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Experimental Unsaturated Soil Mechanics

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These proceedings are a continuation of the series of International Conferences in Germany entitled "Mechanics of Unsaturated Soils." The objective is to discuss and understand unsaturated soil behaviour, so that engineered activities are improved in terms of judgement and quality. In addition to knowledge of classical concepts, it is a challenge to adapt convincing new concepts and present them in such a way that they can be used in engineering practices.

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Contents
Part I Microstructure and Fabric
Influence of Relative Density and Clay Fraction on Soils Collapse Khelifa Abbeche, Farid Hammoud, and Tahar Ayadat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3
Microstructure Features in the Behaviour of Engineered Barriers for Nuclear Waste Disposal Pierre Delage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11
Microstructure of Gypsiferous Crust and Its Importance to Unsaturated Soil Behaviour Ghazi Mokdad, Omran Alshihabi, and Leo Stroosnijder. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33
Fabric Changes in Compacted London Clay Due to Variations in Applied Stress and Suction Rafael Monroy, Lidija Zdravkovic, and Andrew Ridley. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41
Microstructure of a Lime Stabilised Compacted Silt Giacomo Russo, Sebastiana Dal Vecchio, and Giuseppe Mascolo. . . . . . . .49
Part II Measuring Suction
Errors in Total Suction Measurements Setianto Samingan Agus and Tom Schanz. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .59
Application of a Dew Point Method to Obtain the Soil Water Characteristic Gaylon S. Campbell, David M. Smith, and Brody L. Teare. . . . . . . . . . . . .71
VIII
Contents
A Comparative Study of Soil Suction Measurement Using Two Different High-Range Psychrometers Rafaela Cardoso, Enrique Romero, Analice Lima, and Alessio Ferrari. .
Determination of the Soil Water Retention Curve with Tensiometers Sérgio Lourenço, Domenico Gallipoli, David Toll, Fred Evans, and Gabriela Medero. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
79
95
Tensiometer Development for High Suction Analysis in Laboratory Lysimeters Cláudio Fernando Mahler and Abdoul Aziz Diene. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .103
Part III Strength and Dilatancy
Dilatancy of Coarse Granular Aggregates Eduardo E. Alonso, Enrique F. Ortega Iturralde, and Enrique E. Romero. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .119
A Laboratory Investigation into the Effect of Water Content on the CBR of a Subgrade soil Samuel Innocent Kofi Ampadu. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .137
Shear Strength Affected by Suction Tension in Unsaturated Fine Grained Soils? Carola Bönsch and Christof Lempp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .145
Shear Strength Behaviour of Unsaturated Silty Soil Ali R. Estabragh and Akbar A. Javadi. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .153
Experimental Investigation on the Time Dependent Behaviour of a Multiphase Chalk Grégoire Priol, Vincenzo De Gennaro, Pierre Delage, and Thibaut Servant. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .161
Testing Unsaturated Soil for Plane Strain Conditions: A New Double Wall Biaxial Device Tom Schanz and Jamal Alabdullah. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .169
Influence of State Variables on the Shear Behaviour of an Unsaturated Clay Viktoria Schwarz, Andreas Becker, and Christos Vrettos. . . . . . . . . . . . . .179
Effect of Capillary and Cemented Bonds on the Strength of Unsaturated Sands Fabien Soulié, Moulay Saïd El Youssoufi, Jean-Yves Delenne, and Christian Saix. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .185
Contents
IX
Determining the Shear Strength of Unsaturated Silt Shulin Sun and Huifang Xu. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .195
Factors Affecting Tensile Strength Measurement and Modified Tensile Strength Measuring Apparatus for Soil Surendra Bahadur Tamrakar, Toshiyuki Mitachi, and Yasuo Toyosawa. .207
The Tensile Strength of Compacted Clays as Affected by Suction and Soil Structure Rainer M. Zeh and Karl Josef Witt. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .219
Part IV Temperature Effects
Modified Isochoric Cell for Temperature Controlled Swelling Pressure Tests Yulian Firmana Arifin and Tom Schanz. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .229
Some Aspects of the Effect of the Temperature on the Behaviour of Unsaturated Sandy Clay Moulay Smaine Ghembaza, Said Taïbi, and Jean-Marie Fleureau. . . . . . .243
Influence of Temperature on the Water Retention Curve of Soils. Modelling and Experiments Simon Salager, Moulay Saïd El Youssoufi, and Christian Saix. . . . . . . . .251
Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical Behaviour of Compacted Bentonite Abbass Tavallali, Anh-Minh Tang, and Yu-Jun Cui. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .259
Retention Curves of Two Bentonites at High Temperature María Victoria Villar and Roberto Gómez-Espina. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .267
Part V Volumetric Behaviour – Expansive Materials
Experimental Study on Shrinkage Behaviour and Prediction of Shrinkage Magnitudes of Residual Soils Sarita Dhawan, Anil Kumar Mishra, and Sudhakar M.Rao. . . . . . . . . . . .277
Assessment of Swelling Deformation of Unsaturated Kaolinite Clay Markus Dobrowolsky and Christos Vrettos. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .285
Suction and Collapse of Lumpy Spoilheaps in Northwestern Bohemia Vladislava Herbstová, Jan Boháč, and Ivo Herle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .293
X
Contents
Oedometer Creep Tests of a Partially Saturated Kaolinite Clay Piotr Kierzkowski. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .301
Analysis of the Expansive Clay Hydration under Low Hydraulic Gradient Marcelo Sánchez, María Victoria Villar, Antonio Lloret, and Antonio Gens. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .309
Moisture Effects on Argillaceous Rocks Chun-Liang Zhang and Tilmann Rothfuchs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .319
Part VI Retention Behaviour
Results from Suction Controlled Laboratory Tests on Unsaturated Bentonite – Verification of a Model Ann Dueck. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .329
Variation of Degree of Saturation in Unsaturated Silty Soil Ali R. Estabragh and Akbar A. Javadi. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .337
Mechanical Behaviour of Compacted Scaly Clay During Cyclic Controlled-Suction Testing Camillo Airò Farulla, Alessio Ferrari, and Enrique Romero. . . . . . . . . . .345
Prediction of Soil–Water Characteristic Curve Based on Soil Index Properties Navid Ganjian, Yadollah Pashang Pisheh, and Seyed Majdeddin Mir Mohammad Hosseini. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .355
Water Balance and Effectiveness of Mineral Landfill Covers – Results of Large Lysimeter Test-Fields Wolf Ulrich Henken-Mellies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .369
A Retention Curve Prediction for Unsaturated Clay Soils Mehrez Jamei, H. Guiras, and N. Mokni. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .377
Unsaturated-Zone Leaching and Saturated-Zone Mixing Model in Heterogeneous Layers Samuel S. Lee. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .387
Prediction of SWCC for Coarse Soils Considering Pore Size Changes Xu Li and Limin Zhang. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .401
Contents
XI
The Influence of the Pore Fluid on Desiccation of a Deformable Porous Material Hervé Péron, Liangbo Hu, Tomasz Hueckel, and Lyesse Laloui. . . . . . . . .413
Determination of the Soil Water Retention Curve and the Unsaturated Hydraulic Conductivity from the Particle Size Distribution Alexander Scheuermann and Andreas Bieberstein. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .421
Part VII Field Applications
Earthquake-Induced Mudflow Mechanism from a Viewpoint of Unsaturated Soil Dynamics Motoki Kazama and Toshiyasu Unno. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .437
Plate-Load Tests on an Unsaturated Lean Clay Juan Carlos Rojas, Luis Mauricio Salinas, and Claudia Sejas. . . . . . . . . .445
Selfsealing Barriers of Clay/Mineral Mixtures. The SB Project at the Mont Terri Rock Laboratory Tilmann Rothfuchs, Rüdiger Miehe, Norbert Jockwer, and Chun-Liang Zhang. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .453
Preferential Water Movement in Homogeneous Soils Alexander Scheuermann and Andreas Bieberstein. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .461
Compaction Properties of Agricultural Soils Anh-Minh Tang, Yu-Jun Cui, Javad Eslami, and Pauline Défossez-Berthoud. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .475
Bearing Capacity of Model Footings in Unsaturated Soils Sai K. Vanapalli and Fathi M.O. Mohamed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .483
Influence of Soil Suction on Trench Stability Valerie Whenham, Monika De Vos, Christian Legrand, Robert Charlier, Jan Maertens, and Jean-Claude Verbrugge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .495
Index. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 503
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