halliday, J.H. Bass and N.H. Lipman, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory;
P.. Gardner and J.W. Twidell, University of Strathclyde;
G.A. Anderson, J. Cousins and N.L. Holding, N.S.H.E.B., UK.
K5 The economic limits to windpower capacity on large supply systems: 524
A comparison of models and assumptions.
M.J. Grubb, Imperial College, UK.
K6 Design and development of a regulation and control system forthehigh­530
penetration no­storage wind/diesel scheme.
B. Saulnier, A.O. Barry, B. Dubé and R. Reid, Hydro­Quebec, Ct­nada.
K7 Fuel saving in wind­diesel systems. 536
T. Schott, WISA­EnergiesystemeGmbHandA. Zeidler, DFVLR, F.R. Germany.
K8 Modelling wind/solarelectricitygeneration coupled to a mains grid. 542
J. Luther and R. Steinberger­Willms,Universität Oldenburg, F.R.Germany.
WAKES. GENERAL TECHNOLOGIES
LI CEC R&D concerted action"WakeEffects";survey of projects involved. 548
L. van der Snoek, E.LukenandJ.A.Leene, MT­TNO, The Netherlands;
E. Rokkjaer, DMI, Denmark;A.Crespo,UPM, Spain; J. van Leuven,RUCA,
Belgium and G.J. Taylor, CERL, UK.
L2 A review of measured wake data from the Nibe wind­turbines. 554
G.J. Taylor, CERL, UK; J. Hefjstrup, Risø NationalLaboratory,Denmark;
E. Luken, MT­TNO, The Netherlands; S. Mclaughlin,ElectricitySupply
Board, Eire; J.F. Ainslie, CEGB, UK.
L3 The impact of wind turbine wakes on machine loads andfatigue.550
U. Hassan and A.D. Garrad, Garrad Hassan & Partners; G.J.Taylor, CERL, UK.
L4 Directly­driven permanent­magnet excited synchronous generator for variable 566
speed operation.
H. Weh, Η. Hoffmann, J. Landrath, H. Mosebach and J. Poschadel,
Technische Universität Braunschweig, F.R. Germany.
L5 Calculation method for the design of wind farms in complex terrain connected 573
to a weak power grid. H. van Oort, MT­TNO and P. van Gemert, E­bureau,
The Netherlands; A.Crespo, UPM, Spain.
L6 European handbook on building and obstacle effects on wind turbine siting. 576
J.A. Leene, MT­TNO, The Netherlands; D. Delaunay, CSTB, France and
A.G. Jensen, DMI, Denmark.
L7 Validation of turbulence models of wind turbine wakes. 580
A. Crespo, U.P.M, and J. Hernandez, CiudadUniversitaria,Spain;
E. Luken, MT­TNO, The Netherlands.
L8 The Belgian wind farm in Zeebrugge: Experimentalset­up.584
J. van Leuven, D. Stevens and R. van den Poel,UniversityofAntwerp;
P. Vanderborght, Ministry of Public Works, Belgium.
L9 Development of a process to manufacture one­piecewindturbine blades 591
without bondings. T. Martinez and P. Prats, Ecotecnia S.Coop, Spain.
LIO Databank on existing windturbines and wind climates in the EuropeanCommunity. 597
J. Schmid and H.P. Klein,
Fraunhofer Institute für Solare Energie Systeme, F.R. Germany.
LH Atmospheric salt measurements using a Tala Kite. 600
A. Daniels, University of Hawaii,USA.
L12 This paper has been withdrawn.
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